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Water Pollution

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Discriminate between the immediate and chronic effects of water pollution and explain why chronic pollution is a more serious long term threat.

The immediate effects of water pollution such as fish kills and official advisories and restrictions on water use and consumption are visible and immediately noticed by a community. Chronic pollution occurs over long periods of time, giving communities and individuals time to become accustomed to it. There is less of a sense of urgency to the problem which actually allows it to grow and persist more readily.

Piles of aluminum cans floating at sea would be an example of _______

b. macroscopic pollution

The most common source of infectious diseases in water supplies is _______.

b. sewage

Explain how replacing asphalt with gravel or other permeable material can improve water quality.

Impervious surfaces like asphalt and concrete channel water across their tops until the water finds a point where it can infiltrate the ground. As it passes across these impervious surface the water gathers chemicals and debris that have collected and concentrates them at the point of infiltration. By using more permeable materials the water infiltrates more generally and does not flow along and collect additional pollutants.

Explain how heat can be a source of water pollution.

Aquatic ecosystems are extremely sensitive to changes in temperature. Changes in temperature can kill native organisms and promote the growth of nonnative or invasive species. Because heat has this potential to do such serious harm to these environments, it is considered a source of water pollution.

More efficient plumbing reduces water pollution by _______.

b. using less water

The untreated sewage discharged by cruise ships is _______.

a. blackwater

The most likely source of water polluting pathogens is _______

c. sewage discharge

Explain why reducing surface runoff is the most general way to reduce water pollution

Surface runoff includes a long list of nonpoint sources of pollution related to human activity. It occurs when water carries harmful substances into the environment. If this runoff can be prevented on a broadly-based scale, then it has the potential to significantly reduce water pollution.

Explain why nonpoint source pollution is a greater threat and hazard than point source pollution.

Point source pollution is discharged by a known, observable source and can therefore be regulated and controlled. Nonpoint source pollution originates as an accumulation of pollution from multiple untraceable or unknown sources. Because these sources, even if known, cannot be tracked it is far more difficult to regulate or stop this form of pollution

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