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WIS2552 Topics 1-8

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Multicellularity might have evolved from coloniality.

True

Some of Pasteur’s sterile water flasks are still on display today.

True

Both mitochondria and chloroplasts have two membranes.

True

Multicellularity might have evolved by incomplete cell division.

True

Through the evolutionary process, species may become increasingly adapted for narrower environmental conditions and this can make them more rare.

True

Some nitrogen is fixed by the action of lightning.

True

The tropics may harbor more species with narrower niches than temperate species.

True

Darwin based his theory partly on observations of farm animals.

True

Cells in the morula migrate and arrange themselves to form a hollow ball of cells.

True

Cone-nosed toads are adapted for burrowing.

True

There is a native species of crow found only in Hawaii.

True

Hummingbirds are found only in the new world.

True

Gulls as a group are all chiefly scavengers.

True

Collecting bird nests and eggs was once a pastime among the wealthy

True

All turtles are egg layers.

True

A species of chameleon has been introduced to Florida.

True

The American Crocodile is still found on various islands in the caribbean.

True

In Florida, Alligators are hunted recreationally.

True

Chloroplasts are found only in members of the Kingdome Plantae.

False

Among the Amphibia several species are adapted for feeding on plants as adults.

False

Temperate species may tend to be more ecologically specialized than their tropical counterparts.

False

Honey-eaters were not found naturally in Hawaii.

False

The elephant bird was native to New Guinea.

False

The conversion of N2 to NH3 is exergonic

False

The kinglets are a family found only in the old world

False

Mynas and Starlings belong to a family that is widespread on oceanic islands but absent from africa.

False

Nuthatches and Creepers are members of the same family

False

As a group, sandpipers all have very long legs and beaks.

False

All owls are strictly nocturnal hunters.

False

There are no native species of chameleons in Madagascar.

False

Most woodpecker species have three toes.

False

American Crocodiles are widespread and abundant in Florida.

False

All chordate characteristics are seen throughout the lives of the individual.

False

Amont the Amphibia several species are adapted for feeding on plants as adults.

False

A species of Poison Arrow Frog has been successfully introduced to the Baltimore area where it has been implicated in the reduction of cockroaches.

False

Protenoid spheres could have evolved via __________.

Self assembly

Conifers evolved in the __________.

Permian

The __________ is the period of the first vascular plants.

Silurian

Most scientists think the earth is __________ years old.

4.5 billion.

The __________ is the period of the first vascular plants.

Silurian

Most scientists think the Earth is __________ years old

4.5 Billion

__________ are the site for aerobic respiration in eukaryotes.

Mitochondria

The Pleistocene Epoch ended roughly __________ years ago.

8000

Stanley Miler was able to produce synthetic __________.

Amino acids

Pasteur did an experiment to show that there was no __________.

Spontaneous generation

Oparin did experiments in __________.

Chemical evolution

The __________ era is broken down into Epochs.

Cenozoic

The first fungi evolved in the __________.

Ordovician

Bacteria-like DNA is found in the __________ of eukaryotes.

Mitochondria

Pigment molecules are found in the __________.

Chloroplasts

DNA in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells is complexed with __________.

Proteins

The endosymbiosis theory argues that a __________ relationship was established between two cells.

Mutualistic

The first hominids appeared at the end of the __________.

Tertiary

The first dinosaurs appeared in the __________.

Triassic

__________ was the first period of the Cenozoic.

Tertiary

Prokaryotic cells contain __________.

RNA

Stanley Miller combined methane and __________ in water, in his experiment.

Ammonia

Redi’s experiment involved denying __________ access to decaying meat.

Flies

The endosymbiosis theory argues that small prokaryotic cells were engulfed by __________.

Larger prokaryotic cells

The __________ era is broken down in Epochs.

Cenozoic

Pasteur bent the slender necks of glass flasks to prevent __________ from reaching sterile water.

