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WIS2040- Exercise 4

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At least 10 species of ___ have been introduced to New Zealand for recreational hunting.

Deer

Eggshell thinning was a problem for the ___ during the 1950s and 1960s.

Peregrine Falcon

___ is the chemical once used by Florida tomato growers that has been found to be harmful to the ozone layer.

Methyl bromide

Fisheries in the Aral Sea collapsed due to ___.

Water extraction for farming

Presently ___% of BLM managed lands are grazed by privately owned herds of livestock.

90

The blackbuck antelope is native to ___.

India

The US public owns about ___ acres of rangelands in the 11 western states.

260 million

Native Americans in the Yellowstone region oppose the harvest of buffalo that stray from YNP.

True

Blackbuck Antelope are now established in the wild in the state of ___.

Texas

Cattle growers in Montana fear that wild bison might transmit ___ to their cattle.

Brucellosis

___% of western public rangelands are managed by the BLM and US Forest Service.

85

Water with no dissolved oxygen at all is called ___.

anoxic

The ___ Protocol signed by the Reagan Administration banned the production of Methyl bromide.

Montreal

Environmental problems from chemicals used in farming are limited to pesticides.

False

Chronic Wasting Disease is a growing problem in the ___ herd of the western US.

mule deer

The ___ is a native bird species that apparently can coexist with ranching in south Florida.

Crested Caracara

Of the big game species in the west, the ___ are most likely to compete with cattle and sheep.

deer

___ is a disease of domestic sheep and possibly wild bighorn sheep.

Pasturella

The ___ is a bird on the big island of Hawaii that was negatively impacted by grazing.

Palila

The Dead Zone is a region of ___ water.

hypoxic

The bare ground that comes from overgrazing can ___.

favor the invasion of nonindigenous plants

In the late 1990s the Dead Zone was roughly the size of ___.

New Jersey

___is a wildlife species that has increased due to the effects of farming.

All of these

Species that require dissolved ___ cannot live in the Dead Zone.

oxygen

In Thailand, some people want to ranch ___ for their body parts.

tigers

Spontaneous miscarriages can result from ___ infections in domestic cattle.

Brucellosis

The Montana Department of Livestock wants all wild bison that enter Montana from YNP to be ___.

shot

Selenium poisoning is a problem for water birds especially in farming areas of ___.

California

The so-called Dead Zone in the Gulf of Mexico is the result of runoff of ___.

fertilizer

Publicly owned range lands are mostly managed by the BLM and the ___.

US Forest Service

Bioaccumulation, as once seen in Peregrine Falcons, is the negative effect caused by ___.

pesticides

___ are commercially harvested in South America for their skins.

Tegus

Fitzgerald claims in her book that ___ live snakes were imported to the US in 1985.

160,000

Fitzgerald reported in her book that $___ of snake products were imported to the US in 1985.

105 million

The ___ taken from bears are used in several medications in TCM.

gall bladders

Fish and other ocean species are not as important source of food or money for any of today’s societies.

False

Aquaculture is good because it has not effect on wild fisheries.

False

According to Safina the world fish harvest peaked in 1989 at about ___ metric tons.

80 million

___ are most often traded for meat in southeast Asia.

freshwater turtles

Introduced ___ are harvested commercially in Australia.

water buffalo

Argentina manages ___ harvest by forcing hunters to sell the skins to tanneries.

tegu

As of the mid-1980s ___ was the nation that imported the highest number of sea turtles.

Japan

Tortoises are traded heavily as people desire them for use as ___.

pets

___ of the following is an example of a finfish.

seahorse

Rhino urine and dried seahorses are thought by some to be cures for ___.

asthma

Safina wrote a Scientific American article in which he argued that in the 1990s people in the northeastern states shifted from catching cod and haddock and hake to ___.

skates and dogfish

___ is (are) commonly sold as a cancer preventative agent.

shark cartilage

___ skins from Asia are fashioned into cowboy boots in the US.

snake

Because of the bushmeat industry various species of ___ are particularly in jeopardy.

primates

The ___ are an example of an introduced species that is harvested commercially in Argentina.

European hare

Kangaroos are harvested commercially by professional shooters because they ___.

compete with sheep

Bushmeat refers to meat from animals generally harvested in ___.

the tropics

Pouches made from kangaroo ___ are a common knickknack available in markets in Australia.

scrotums

Wildlife trade is considered illegal in the US if ___.

it violates US law

In ___, voters in Florida passed the net ban.

1994

Introduced ___ are harvested in Argentina for human food.

European hares

Over-collecting is a danger for populations of certain ___ in the southwestern US.

snakes

___ on (with) native species is not a negative impact of nonindigenous species.

mutualism

Introduced Lake Trout in lake Yellowstone may grow to ___ lbs in weight.

