U.S. History Unit 7

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U.S. Industry: Birth and Growth

A ____ exclusively controld a commodity or production by a business.

Monopoly

As Great Brirain reaped the benefits of its Industrial Revolution:

It tried to keep English inventions and methods to itself.

Which of the following were potential sources of power fir United States industry?

Coal fields Oil deposits Rivers and streams

Four natural resources in the United States included:

Variety of land and climates Iron and oil deposits Forests Rivers and streams

Three requirements for industrial growth include:

Raw materials Workers Capital

Four factors making the United States ripe for industry included:

Willing investors A friendly industrial basis with England Abundant natural resources Determination to prove itself

The Embargo Act of 1807 stopped trade with England, thus decreasing American production.

False

American decreased employment and increased population.

False

How did the textile industry profit from the agriculture revolution?

Costs were decreased.

U.S. Industry: Economic Expansion

Internal combustion

A heat engine in which the fuel burns inside the engine itself.

Standardized parts

Uniform parts that can be substituted interchangeably.

An ____ combustion engine burns fuel inside the engine itself

Internal

Factories produced ____ parts.

Standardized

Which industry employed more worker than any other manufacturing industry?

Textile industry

Parts so uniform they can be substituted interchangeably are called

Standardized parts

Who developed a practical steam engine?

James Watt

How did Francis Lowell affect the clothing industry?

He invented the first practical power loom.

How did Henry Ford affect American industry?

He successfully used the assembly line to produce the Model T.

By the early 1900s what were the two leading industrial regions in the United States?

Mid-Atlantic North Central

The South had all necessary ingredients for industry after the civil war except:

Capital

By 1914, America’s four major industries included all the following except:

Fishing

What was the effect of the change from hand power to machine power in industry?

Business moved out of homes to the factory.

1. Enabled building of factory away from rivers; powered machines.
2. Developed system of interchangeable parts; increased production.
3. Made putting together of goods piece by piece; increased production greatly.
4. Provided a tough, efficient building material for industrial purposes.

1. Steam Power 2. Eli Whitney 3. Assembly Line 4. Steel

1. Oil
2. Light bulb
3. Model T
4. Airplane
5. Trans- Atlantic cable
6. Developed a successful automobile
7. Telephone

1. Edwin Drake 2. Thomas A. Edison 3. Duryea Brothers 4. Wright brothers 5. Cyrus W. Field 6. Henry Ford 7. Alexander Graham Bell

Four uses for oil included:

Lubrication Producing steam Operating internal combustion engines Lighting kerosene lamps

Three uses of electricity included:

The light bulb The steam locomotive Powered communications systems

Five improvements in communication included:

The trams-Atlantic cable The telephone Postal delivery Electricity Transcontinental telegraph

Quiz 1:Industrial Growth in the United States

1. Telephone
2. Powered, human-piloted aircraft
3. Incandescent light bulb
4. Assembly line
5. Telegraph
6. Tom Thumb
7. Clermont
8. Sewing machine
9. Reaping machine
10. Cotton gin

1. Bell 2. Wright 3. Edison 4. Ford 5. Morse 6. Cooper 7. Fulton 8. Howe 9. McCormick 10. Whitney

1. Mass development of farm laboring saving machines
2. Money, equipment and other assets
3. Joined England and U.S. by telegraph wire
4. First one built with crushed rock
5. Spread of telegraph from the East to California

1. Agriculture revolution 2. Capital 3. Trans-Argriculture cable 4. Cumberland Road 5. Transcontinental telegraph

1. Forced U.S. To produce goods once imported from England
2. Increased production because of demand for supplies, lowered unemployment.
3. Interchangeable , increased efficient production.
4. Moving pieces quickened production.
5. Provided a tough, versatile building material for industry

1. Embargo Act of 1807 2. War 3. Standardized parts 4. Assembly line 5. Steel

The Erie Canal joined Lake Erie with the Ohio River.

False

Steam engines were used in factories, transportation, and communication.

False.

The price of Model T was within reason due to assembly line production.

True.

The middle Atlantic and north central states led in the United States production.

True.

The use of iron brought many advantages over the steel previously used.