Bacteria

The bony fish evolved in the __________ period of the Paleozoic.

Ordovician

Oparin converted elemental nitrogen, carbon, oxygen and hydrogen to __________.

Amino acids

Francisco Redi did an experiment to show that meat did not produce maggots by the process of __________.

Spontaneous generation

Denitrification occurs only __________.

When O2 is not available.

Rhizobium is an example of a __________ that plays a role in nitrogen fixation.

Bacteria

The lower part of the atmosphere is called the __________.

Troposphere

Some ammonia is mineralized as __________.

NH4+

In a food web animals are never __________.

Primary producers

Ammonia is a gas and has the chemical formula __________.

NH3

In photosynthesis, CO2 is converted to __________ and H2O.

Sugars

Northern mockingbirds were introduced successfully to __________.

Hawaiian Islands

A top predator in a food chain is a __________.

Tertiary consumer

Denitrification is the conversion of the __________ to N2.

NO2

Plants take up inorganic nitrates and convert them to organic compounds in a process known as __________.

Assimilation

Carbon is stored mostly as fossil fuels, CO2 and in __________.

Vegetation

Rhizobium is found in nodules in association with __________ plants.

Legume

Many ecologists argue that ecological efficiencies are about __________%.

10

A rabbit is an example of a __________.

Primary consumer

Of the following __________ is the greenhouse gas most affected by human activities.

CO2

The conversion of amino acids back to __________ is called ammonification.

NH3

The symbiotic relationship between plant and Rhizobium is __________ in nature.

Mutualisitc

Photosynthesis is essentially __________.

Carbon fixation

Most of the gaseous nitrogen in the atmosphere exists in the form of __________.

N2

Energy in biological systems mostly exists in the form of __________ molecules.

ATP

Water moves through soil to the groundwater by the process of __________.

Percolation

The conversion of ammonium ions to nitrates is called __________.

Nitrification

__________ is another name for primary producers.

Autotroph

The ecological niche of a species may be based on __________.

Any of these

The __________ is highly specialized for a diet of apple snails.

Everglades kite

The __________ was used as an example of a habitat-specilized species.

Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow

Ecological pyramids illustrate the amount of __________ at various trophic levels.

Biomass

Ecological pyramids were the brain child of __________.

Charles Elton

According to Darwin’s theory a bat’s wing is homologous with a __________.

Penguin’s flipper

Darwin’s theory of natural selection assumes that __________.

Individuals vary

Of the following the __________ is not a tetrapod.

Sea lamprey

Darwin argued that those individuals that __________ were naturally selected.

Had more offspring

The theory of the inheritance of acquired characteristics was advanced by __________.

Lamarck

__________ is an example of a sexually selected trait in passerine birds.

Plumage dichromatism

Darwin found fossils of __________ at high elevations in the Andes, suggesting that the Earth had changed over time.

Marine invertebrates

Darwin noted that there was no native __________ in Australian grasslands.

Rabbits

In the forelimb of tetrapods, the radius is always paired with the __________.

Ulna

Darwin observed that there were no __________ on oceanic islands.

Large herbivorous mammals

Structures in different species such as the wings of insects and bats, are said to be analogous as they __________.

Have different embryological origins

In the mid-nineteenth century people mostly believed that species were __________.

Immutable

Darwin’s theory requires that the __________.

Earth was very old

The upper bone in the forelimbs of all tetrapods is called the __________.

Humerus

According to the theory of natural selection __________.

More individuals of a species are born than can survive

The __________ are a species of deer in which both males and females have antlers.

Caribou

There are __________ embryonic tissue layers.

3

Male Sage Grouse have __________ as a sexually selected trait.

Colored air sacs

Darwin used evidence from __________ to image the concept of Centers of Origin.

Giant armadillo fossils

Erectile feathers on the head are a sexually selected trait in __________.

Prairie chickens

It is now well known that __________ places have fewer species.

