W6A2: Methodology

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Sample/Setting

The study population is immobilized patients aged 50 years and above and living in long-term care facilities. The centrality on patients in assisted living homes and skilled nursing facilities is because of their debility and inability to undertake activities of daily living.   They are incapacitated and have complex health challenges, which make them rely on caregivers for both personal and medical care, and thus are a high-risk group in developing bedsores.

Sampling Strategy

The study will utilize nested case-control sampling technique. The choice is informed by the strength of the approach in recruiting participants in a multistage approach that harmonizes all exposures into one cohort. Similarly, the strategy promotes randomness and representability, enhancing trustworthiness and generalizability of the findings (Fujii, Cologne, & Izumi, 2007). The guiding principle is counter-matching, which will entail recruiting four people in the control group (standard mattress) for every participant in the intervention group (air mattress) (Langholz, 2005). Systematic sampling approach will be used in selecting controls while simple random technique will be employed in picking individuals from facilities that are using air mattresses and inflatable beds (Richardson, 2014). The sample size of the intervention group will be 30, a number that will be matched with 120 controls per the nested case-control sampling approach. The two categories will then be harmonized to one group. The number of participants is large enough to allow any statistical test, including measures of association.

Research design

The study design will be nested case-control. The prospective strategy has been informed by the ethical issues surrounding studies touching on bedsores. Unlike experimental approaches that evoke ethical debates by assigning standard mattress to the control groups and interventional air mattress to the research group, the nested case-control method is observational in nature. The rationale entails observing participants in the natural settings, which will involve documenting new cases of bedsores among facilities using standard mattresses and those using air mattresses within a period of four months. Besides providing data for comparative analysis, the approach is resource and time conscious, and effective in testing hypothetical claims (Biesheuvel et al., 2008).

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