40+

The introduced ___ in south Florida may disrupt native food webs and compete with wading birds.

Asian swamp eel

Richard Warner found that native Hawaiian birds didn’t become afflicted with malaria until after the introduction of ___.

mosquitos

___ is a potential cause of chains of extinctions.

deforestation

Asian swamp eels are good invaders in Florida as they can ___.

survive in shallow water

The so-called Dirty Dozen is a list prepared by ___.

the Nature Conservancy

Along with Florida, ___ is the state with the most NIS.

Hawaii

One problem with introduced lake trout in Lake Yellowstone is that they ___.

eat native trout

Cutthroat trout lay their eggs in ___.

tributaries

Snakeheads in Florida were found to feed chiefly on ___.

crayfish

___ are thought to suffer seriously from predation by Green Crabs.

shellfish

___ is an animal species that is not a member of the Dirty Dozen.

Red Imported Fire Ant

The ___ introduced to Guam has just about exterminated the native bird species there.

brown tree snake

In addition to the southeastern US the Rosy Wolfsnail has been introduced to ___.

french polynesia

Common Mynas are indigenous to ___.

Asia

The flathead catfish is native to ___.

the central US

The Dirty Dozen includes ___ plant and ___ animal species

6 : 6

___species of snakeheads have been introduced into Florida.

3

Professor Steve Humphrey, Director of the School of Natural Resources and Environment at UF, found that ___ competed for food with native Florida beach mice.

house mice

Some species of birds have been introduced to the Hawaiian islands by US military personnel.

True

Rosy Wolfsnails were introduced to Hawaii ___.

for biological control of another species

The ___ invaded the island of Guam at the end of WWII.

brown tree snakes

Atkinson argued that ___ were responsible for the demise of native Hawaiian forest birds.

rats

Ian Atkinson of New Zealand showed that native Hawaiian forest birds suffered many extinctions following ___.

construction of deep water wharves

___ were released on St. Catherine’s Island off the coast of Georgia.

Lion-tailed Macaques

The green crab was introduced to the US from ___.

Europe

Another example of competition between native and nonindigenous species involves ___ and introduced birds.

Hawaiian forest birds

___ is not one of the reasons listed for Florida being a favorable spot introduced species.

High summer temperatures

___, introduced to Lake Yellowstone are fears to have a very negative effect on the native population of grizzly bears.

lake trout

A ___ of the following would be an example of a tertiary consumer.

wolf

In the process of aerobic respiration ___ are broken down to form CO2 and water.

simple sugars

Sulfur dioxide is found in the ___.

atmosphere

In Elton’s pyramid scheme for representing trophic levels in a community, the size of each box represented the ___ at a trophic level.

amount of biomass

The main molecule in forming acid rain is ___ acid

sulfuric

___ is a gas that has a rotten egg smell.

hydrogen sulfide

The movement of water through plants is called ___.

transpiration

Carbon fixation occurs typically in ___.

plants

Sulfur dioxide is released when ___ is burned.

coal

The breakdown of animal and plant amino acids by bacteria is called ___.

ammonification

The ___ cycle is an example of a sedimentary cycle.

phosphorus

The conversion of nitrates into nitrogen gas is called ___.

denitrification

___ is the sixth important element in forming the molecules of life in addition to the element of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus.

sulfur

Almost all the sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere is formed by ___.

human activities

___ is the element not found in amino acids or proteins.

phosphorus

The ___ refers to the earth’s crust.

lithosphere

The main difference between the sulfur and phosphorus cycles is that the sulfur cycle ___.

has an atmospheric component

Plants store simple sugars as ___.

starch

The ___ cycle has no atmospheric component.

phosphorus

Some authors claim that ecological efficiencies between trophic levels are roughly ___.

10%

Nitrogen fixation refers to the conversion of N2 into ___.

ammonia

___ is the process in which carbon fixation occurs.

Photosynthesis

Some species of bacteria convert ammonia to nitrites and others convert it to nitrates in the process called ___.

nitrification

Glycogen is storage molecule for simple sugars characteristically found in ___.

animals

Primary consumers are ___ that eat ___.

animals : plants

Denitrification occurs in the absence of ___.

oxygen

Alligators in Lake Apopka have been found with atypical hormone levels and other reproductive abnormalities, which are thought to be the result of ___.

environmental contamination

Florida scrub is a pyrogenic system, which means the plants and animals living there are ___ adapted.

fire

Florida freshwater springs are artesian, which means that the ___.

water flows naturally to the surface

The squeaky sugar sand on Florida’s panhandle beaches is composed primarily of ___.

quartz

Fires of catastrophic level get everyone’s attention, but most wild fires are ___ acres or less in size.