Temperate zone

According to the theory of the inheritance of acquired characteristics individuals transformed following __________.

Perceived environmental stress

Darwin published "Origin of Species" in __________.

1859

There is(are) __________ mechanisms for sexual selection to follow.

2

Class __________ has the greatest number of vertebrate species.

Osteichthyes

A dorsal hollow nerve cord is a characteristic of just the __________.

Chordates

Native birds in Hawaii were infected with __________ transmitted by mosquitoes.

Malaria

Lampreys and hagfishes belong to the class __________.

Agnatha

__________ is the embryonic tissue layer that lines the embryonic gut.

Endoderm

The first vascular plants evolved in the __________.

Paleozoic

Plants invaded during the __________.

Paleozoic

The Platyhelminthes are the __________.

Flatworms

According to Lewis Wolpert __________ is the most important event in a person’s life.

Gastrulation

Hemichordates are __________.

Deuterostomes

__________ is the developmental stage during which the embryonic genes turn on.

Gastrula

__________ were the organisms that formed the White Cliffs of Dover.

Foraminiferans

African Sleeping Sickness is caused by a __________.

Protist

There are __________ embryonic tissue layers in evolutionarily more advanced animals.

3

The __________ tree apparently produces paclitaxel.

Pacific Yew

__________ is a deadly poison produced by some mushrooms.

Amanitin

Protosomes have __________ cleavage.

Spiral

Ratfishes belong to the same vertebrate class at the __________.

Sharks

Toxic modes of chemicals often affect the __________ in cells.

Mitochondria

There is(are) __________ types of secondary body cavity seen in the animalia.

2

In the Protosome line, the blastopore becomes the __________.

Mouth

Seeds evolved during the __________.

Paleozoic

__________ are Protists involved in forming Red tides.

Dinoflagellates

The archenteron forms from the __________.

Blastocoel

In development of animals the __________ is the primary body cavity.

Archenteron

__________ is the Kingdom of species with prokaryotic cells.

Monera

Malaria is caused by a __________.

Protist

A pseudocoelom is typical of the __________.

Nematodes

Pharyngeal gill slits are a characteristic of just the __________.

Chordates

__________ was a fungicide used widely in Florida in the 1980s and 90s

Benlate

At fertilization a single cell called a __________ is formed.

Zygote

__________ is a highly toxic form of mercury that is formed by the action of bacteria

Methyl

Paclitaxel is used as an anti-__________ agent.

Cancer

Chagas disease is caused by a(n) __________.

Protist

In the Deutertosome line, the lastopore becomes the __________.

Anus

Fungi are characterized by having cells with a cell wall made of __________.

Chitin

Bacteria chiefly play an important role in __________ in ecosystems.

Decomposition

A zygote has __________ set(s) of chromosomes.

2

Tetrahymera is a genus in the Kingdom __________, often used in toxicology studies.

Protista

The nile crocodile is the largest crocodile species in __________.

Africa

The __________ is the largest species of sea turtle.

Leatherback

The __________ are lizards with specially adapted toe pads for clinging to vertical surfaces.

Geckos

Smaller lizards are mostly adapted for feeding on __________.

Insects

Pythons differ from boas in that boas are __________.

Live-bearers

The Spadefoot toads are native to __________.

North America

The term "plastron" refers to part of a turtle’s __________.

Shell

Of the sea turtles only the __________ is chiefly herbivorous.

Green Sea Turtle

According to a team of researches, giant tortoises once occurred on all the continents except __________.

Australia

The development of young from unfertilized eggs is called __________.

Parthenogenesis

Temperature-dependent sex determination was discovered in a study of __________.

Red-eared turtles

There are roughly __________ species of caecilians.

165

The __________ Anole is a common species introduced to Florida.

Cuban

Chameleons are able to change their body color because of specialized cells called __________.

Chromatophores

An endemic family of frogs is found on a series of oceanic islands formed by __________.

Continental drift

The giant salamander is __________ in length.

