US history Chapter 7

Total Word Count: 696
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Eli Whitney

inventor of the cotton gin and interchangeable parts

Mass Production

the making of goods in large quantities made possible by factories, machinery and the division of labor

Henry Clay

Speaker of the House of Representatives from Kentucky who promoted the American System

American System

an economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves. This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power.

National Road

First national road building project funded by Congress. It made travel and transportation of goods much easier because it was one continuous road that was in good condition.

Monroe Doctrine

an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers

Tariff of 1816

a protective tariff designed to aid American industries

Mc Culloch v Maryland

Supreme court case that denied Maryland the right to to tax the bank of the US

John Quincy Adams

6th President of the United States


belief that national interests are more important than regional differences

Adams-Onis Treaty

Treaty that secured Florida from Spain

Missouri Compromise

The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.

Andrew Jackson

The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.

Democratic-Republican Party

Party started by Jackson Followers that wanted a weak central government

Spoils System

system in which incoming political parties throw out former government workers and replace them with their own friends

Indian Removal Act

passed in 1830 by Congress; it called for the government to negotiate treaties that would require the Native Americans to relocate West.

Trail of Tears

an 800 mile forced march made by the Cherokee from their homeland in Georgia to Indian Territory; resulted in the deaths of thousands of Cherokee

John C. Calhoun

South Carolina Senator – advocate for state’s rights, limited government, and nullification

Tariff of Abominations

Henry Clay’s name for an 1828 tariff increase

Daniel Webster

Senate leader from Massachussetts who defended federal powers. He opposed Calhoun and debated Robert Hayne

Martin Van Buren

8th President of the United States (1782-1862)

Bank of the United States

National bank established by congress

Whig Party

An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats, stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements

Panic of 1837

a series of financial failures that led to an economic depression

William Henry Harrison

9th President of the United States

Erie Canal

"Big Ditch", canal that connected the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean making New York a dominant port

Election of 1824

"corrupt bargain"- Adams became the president when Clay gave his support for Adams in exchange for naming Clay Secretary of State

corrupt bargain

Refers to the presidential election of 1824 in which Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, convinced the House of Representatives to elect Adams rather than Jackson.

2nd Great Awakening

a 19th century religious movement in which individual responsibility for seeking salvation was emphasized, along with the need for personal and social improvement


religious gathering designed to reawaken faith

Ralph Waldo Emerson

American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.

Charles Finney

Preacher who held the first of many religious revivals


A philosophy stressing the relationship between human beings and nature, spiritual things over material things and the importance of the individual conscience

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