False.

Drake’s Folly, the first oil well, brought a new power source to United States industry.

True.

Electricity supplied light and power to United States factories.

True.

The trans-Atlantic telegraph joined England and the United States by wire.

True

Modern machinery encourages businesses to move out of homes and workshops to factories.

True.

Coal, oil, and water are still used to owner businesses.

True.

The four factors making the United States ripe for industry included:

New England businesspeople Numerous rivers Iron and oil desires Immigrants

Four factors for improvements in transportation included:

Fulton’s Folly Tom Thumb The airplane The Model T

Four communication improvements included:

The telegraph The telephone Mail delivery Trans-Atlantic cable

Four inventions of the agriculture revolution included:

The cotton gin The threshing machine The steel plow The mechanical reaper

The five factors encouraging industrial growth included:

Improved transportation War Modern machinery Improved communication Better production methods

The Cumberland road was America’s first transcontinental road.

False

Improvements in transportation and communication were vital to industry’s growth in the speed of distribution.

True.

Cooper’s steam locomotive was more practical as a carrier of freight than of people.

True.

The Embargo Act of 1807 stopped trade with England, thus decreasing American production.

False.

A factor that led to the growth of the factory system in the United States was the development of new power sources.

True.

Industrial Lifestyle: Trends

Collective Bragaining

Negotiation between organized workers and employers on wages, hours, conditions, and benefits.

Collective _____ provides organized workers a way to negotiate wi their employers for better wages, hours, conditions, and benefits.

Bargaining

Progressive reformers tried to remedy problems created by ___ and urbanization through political action.

Industrialization

What two groups of people worked in the factory?

Managers and laborers

Why did factories readily employ women and children?

They could be paid lower wages.

Why did factory worker dread unemployment?

Unemployment insurance was not available.

A factory’s main interests were for employee morale and profits.

False.

A worker’s independence and creativity were stifled by the factory.

True.

Factory safety and sanitary conditions were usually poor.

True.

Women and children were victims of abuse in the factory.

True.

Hours, wages, and working conditions were problem areas for the factory worker.

True.

1. Curb of inflation and create eight hour work days.
2. Admitted all workers regardless of skill, race, or position.
3. To better the bargaining position of workers with employers.
4. To charter national unions and strengthen gem to increase bargaining power with their employers.

1. Knights of Labor 2. NLU 3. Trade unions 4. AFL

In 1866, e first attempt in the United States at a union for workers was called the

National Labor Union

3 problems faced by labor unions included:

Opposition from corporations Labor laws Blacklisting of leaders

Three ways that unions made their opinions known were through:

Strikes, collective bargaining, support of labor legislation.

Four worker benefits that passed through government legislation included:

Improved working conditions for women and children Set working hours Minimum wages Unemployment and accident protection

Social Darwinism implies a "survival of the fittest".

True

Quiz 2: Industrial Lifestyle

1. Negotiations between labor and employers
2. Control over a product
3. American Federation of Labor
4. Monopoly of oil industry
5. Knights of Labor
6. Standardized parts
7. Move to the city
8. Dominated steel industry
9. Trans- Atlantic cable
10. Drilled first oil well

1. Collective bargaining 2. Monopoly 3. Gompers 4. Rockefeller 5. Stephens 6. Whitney 7. Urbanization 8. Carnegie 9. Field 10. Drake

Why was the Model T the most successful passenger car?

It was built by the assembly line method of production.

By World War 1, five main oiler sources included:

Water Steam Electricity Coal Oil

How did businesspeople form corporations?

They combined their capital and received permission from the government to merge.

Which of the following statements best describes most lower-income people living in cities?

They lived in tenements and worked in factories.

Three improvements sought by workers included:

Higher wages Fewer hours Better working conditions

Fulton’s Folly, Model T, and the Tom Thumb improved distribution of goods.

True.

The Embargo Act decreased production while war boosted it.

False

Edison’s light bulb and Bell’s telephone revolutionized communication.

False

Labor laws and antitrust laws kept corporations under control.

True

People who lived in the cities were forced to rely on others from employment.

True.