1.6 meters

Garter Snakes are __________ type foragers.

Seize and swallow

The less evolutionarily advanced salamanders are mostly __________.

Aquatic

The Tree Lizards inhabit __________.

Pinyon-juniper woodland

The largest salamander is native to __________.

Japan

The __________ is a scavenger that may occasionally kill and eat mammals.

Komodo dragon

The Eye-lash viper has a __________ between the eye and nostril.

Heat detecting pit

An endemic family of frogs exists on the __________ islands.

Seychelles

There are roughly __________ species of salamanders.

310

The introduced Nile Monitor in Florida may possibly become a threat to native __________.

Burrowing Owls

The modern order of Squamata likely descended from the fossil reptile group __________.

Archosauria

The __________ are very fast predators that feed by running down their prey.

Whiptails

According to the Florida Museum of Natural History, there are __________ species of crocodilians worldwide.

23

Parthenogenesis is seen in about 1/3 of the species in the lizard genus __________.

Cnemidophorous

The __________ gecko is a common introduced lizard in Gainesville, Florida.

Mediterranean

The dorsal part of a turtle’s shell is called the __________.

Carapace

__________ lizards feed on eggs, small mammals and birds.

Monitor

Snake venom is made of __________.

Proteins

Terrestrial Caecilians are mostly adapted for __________.

Burrowing

Of the sea turtles only the __________ is chiefly herbivorous.

Green sea turtle

The desert iguana is indigenous to __________.

The American Southwest

The __________ is an example of an herbivorous lizard.

Green iguana

Salamanders reach their highest diversity in __________.

Northern hemisphere

The __________ Python has been introduced to the everglades and apparently is becoming established there.

Burmese

The mexican parrot snake is a __________ type forager.

Seize and swallow

Swans and geese tend to be plumage __________.

Monochromatic

Petrels are related to __________.

Shearwaters

Loons have suffered declines on their breeding grounds due to __________.

Acid rain

Rheas have __________ toes per foot.

3

Albatrosses are grouped with the __________.

Shearwaters

Birds descended from the subclass __________ of fossil reptiles.

Archosauria

In England __________ is another name for Loons.

Divers

The Hoatzin is a species native to __________.

South America

__________ wrote a fascinating book called The Island Waterfowl

Milton Weller

The Whistling Ducks were once called __________ ducks.

Tree

__________ are an example of a dabbling duck.

Mallards

The __________ were African ratites introduced to Australia.

Ostriches

Dabbling Ducks characteristically feed in __________.

Shallow water

The __________ is an example of a perching duck that is native to South America.

Muscovy

Pelagic birds like the Tubenoses live __________.

Far out at sea

The __________ is one species of bird with a keen sense of smell.

Turkey vulture

Ratite birds are characterized by having a __________.

Flat sternum

About half the species of birds in the world belong to the order __________.

Passeriformes

There are about __________ species of birds in the world.

9700

Diving Ducks mostly feed on __________.

Invertebrates

The __________ was once called the Pigeon Hawk.

Merlin

The __________ are long-tailed, and short-winged acrobatic fliers that mostly feed on birds.

Accipiters

The __________ is considered a sea duck although it lives mostly inland.

Common goldeneye

Diving Ducks, and Dabbling Ducks tend to be plumage __________.

Dichromatic

Grebes are loon-like birds with __________ feet.

Lobed

Several captively bred California Condors have been released in __________.

Arizona

Species in the Pelican- Cormorant (Pelecaniformes) group have __________ feet.

Totipalmate

The Anhinga or snake bird is actually in the same order as the __________.

Pelicans

White pelicans differ from other members of the order in that they do not __________.

Dive from the air for food

The __________ are an example of a diving duck.

Scaup

Emus have __________ toes per feet.

3

Of the ratites only the __________ has just two toes.

