World History

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The Battle of the Somme

killed more than 21,000 British soldiers in a single day.

On June 28, 1914, the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne, was assassinated in the Bosnian city of

Sarajevo

The Lusitania was

a British ocean liner sunk by the Germans in 1915

In World War I the Western Front was distinguished by:

the phenomenon of trench warfare in which neither side seemed to gain an advantage.

Using the Schlieffen Plan

Germany invaded France by way of Belgium.

In a failed effort to open a Balkan front, in 1915 the British launched an attack on

Gallipoli.

By 1917, World War I had

forced the Germans into waging unrestricted submarine warfare against the United States.

The final German offensive was stopped on July 18, 1918 at the

Second Battle of the Marne

The first country to use chemical warfare in World War I was:

Germany at the Battle of Ypres

The troops of which country turned the tide of the war in 1918?

the United States

Baron von Richthofen was

a famous World War I flying ace

The Great Flu Pandemic of 1918

killed more than all of World War I, attacked young healthy men and women, was found all over the globe including the Arctic, created public health dilemmas on how to deal with it

The Siberian peasant who had great influence on the Russian tsarina was

Rasputin

Tsar Nicholas II abdicated his throne as a result of strikes that broke out

after working class women staged a massive food march in Petrograd

The Provisional Government that took power after the tsar abdicated was headed by

Alexander Kerensky

The soviets were

councils of workers’ and soldiers’ deputies

In early November 1917, Lenin’s Bolsheviks

successfully took power from the Provisional Government in a coup

The October Manifesto was

an agreement by the Tsar to, among other things, establish an elected Duma

Lenin’s new secret police were known as the

Cheka

Under Lenin’s New Economic Policy

individuals were permitted to own small retail stores and peasants to sell their produce.

After Lenin’s death

the Politburo split into a Left group, wishing to pursue of rapid industrialization and world revolution, and a Right group, desiring to construct a socialist state in Russia.

During the Russian Civil War

the White armies almost captured the country, but proved unable to develop unified political plans or adequately coordinate military activities.

The British prime minister who had won a decisive electoral victory on a platform committed to making the Germans pay for the war was

David Lloyd George

The Versailles Treaty

established a League of Nations, the agency ardently desired by Woodrow Wilson

The Germans disliked the Versailles Treaty because

Article 231 said that Germany (and Austria) bore sole responsibility for starting the war

Which of the following was not a penalty imposed on Germany in the Versailles Treaty?

the transfer of Bavaria to France as a reparations payment

The new concept of the "mandate," created at the Paris Peace Conference

actually expanded Western imperialism in former Ottoman areas

Which of the following is an accurate description of Middle Eastern mandates instituted after World War I?

Britain took control of Iraq and Palestine

Which of the following was a manifestation of American isolationism?

failure of the United States to join the League of Nations

The crisis stemming from German non-payment of its 1922 reparations installment

led to severe hyperinflation, as Germany’s "passive resistance" made the mark worthless.

The Dawes Plan was all of the following except it

permanently solved all of Germany’s economic problems.

All of the following statements are correct about the Great Depression except

economic depressions were a new phenomena in the European experience.

As a result of the Great Depression,

Marxism and fascism gained in popularity.

The new economic views of John Maynard Keynes held that

government public works spending would cut unemployment and revive an economy.

The Weimar Republic

faced great economic challenges such as runaway inflation and later the Great Depression.

The New Deal was the attempt by the Roosevelt Administration to

have the federal government participate more actively in the economy.

Leading exponents and practitioners of Dadaism and Surrealism, respectively, were

Hannah Höch and Salvador Dali.

The two goals that anti-imperialist nationalists were forced to choose between were

modernization or independence.

Many nationalists in European colonies found themselves engulfed in personal turmoil because they

were often more Westernized than the countrymen whom they wanted to liberate.

Indian nationalism

was initially founded by people who were educated, socially elite urbanites.

The term Mahatma means

Great Soul

The Hindu-dominated nationalist group that was formed in India in 1885 was the

Indian National Congress.

Gandhi used the spinning wheel as a symbol of his protest against

textile imports from Britain.

What was Amritsar?

a massacre of largely unarmed Indians by British troops

The Indian Independence Act of 1947

created the independent nations of India and Pakistan

In appraising the work of Mustapha Kemal Ataturk, one can say that

he created a secular Turkish state that embraced many of aspects of a modern Western nation.

The Turkish Republic changed its society by all of the following except

making Islam the sole religion of the state.

According to the Balfour Declaration,

a Jewish homeland was to be founded in Palestine.

Arab nationalism

was challenged by significant divisions among the Arabic-speaking populations of the Middle East regarding goals and means of achieving them. was promised more British backing in 1915 and 1916 than its leaders actually received. evolved in different ways after World War I, with the Saudi State gaining independence while Syria, Palestine and Iraq became British and French "mandates."

How did the Bolshevik victory in Russia alter African and Asian ideas about Marxism?

Nationalist leaders became receptive because they saw their "pre-modern" societies as like that of "backward Russia," thus making Russian developments relevant.

