US History Regents Prep.

Total Word Count: 1737
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13th amendment

abolished slavery

14th amendment

Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws

15th amendment

citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude

3/5 comprimise

Only 3/5 of the states slave population counted toward representation in Congress

abolitionists

people who believed that slavery should be against the law

alexander hamilton

United States statesman and leader of the Federalists (est. the 1st Bank of the US)

articles of confederation

a written agreement ratified in 1781 by the thirteen original states (the first "constitution")

cabinet

a group of advisors to the president (not in the constitution, example of elastic clause)

census

a period count of the population to determine representation in Congress

checks and balances

A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power (Exec., Judicial, and Legislative)

cherokee trail of tears

The moving of the Cherokee Indians to Oklahoma. Only 1 out of 5 lived. then the indian removal of 1830

civil war

a war between factions in the same country ex. North Vs. South

declaration of independence

the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain

delegated powers

Powers specifically given to the federal government by the US Constitution, for example, the authority to print money.

democracy

a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them

elastic clause

the part of the Constitution that permits Congress to make any laws "necessary and proper" to carrying out its powers

electoral college

the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president

emancipation proclamation

Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free

frederick douglas

Famous black abolitionist that escaped from slavery who would later right a narrative of his own life that described his life. He promoted the abolitionist cause and drew the line where evil must be denounced.

annex

an addition to (ex. Louisiana Purchase)

assembly line

mechanical system in a factory whereby an article is conveyed through sites at which successive operations are performed on it (time period: industrial revolution)

brown vs. board of education

Decision saying, segregation in SCHOOLS is a violation of the 14th amendment, 1954

civil disobedience

a group’s refusal to obey a law because they believe the law is immoral (as in protest against discrimination) (ex. Bus Boycott)

cold war

a state of political conflict using means short of armed warfare (after WWII between US and USSR)

collective bargaining

negotiation between an employer and trade union

communism

a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership (ex. USSR during Cold War)

constitution

the Supreme Law- determines the fundamental political principles of a government

containment

(military) the act of containing something or someone (ex. communism)

detente

the easing of tensions or strained relations (especially between nations) at the end of the cold War

domino theory

the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control

fdr

32nd President of the United States responsible for the New Deal

federal reserve system

the central bank of the United States

federalism

the idea of a federal organization of more or less self-governing units

fourteen points

the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations

grange

an association formed by farmers in the last 1800s to make life better for farmers by sharing information about crops, prices, and supplies

great comprimise

compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house

great depression

the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s

harlem renaissance

An African American cultural movement of the 1920s and early 1930s that was centered in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City.

immigrants

People who settle in a country they weren’t born in (ex. Irish in New York).

impeach

bring an accusation against ex. President Clinton

imperialism

a policy of extending your rule (conquering) over foreign countries

industrial revolution

the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation with factories

isolation

a country’s withdrawal from internal politics ex. Washington Farewell address

jim crow laws

Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights

john brown

abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)

john d. rockefeller

Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.

john locke

English philosopher who believed in natural rights to life liberty and property (1632-1704)

judicial review

review by a court of law of actions of a government official or entity or of some other legally appointed person or body or the review by an appellate court of the decision of a trial court

kent state

Ohio college where an anti-war protest got way out of hand, the Nat’l Guard was called in and killed 3 students (innocent & unarmed,wounded 9) in idiscriminate fire of M-1 rifles

korematsu vs. us

Sup. Court upholds legality of Japanese relocation camps; 1988 US gov. officially apologizes and pays reparations of $20,000 to each camp survivor

laissez-faire

the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial or business affairs

little rock crisis

1957 – Governor Faubus sent the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine Black students from entering Little Rock Central High School. Eisenhower sent in U.S. paratroopers to ensure the students could attend class.

louisiana purchase

territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million

manifest destiny

a policy of imperialism rationalized as inevitable (as if granted by God) to conquer all land to the Pacific Ocean

marshal plan

George Marshal the US secretary of state saw Europe as very important to the USA, he saw the best way to keep them out of communism is to help restore their countries in 1947, June, and he proposed a plan to provide massive economic aid to Europe

martin luther king jr

U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)

mercantilism

an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation’s wealth by government regulation of all of the nation’s commercial interests, limiting trade

miranda vs. arizona

The accused must be notified of their rights before being questioned by the police

missouri comprimise

Agreement that temporarily settled the issue of slavery in the territories.

monopoly

exclusive control or possession of something

monroe doctrine

an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers in Latin America

muckrakers

This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.

nativism

the policy of perpetuating native cultures (in opposition to acculturation)

nato

North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries

neutrality

nonparticipation in a dispute or war (US didn’t enter WWI until 1914)

new deal

the historic period (1933-1940) in the U.S. during which President Franklin Roosevelt’s economic policies were implemented

panama canal

a ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States (1904-1914)

plessey vs. ferguson

Supreme Court case in which "separate but equal" was upheld. 1986

prohibition

a law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages

ratify

approve and express assent, responsibility, or obligation

reconstruction

the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union

republic

a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them

reserved powers

Powers not specifically granted to the federal government or denied to the states belong to the states and the people

roe vs. wade

the U.S. supreme Court ruled that there is a fundamental right ro privacy, which includes a woman’s decision to have an abortion. Up until the third trimester the state allows abortion.

satellite nations

Communist nations in Eastern Europe on friendly terms with the USSR and thought of as under the USSR’s control

schenck vs. us

argued that freedom of speech could be revoked when such speech posed a danger to the nation.

secede

withdraw from an organization (ex. South during Civil War)

spoils system

the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power

suffrage

the right to vote

tariff

a government tax on imports or exports

totalitarianism

a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)

transcontinental railroad

Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California’s railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west

united nations

an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security

underground railroad

abolitionists secret aid to escaping slaves

unions

organizations of workers who bargain with employers as a group

upton sinclair

muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.

urbanization

the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban

vietnam

a communist state in Indochina on the South China Sea that was the site of conflict in the late 1960’s

watergate

a political scandal involving abuse of power and bribery and obstruction of justice (impeachment of Nixon)

WWI

1914-1918; Began after the assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand by a group of Serbian radicals; Germany, Austria-Hungary v. Britain, France, Russia; America is neutral

WWII

began when Nazi Germany invaded Poland in 1934; US became in WWII when Pearl Harbor was bombed by Japan in 1941

yellow journalism

Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers

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