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Vitamins

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Do vitamins provide energy?

No

Do vitamins serve as components of body tissue?

No

What foods help to boost vitamin intake?

5 servings of fruits and vegetables

How many vitamins have been discovered?

14

What is the primary function of vitamins?

they activate enzymes (serve as co-enzymes) in the conversion of macronutrients in to energy

What are coenzymes involved in?

reactions that build and maintain body tissues such as bone, muscle, epithelial cells and red blood cells

Are vitamins considered essential?

Yes because the body can’t produce enough

Which vitamins are fat soluble?

A D E and K

Since ADEK are insoluble in water, what is required for digestion

bile

What is required for ADEK vitamins to be transported?

Chylomicrons

Where are fat soluble vitamins stored?

fatty tissues and liver

What purpose do the fat soluble vitamins serve?

structural and regulatory processes in the body

Which vitamins are water soluble

B vitamins and vitamin C

What are the primary functions of water soluble vitamins?

act as co-enzymes

Where do the water soluble vitamins travel?

They travel freely in circulation and cells

Do fat soluble or water soluble vitamins have higher toxicity?

Fat soluble

When is there an increased need for water soluble vitamins?

during pregnancy, lactation, growth, fevers, injury, surgery and alcoholism

Is deficiency more likely in water soluble or fat soluble vitamins?

in water soluble vitamins and it takes less time to develop

What is Vitamin A needed for?

-eyesight – part of rhodopsin (visual pigment) -epithelial cells -needed in immune system -bone health and growth

What are sources for vitamin A?

-animal foods (preformed vitamin A) -Beta carotene is a precursor to vitamin A -orange, yellow, green veggies/fruits -fortified milk

What are the functions of Vitamin D?

Bone growth and helps maintain blood calcium

What are the deficiency diseases of Vitamin D?

rickets and osteomalacia (weak bones)

What are sources of Vitamin D?

fortified milk and sunlight

What are the functions of Vitamin E?

may reduce the risk of heart disease -antioxidant

What are the sources of Vitamin E?

widespread in plants 60% of american diet comes from nut and seed oils

What is Vitamin K involved in?

blood clotting

What are the deficient diseases of Vitamin K?

possibly uncontrolled bleeding – hemorrhage

What are sources of Vitamin K?

dark green leafy vegetables (spinach) and liver produced by bacteria in the intestines

What is the function of Thiamin (b1)

energy metabolism

What is the deficiency disease of Thiamin (b1)?

Beriberi

What is the function of Riboflavin (b2)

energy metabolism

Is there any toxicity in Riboflavin (b2)?

None reported

What are sources for Riboflavin (b2)?

milk

How is Riboflavin destroyed?

UV light

What is the function of Niacin (Vitamin b3)

energy metabolism may lower LDL and increase HDL

What is the deficiency disease for Niacin (vitamin b3)?

Pellagra

What are some sources of Niacin

high protein foods

What is the function of folate?

new cell synthesis

What is the deficiency disease of folate?

megaloblastic anemia

What are some sources of folate?

fortified grains

How much of folate can prevent 2/3 of cases of neural tube defects?

400 mg

What are the functions of vitamin C?

collagen synthesis, antioxidant, enhances iron absorption

What is the deficiency disease associated with vitamin C?

Scurvy

What are some sources of vitamin c?

citrus fruits, vegetables and fruits

Who should take multi vitamin supplements?

pregnant and lactating women, women with heavy menstrual bleeding, women of childbearing age/premenopausal women, smokers, people who abuse alcohol, people with restricted or limited diets, vegetarians, individuals with limited milk intake and or sun exposure, older adults, compromised immune function, some infants

Which vitamins are antioxidants?

beta carotene, Vitamin E and vitamin C

What do antioxidants do?

prevent or repair damage to cells caused by free radicals

What are precursors?

beta carotene is a precursor to vitamin a -they can be converted into another nutrient

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