Millions of people moved to the nation’s rural areas hoping to improve their economic positions.

False.

Workers dreaded layoffs because they had no unemployment insurance.

True

The Great Railroad Strikes were violent outbreaks against unions.

False.

Trade Unions wanted to better the bargaining position of workers.

True.

Factory production was greatly improved by standardized parts and assembly line production.

True.

Five factors that increased industrial growth in the United States included:

Better transportation War Modern technology Embargo Act of 1807 Assembly Line Production

Five factors that make a corporation a mammoth enterprise include:

Stockholders Modern machinery Consolidation Specialists Stifling competition

Four facts luring rural people to the big city included:

Higher wages Cultural and educational opportunities The opportunity to get rich Recreational advantages

Factory employees consisted of which five groups of people?

Managers Owners Immigrants Artisans Children

Which of the following was the first labor organization that began in 1866?

National Labor Union.

Three advantages that corporations brought to America were:

Employment Lower prices A share of the profits

The three major problems brought about by urbanization were:

Tenements Crime Traffic congestion

In early America, women and children who had to work were readily employed by factories because they were ___ than men.

Paid less

What three advantages did the labor movement being to America’s working class?

Cultural and educational advantages Antitrust laws Fewer hours

Foreign Policy: Isolationism

Acquisition

Anything gained or acquired

Isolationism

A policy or noninvolvement in world affairs.

Protectorate

A relation of protection and partial control by a strong nation over a weaker power.

During the 1870’s and the 1880’s the unit d states followed the Monroe doctrine by paying little attention to __ affairs.

Foreign

What best defines isolationism?

The U.S. Policy of not being involved in world affairs.

The protection and partial control of a strong nation over a weaker nation is called a(n) _____.

Protectorate

How did the United States deal with the threat of European colonization in the Western Hemisphere?

Adopted the Monroe Doctrine.

During the 1800’s the United States only became involved with European affairs when they directly affected the country.

True.

Who negotiated the purchase of Alaska from Russia?

William Seward

Which of the following statements does NOT describe the importance of the Alaskan Purchase?

The land lacks valuable raw materials.

How did the second Industrial Revolution affect the United States?

It increased the demand for raw materials.

A main provision of the Monroe Doctrine was to:

Prevent European interference in North and South America.

Some Americans thought the United States needed additional possessions in the Caribbean and Pacific for the following two reasons:

Strengthen national defense Supply more raw materials

What was a major cause of the Spanish American War?

NOT Spain violated United States territory in Cuba.

Public sentiment in the United States grew increasingly in favor of Cuban independence for what two reasons?

The spread of anti-Spanish propaganda by Cuban immigrants. The discovery of raw materials in Cuba.

Two incidents that brought demands for war with Spain were:

Derogatory letter of the Spanish Ambassador. Spain attacked U.S. Territory in the Caribbean.

The United States was clearly fighting against Spain fir possession of Cuba.

False.

The United States was concerned about uprising in Cuba because Cuba was close to the U.S., and the U.S. had invested money in Cuban businesses.

True.

Foreign Policy: International Realism

Corollary

A proposition following so obviously from another that it requires little or no proof; a natural consequence of an existing policy.

U.S. Foreign policy shifted away from _____ to international involvement.

After the Spanish-American War, the United States helped Cuba in what four ways?

Restore order Rebuild the country Set up a republican government Get rid of yellow fever

Cuba allowed the United States to take what three actions?

Set up a naval base. Intervene to preserve their independence. Intervene to maintain government.

In the peace treaty after the Spanish-American War, United States received possession of what three areas?

Guam Philippines Puerto Rico

In what four ways did the United States change after the end of Spanish-American War?

The added possessions meant new responsibilities for the United States. The United States Navy increased size. The United States involvement in international affairs increased. Agriculture increased in the United States following e war.

1. For Cuban independence
2. Headed up the project of ridding Cuba of the yellow fever carrying mosquitoes.
3. Policy of soft talk but an efficient navy to keep the terms of Monroe Doctrine.
4. Bandit who killed settlers in New Mexico.
5. A policy of noninvolvement in world affairs.
6. A proposition following so obviously from anger that it requires little or no proof.