50

Restoration of the Everglades ecosystem will depend mostly on ___.

reducing phosphorus levels

Red mangrove is easily recognized by its ___.

prop roots

In Florida, temperate hardwood forests are often called ___.

hammocks

As the diet of these birds is mostly fish, it is thus not surprising to find ___ around Florida’s lakes and rivers.

ospreys

Endemic species are those that ___.

occur only where they evolved

Fox squirrels, typically inhabit ___ in Florida.

high pine sandhills

The two principal species of salt marsh plants in Florida are ___ and ___.

smooth cordgrass and black needlerush

Florida’s beaches are the most important nesting sites of the ___ turtle in its New World range.

loggerhead

Flying squirrels, common inhabitants of temperate hardwood forests, are unusual in that they are the only ___ squirrel.

nocturnal

Almost 90% of Florida’s dry prairies have been converted to ___.

cattle pastures

The dominant factor in structuring many of Florida’s upland communities is ___.

fire frequency

Mortality rate of young alligators is about ___ percent during the first 2 years of life.

80

A keystone species is defined as one ___.

whose ecological importance to other species is greater than would be predicted based only on its abundance

Most of Florida’s 8,000 lakes are ___.

small

Dry soils are said to be ___.

xeric

The ___ is a species of lizard that occurs only in Florida scrub.

Sand skink

Bald eagle and osprey populations in Florida and elsewhere have recovered dramatically since the ban on ___ was implemented.

DDT

Florida has more than ___ rivers.

1700

Restoration of the Everglades ecosystem will depend on ___.

restoring historic water flow

Mangroves are tropical trees but the ___ mangrove is the most cold tolerant and occurs farther north than the other two species.

black

Mesic is a term used to describe ___ soil.

wet or damp

Significant areas of salt marsh habitat in Florida are eventually likely to be lost ___.

global warming

Cooperative breeding is a trait seen in the ___.

Florida scrub jay

The burrows of gopher tortoises are used by the ___ as a refuge from predators and harsh environmental conditions.

both of these

American crocodiles superficially resemble American alligators, but the crocodile can be distinguished by its ___.

narrower snout

Florida scrub jay commonly bury ___ in open sandy areas.

acorns

Several subspecies of recently extinct and endangered ___ lived or are still found on sand dunes along Florida’s beaches.

beach mice

The large rivers in Florida are home to the ___, which is the largest freshwater turtle in the world.

alligator snapping turtle

Black mangrove is easily recognized by its ___.

pneumatophores

As nesting sites for birds have disappeared from Florida’s beaches some species such as least terns have taken to nesting on ___.

buildings with gravel rooftops

Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge is located just off the east coast of Florida in the Indian River Aquatic Reserve. While it is a breeding site for pelicans, it is also important because it is the ___.

first national wildlife refuge in the USA

___ pelicans are strictly surface feeders that don’t plunge-dive to capture food.

white

The ___ is the dominant tree in many of Florida’s freshwater swamps.

cypress

The length of time that wetland soils are saturated or flooded is called the ___.

hydroperiod

Sand dunes in Florida tend to be higher on the east coast than the west coast because the dunes on the east coast ___.

face the prevailing winds

Dry prairies in Florida are the only habitat that supports ___.

grasshopper sparrows

While at the local beach you see ___ pelicans capturing fish by plunge-diving.

brown

Florida’s scrub ecosystem is dependent on ___ fires.

infrequent

The number of people killed by alligators in Florida since the early 1940s is ___.

13

Least bitterns, clapper rails, and Cape Sable seaside sparrows are bird species commonly associated with ___.

salt marshes

Florida’s ‘blackwater’ rivers owe their dark color to ___ in the water.

tannins

Marshes are like swamps except they have ___.

no trees

Species that spend most of their lives underground to escape harsh surface conditions are said to be ___.

fossorial

Florida’s scrub ecosystem is characterized by ___ soils.

sterile

Florida’s scrub ecosystem is characterized by ___ plant species.

many endemic

Sea turtle hatchlings are disoriented by ___.

skyshine

The single most widespread upland ecosystem in Florida is ___.

pine flatwoods

Florida’s springs are important places for manatees in the winter because the springs provide ___.

warm-water refuge

Florida’s peninsula is built on an underlying geologic formation consisting largely of ___.

limestone

Many of the plant species in the tropical hardwood forest ecosystem of southern Florida originated in ___.

the West Indies

Dry prairies in Florida are the primary habitat for ___.

Northern caracaras

The ___ is a common venomous snake in Florida’s wetlands.

cottonmouth

As one proceeds down the peninsula from north to south in Florida the biodiversity of mammals, birds, and reptiles and amphibians ___.

decreases

Forested wetlands are called ___.

swamps

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