By the end of the 1920s, the Comintern

had achieved its greatest, if limited, success in China.

A famous alliance between communist and nationalist parties in the 1920s took place in

China

During the 1920s

acting on Comintern advice, the CCP allied itself with the Nationalists in 1923

By the mid-1930’s

Chinese urbanites had become much more Westernized in fashions and social practices, but most rural Chinese still clung to traditional ways.

To avoid eradication by Chiang’s army, Mao led his PLA from South China to the North China town of Yan’an. This journey has come to be called the

Long March

The Japanese term for the industrial and financial conglomerates that controlled much of the nation’s industry was

zaibatsu

Which of the following statements is an accurate statement about Japan during the early decades of the twentieth century?

It practiced Shidehara diplomacy during the 1920s.

Which of the following best explains the success of Japan between the late-1800s and 1930?

The Meiji Constitution of 1890 and Japanese resiliency resulted in rapid Japanese development.

The United States firm that dominated the economies and governments in most Central American countries in the early 1900s was

the United Fruit Company.

What political leader told military leaders in 1933 that he wanted to remove the "cancer of democracy" from their society?

Adolf Hitler

Which of the following statements best characterizes the totalitarian state in the 1930s?

It was an all-compassing, authoritarian dictatorship that subordinated individual needs, and employing police power and mass propaganda achieve total control

Mussolini became prime minister of Italy

when King Victor Emmanuel, reacting to Fascist intimidation, appointed him.

The earliest originator of the concept and practice of fascism was

Benito Mussolini.

Hitler wrote Mein Kampf

while in jail after the failed Beer Hall Putsch.

The Nazi Party

had 800,000 members by 1932.

The SA, or Storm Troops were

the Nazi party militia.

All of the following brought Hitler support in Germany except

his promise to uphold the Versailles Treaty in spite of its unpopularity.

The events that allowed Hitler to gain dictatorial powers by "legal" means were

the passage of the Enabling Act by the Reichstag.

Hitler solved the economic problems facing Germany in the Great Depression by all of the following means except

pursuing a laissez-faire economic policy.

To whip up popular support for his totalitarian regime, Hitler organized gigantic mass rallies in the 1930’s in the city of

Nuremberg.

The purpose of the SS was to

use terror to enforce the policies of the Nazi party.

The Nuremberg Laws established the

the legal isolation of German Jews from citizenship and legal rights.

Stalin’s first two five-year plans

resulted in large increases in the nation’s heavy industry and oil production.

Stalin’s program of forcibly collectivizing Russian agriculture

resulted in government-made famine in 1932 and 1933.

The 1930s programs of Joseph Stalin included

massive purges of old Bolsheviks, army officers, party members, and many others.

In Japan, after 1929,

right-wing extremists began to terrorize and at times murder opponents.

Hitler intended to gain more land for Germany in

Russia

In March 1938, Hitler successfully united Germany with

Austria

At the Munich Conference of 1938,

the British and the French representatives allowed Hitler to take over the Sudetenland.

In order to avoid losing both its foreign sources of rubber, tin, rice, scrap iron and liquid fuel, Japan decided it must

seize much of Southeast Asia. Attack United States Pacific bases in Hawaii and elsewhere.

The German invasion of Poland in September 1939 was facilitated by Hitler’s nonaggression pact with

Stalin’s Soviet Union.

The Blitzkrieg was

a coordinated sudden attack by land and air forces.

After Hitler occupied most of France, the remainder of the country became

Vichy France under Marshal Henri Petain.

Which of the following military news items would have been welcomed by Hitler?

the results of the Blitzkrieg against Denmark, Norway, Belgium, the Netherlands, and France.

The commander of the Afrika Korps was

Erwin Rommel

The naval battle that established United States naval superiority in the Pacific was the Battle of

Midway

On the Eastern Front,

at Stalingrad, Germany lost an army of 300,000.

The turning point on the Eastern Front was the battle of

Stalingrad

The Holocaust included all except

the establishment of execution camps in France.

World War II in the Far East began with

Japan’s invasion of Manchuria.

During World War II all of the following occurred except

the Nazi regime successfully developed an atomic bomb.

During World War II, the Soviet Union

had women actively participating in all aspects of the war effort, including combat.

At the meeting of the Big Three at Tehran

the Allies decided to partition postwar Germany.

At the Yalta Conference

Stalin agreed to "free elections" in eastern Europe.

Among the major results of World War II was

the two major powers that had attempted to increase their world position had been crushed.

Hitler had two big offensive campaigns in World War II: Operation Sea Lion against ________ and Operation Barbarossa against _________.

Great Britain/Russia

The Jews were not the only people persecuted in Nazi Germany. Homosexuals were also targeted and were forced to wear

a pink triangle

The Japanese use of kamikazis at the Battle of Okinawa in 1945 reflected the

complete adherence to the cult of Bushido and absolute obedience to the Emperor

The "Night Witches" were:

women combat pilots flying for Russia

The atom bomb was dropped on two Japanese cities. Those cities were:

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

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