1. Spanish-American War 2. General Leonard Wood 3. Big Stick policy 4. Pancho Villa 5. Isolationism 6. Corollary

Anti-American spirit increased in Latin America when the United States intervened in e governments of which four nations?

Santo Domingo Haiti Guam Nicaragua

What three events resulted in United States forces intervening in Latin American governments?

Germany threatened to invade Mexicans revolted against their government Pancho Villa led raids into the United States

The United States counteracted the German threat to invade Haiti and Santo Domingo by:

NOT invading Germany

For what two reasons did United States forces enter Mexico in the early 1900’s?

To pursue after Pancho Villa To start a revolt

Commodore Perry was sent to Japan to improve Japanese-American relations.

True.

John Hay’s Open-Door Policy kept the Chinese from taking advantage of European buyers.

False.

Theodore Roosevelt greatly influenced America’s change from isolationism.

True.

Quiz 3: Foreign Policy

1. Forced American to produce goods once imported from England.
2. Noninvolvement in world affairs.
3. Negotiations between labor and management.
4. Alaskan Purchase.
5. Battle of San Juan Hill.
6. Combing of corporations.
7. Blowing up in Havana harbor.
8. Clermont
9. Interchangeable parts.

1. Embargo Act of 1807 2. Isolationism 3. Collective bargaining 4. Seward’s Folly 5. Rough Riders 6. Consolidation 7. Maine 8. Fulton’s Folly 9. Standardized parts

1. Organization of labor to make its voice heard by management.
2. Mass development of farm labor-saving equipment.
3. Change from hand labor to machine labor.
4. Merging of several businesses to form one organization.
5. Checked European colonization and intervention in Western Hemisphere affairs.
6. Roosevelt’s domestic policy giving equal treatment to all.
7. Policy of speak softly but keep an efficient navy to enforce the Monroe Doctrine.
8. International policy giving equal trading rights with China to all nations.
9. Uprising of loyal Chinese against outsiders in their country.
10. War for Cuban independence.

1. Labor movement 2. Agricultural revolution 3. Industrial Revolution 4. Corporation 5. Monroe Doctrine 6. Square Deal 7. Big Stick Policy 8. Open-Door Policy 9. Boxer Rebellion 10. Spanish-American War

The leading production areas in he United States were the middle Atlantic and North central states.

True

Unions and government legislation I’m
Roved working conditions.

True

Monopolies and antitrust laws checked corporation control.

False

Urbanization and immigration kept United States factory workers available.

True

Miles, Roosevelt, and Perry commanded forces in the Spanish-American War.

False

Cuba, Guam, and the Philippines became United States possessions after the Spanish-American War.

False

Wood and Gorgas were both concerned with controlling yellow fever.

True

Perry and Hay were involved in United States affairs in the Far East.

True

America’s partial return of the Boxer Rebellion money healed Chinese attitudes toward the West.

True

Rough Riders, Big Stick, and Square Deal all have Theodore Roosevelt in common.

True

Four factors increasing industrial power included:

Modern production methods Consolidation Improved distribution Specialists

The leave treaty for the Spanish-American War provided for which of the following three terms?

Cuban Independence United States possession of Guam and Puerto Rico American protectorate of Cuba

Four incidents arousing anti-Spain sentiment in the United States included:

The explosion of the Maine Anti-Spain newspaper stories Distribution of propaganda against Spain A letter from the Spanish ambassador

Three factors that caused United States forces to intervene in Latin America governments were:

Germany threatened to invade Mexicans revolted against their government Pancho Villa fled to Mexico

The increased United States involvement in world affairs included which of the following five ways:

Boxer Rebellion Open-Door policy Spanish-American War Japanese-Russian settlement Algeciras Conference

March Toward Conflict: Causes

Armament

The act of arming or equipping for war.

Conscription

The enrollment of individuals for military or naval for raw materials.

Imperialism

Colonization of smaller countries by industrial nations for raw materials.

Militarism

A national policy that promotes a powerful military position, a large standing army, and constant preparation for war.

Nationalism

The loyalty and devotion of a people toward their country.