Ostrich

In various species of grouse, the males come to a common site called a(n) __________ and there they attempt to attract mates by inflating sir sacs and chasing other males

Lek

The __________ has claws on its wings to help it climb through vegetation.

Hoatzin

There are actually __________ species of kiwi.

3

The __________ are board winged soaring species

Buteos

There are __________ species of Mergansers in North America.

3

Groove-billed Anis are related to the __________.

Cuckoos

The __________ plover nests far inland on grasslands.

Mountain

Woodpeckers have __________ feet, where two toes point forward and one or two point backward.

Zygodactyl

The Hoopoe is a European and African species in the same group as the __________.

Kingfishers

A cere is a characteristic of the __________.

Parrots

Galahs are a species of __________.

Parrot

Galahs are native to __________.

Australia

American Bitterns are in the same group as the __________.

Herons

Numerous species of flightless __________ evolved on oceanic islands.

Rails

Female __________ are brightly colored while the males have a duller plumage.

Phalaropes

Kookaburras are related to the __________.

Kingfishers

Owls have feet that are oriented like those of the __________.

Woodpeckers

The main food of Limpkins is __________.

Mollusks

Herons and Egrets feed chiefly on __________.

Fish

Wood storks and __________ both have un-feathered heads.

Vultures

Whooping cranes originally nested only in __________.

Canada

__________ are species that are related to Terns that feed by flying low with their lower mandible in the water.

Skimmers

A grey-tailed Mountain Gem is a species of __________.

Hummingbird

All plovers either lack or have vestigal (=reduced) __________.

Hallux

In the American Southwest as many as __________ Hummingbird species are known to occur.

17

Roseate Spoonbills are in the same group as the __________.

Herons

The Dodos and Solitaires were native only to the __________.

Mascarenes

Toucanets are related to __________.

Woodpeckers

Limpkins are in the same group as the __________.

Rails

The crested pigeon is native to __________.

Australia

The tawny frogmouth is a common bird in __________.

Australia

The __________ are mostly pelagic species in the shorebird group that feed by diving for fish.

Alcids

members of the heron and egret group are characterized by having __________.

Naked lores

The __________ are shorebirds that feed by spinning around in the water to stir up food items.

Phalaropes

Jaegers and Skuas feed on mammals and birds and are actually closely related to __________.

Shorebirds

Terns feed by __________.

Diving from the air for fish

According to one reference there are __________ species of Hummingbirds in Costa Rica alone.

51

In the Eastern US there is __________ common species of Hummingbird.

One

The Nighthjars and Tawny Frogmouth are members of the group known as the __________.

Goatsuckers

Dodos were in the same group as the __________.

Pigeons

The yellow-bellied siskin is a type of __________.

Finch

Currawongs are native to __________.

Australia

There are __________ species of waxwings worldwide.

3

Shrikes are found worldwide except for __________.

Australia

The new holland honey-eater is native to __________.

Australia

Three-wattled bellbirds are indigenous to the __________.

Neotropics

Horned Larks are not native to __________.

Australia

The __________ family is the largest family that is found just in the New World.

Tyrannidae

The __________ are passerine birds that forage by impaling small animals on thorns.

Shrikes

Thrushes are found woldwide except in __________.

New Zealand

The __________ are passerine species that are similar to swifts

Swallows

__________ are common passerine birds that occur worldwide except for South America.

Crows

The Northern Mockingbird is most closely related to the __________.

Thrashers

Most tanagers are found in __________.

South America

Redpolls are in the same group as the __________.

Red-crested cardinal

The __________ are sluggish insect gleaning foragers.

Vireos

A brushy tongue is characteristic of the __________.

Honey eaters

Titmice are in the same family as the __________.

Chickadees

The __________ is a chickadee like species indigenous to the Southwest and Mexico, that belongs to a distinct family.

Verdin

There are __________ native species of crow and jays in New Zealand.

0

North American Gnatcatchers are in the same family as the __________.

Old World warblers

The bobolink is related to the __________.

Blackbirds

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