Strong nationalism often hindered negotiations between world leaders.

True

Imperialism was motivated by the growth and demands of industry.

True

The Russian-Japanese War caused by Russian troops remaining in Manchuria after the Boxer Rebellion.

True

Franklin Roosevelt served as mediator in Russian-Japanese peace talks.

False

American nationalism stemmed from the Spanish-American War and the colonies she received from that victory.

False

What was the outcome of nationalism and imperialism?

Both led to militarism.

The development of armies, navies, and weapons is called imperialism.

False

An example of military readiness that was followed by other nations was found in:

Prussia

The drafting of men into the military is called

Conscription

Four ways Prussia set a military example included:

Reserve supplies Conscription General staff Reserve troops

Four ways that European nations had military build-up included:

Increase of modern weapons Increased military budgets Build-up navies Fortification of boundaries

Four major nations building up their navies included:

France England The United States Germany

March Toward Conflict:Effects

Chancellor

In Germany and other European countries, a chief minister of state.

Entente

A mutual agreement, or thwarted entering a mutual agreement.

A _____ is a chief minister of a European country.

Chancellor

England and France agreed to an alliance, called the Triple_____.

Entente

What best defines a Chancellor?

Otto Von Bismarck of Germany.

Which of the following best illustrates entente?

Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary

1. Germany and Austria-Hungary
2. Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary
3. Iron Chancellor
4. Divine right German emperor
5. Title for emperor in Germany

1. Dual Alliance 5. Kaiser 3. Bismarck 2. Triple Alliance 4. Wilhelm

1. To isolate France
2. To avoid a two-front war
3. To prevent a country from taking sides in a mainland European war

2. Russian friendship 3. English friendship 1. Triple Alliance

What to changes did Kaiser Wilhelm bring about in e German government and foreign relations when he took the throne?

Sought expansion through colonization. Tried to create the world’s greatest navy.

France, Prussia, and England made up the Triple Entente.

False.

An entente is an agreement.

True.

The Entente’s Central European location worked to their advantage.

False.

The Entente’s control of the seas gave them an advantage over the Alliance.

True.

Th Alliance and the Entente both suffered internal conflicts.

True.

Both Entente countries of Germany and Austria-Hungary quarreled with Italy.

False.

German involvement in the Balkans, their proposed railroad, and their friction with Serbia all increased European tension.

False.

President Roosevelt declared American neutrality in the European conflict.

False.

Why did American support lean toward the Triple Entente?

Because of English background and support of the mother country.

Quiz 4: March Toward Conflict

1. Standardized Parts
2. Assembly-Line Production
3. Alaskan Purchase
4. Square Deal
5. Open-Door policy
6. Japanese-American Treaty
7. Battle of Manila Bay
8. Fought against yellow fever
9. Constructor of Panama Canal
10. Headed Knights of Labor
11. Trans-Atlantic cable
12. Drilled first oil well
13. Incandescent light bulb
14. Iron Chancellor
15. Abrasive emperor of Germany

5. Hay 10. Stephens 9. Goethals 1. Whitney 14. Bismarck 7. Dewey 3. Seward 11. Field 2. Ford 6. Perry 8. Gorgas 15. Wilhelm 12. Drake 13. Edison 4. Roosevelt

The devotion of a people to their country is called:

Nationalism

Colonization of smaller countries by industrial nations for their raw materials is called:

Imperialism

He merging of several business into one, combining assets, forms a(n)

Corporation

The mass development of labor-saving devices for farmers was know as the

Agricultural

The Union of England, Russia, and France was called the:

Triple Entente

The Triple Alliance was composed of:

Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary

The uprising of loyal Chinese against outsiders was called the:

Boxer Rebellion

What was the importance of the Monroe Doctrine?

It prevented European colonization and intervention in the Western Hemisphere.

Negotiations between labor leaders and management is called:

Collective bargaining

Roosevelt’s policy of watching over affairs in the Western Hemisphere was known as the

Big Stick Policy

To become industrial, a nation must have raw materials, workers, and capital.

True.

City living was independent, but country life was interdependent.

False

The Square Deal and Open a Door Policy dealt with involvement in the Far East.

False.

Labor unions improved the worker’s position with support of labor laws and collective bargaining.

True.

The strong feelings of nationalism and imperialism in Europe led to increased militarism.

True.

Prussia led Europe in military readiness techniques.

True.

The Cumberland Road and the Erie Canal improved Early American travel.

True.

Both Alliance countries of Germany and Austria-Hungary quarreled with Italy.

True.

Sentiments in the United States leaned toward support of the Triple Alliance.

False.

Five factors aiding the booming frosty of corporation included:

Consolidation Monopolies Stifling competition Modern machinery Specialists

Five ways the United States increased involvement in world affairs included the:

Boxer Rebellion Open-Door Policy Spanish-American War Policing of Latin American affairs Japanese-Russian settlement

Four European military build-ups included:

Increase in weapons Increased military budgets Naval build-up Fortification of boundaries

Three steps taken by Bismarck to put Germany in a good defensive position included:

Triple Alliance Friendly terms with England Friendship with Russia

Four German actions bringing European tension to the breaking point included:

German involvement in the Balkans Proposed German railroad Build-Up of German navy Abrasive mess of Kaiser Wilhelm

Test

1. Iron Chancellor
2. AFL
3. Open-Door Policy
4. Invented Iron Plow
5. Alaskan Purchase
6. Battle of Manilla Bay
7. Big Stick Policy
8. Standardized Parts
9. Invented telegraph
10. Invented steamboat
11. Drilled first oil well
12. Transatlantic cable

5. Seward 2. Gompers 9. Morse 4. Wood 7. Roosevelt 12. Field 6. Dewey 11. Drake 8. Whitney 1. Bismarck 10. Fulton 3. Hay

Ford’s mass-production method on a moving line was called a(n):

Assembly line

What was the effect of the mass development of farm labor-saving machinery?

The Agricultural Revolution

Negotiation between labor and management is called:

Collective bargaining

1. Devotion to one’s country
2. Colonizing smaller countries for the natural resources
3. Exclusive control of production of certain goods by a business.
4. Mass movement of rural people to the city.
5. Non-involvement in world affairs

1. Nationalism 5. Isolationism 4. Urbanization 3. Monopoly 2. Imperialism

European colonization and interference in the Western held in check by the:

Monroe Doctrine

What nations formed the triple entente?

Russia, France, and England

Hay’s policy concerning trading rights in China was the:

Open-Door policy

The War giving Cuba independence from Spain was the:

Spanish-American war

McCormick’s reaper and Howe’s thresher made raw materials cheaper for the textile industry.

False.

The basic requirements for industry’s growth are capital, natural resources, and workers.

True

When machinery outgrew homes, the factory system developed.

True.

Bell’s telephone and the transcontinental telegraph greatly aided business transactions.

True.

Roosevelt, the Clayton Antitrust Act, and the Federal Trade Commission kept unions under control.

False.

Battles during the Spanish-American War took ave in the Philippines as well as the Caribbean.

True.

Cuba, Guam, and the Philippians became American protectorates.

False.

The partial return of Boxer Rebellion money and Hay’s Japanese-American Treaty aided United States relations with the Far East.

False.

The Triple Alliance countries included Germany and Italy.

True.

The Triple Entente controlled the seas, but the Alliance enjoyed a unified geographical position.

True.

Four advantages corporations brought to the American consumer included:

Brought lower prices Better quality products Monopolies A chance to invest and share profits

Four factors luring rural people to the big city included:

Higher factory wages Cultural and educational advantages Dreams of getting rich City excitement and recreation

Four labor union accomplishments for the workers included:

Collective bargaining Labor laws Better working conditions Representation to the management

Five factors leading America out of isolationism included:

Boxer Rebellion Spanish-American War Open-Door Policy Agricultural Revolution Japanese-Russian settlement

Three steps taken by Bismarck to out Germany in a good defense position in Europe included:

Triple Alliance Friendship with Russia Treaty with France

Four factors leading to the growing European tension included:

Devout nationalism Growing imperialism Building militarism Abrasive German actions

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