The Evolution of Psychology

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Psychology’s intellectual parents are the disciplines of

Philosophy and physiology

The person responsible for establishing psychology as an independent discipline with its own subject matter is

Wilhelm Wundt

The notion that the subject matter of psychology should be the scientific study of the conscious experience is MOST closely linked with

Wilhelm Wundt

According to Wilhelm Wundt, the focus of psychology was on the scientific study of

conscious experience

Wilhelm Wundt believed the focus of psychology should be

examining people’s awareness of their immediate experience

While the term psychology has existed since at LEAST the early 1700s, psychology did not come to be considered a science until

the late 1800s

The person who established America’s first psychological research laboratory and who launched America’s first psychology journal was

G. Stanley Hall

The first president of the American Psychological Association (APA) was

G. Stanley Hall

The would’s largest organization devoted to the advancement of psychology is the

American Psychological Association

Major contributions of G. Stanley Hall

1)He established the first American psychological journal 2) He established the first research laboratory for psychology in America 3) He was the first president of the American Psychological Association WAS NOT first Ph.D. in psychology in America

Your professor tells you that she believes that the focus of psychological study should be to break the conscious experience into its basic elements. Which of the following historical schools of thought is your professor’s ideas most consistent with?

Structuralism

The school of psychology that focused on identifying and examining the fundamental components of conscious experience, such as sensations, feelings, and images was

Structuralism

Isabel is listening to a piece of classical music and tape recording recording all her feelings and impressions as she experiences them. Isabel is using a technique similar to the research methodology of

Structualism

In an attempt to learn something about his conscious experience, William looked at an abstract painting and wrote down all of his impressions as they came to him. This technique is called

Introspection

Wundt and Titchener believed psychology should

Analyze conscious experience into its basic elements

Dr. Asgaard believes that in order to fully understand complex processes, such as auditory processing, it is first necessary to understand all the separate component parts. Dr. Asgaard’s views are most consistent with those of

Edward Titchener

If you take a sip of a soft drink and concentrate on what you are experiencing (cold, bubbly, sweet, ect.) you would be utilizing the technique of

introspection

The school of psychology associated with understanding the purpose of behavior was

functionalism

Dr. Lee is studying pain perception using a functionalist perspective. It is MOST likely that Dr. Lee would suggest that we can only understand the conscious experience of pain

if we first understand the role of pain in human survival and adaptation

William James, who was a pioneer in the development of functionalism, was MOST heavily influenced by

Charles Darwin

Dr. Smythe believes that in order to fully understand complex processes, such as taste, it is necessary to understand the purpose that taste plays in survival, not the elementary components that combine to produce taste sensations. Dr. Smythe’s views are most consistent with

the functionalist approach to psychology

The first woman to serve as president of the American Psychological Association was

Mary Calkins

Dr. Rice believes that it is not possible to fully understand emotions unless we understand the purpose that the conscious experiences associated with emotions play in survival and adaptation. Dr. Rice’s views are MOST consistent with those of

WIlliam James

Which of the following was LEAST likely to be the focus of study for the functionalists?

sensation and perception

The term used by William James to describe a continuous flow of thought was

stream of consciousness

The early approach in psychology that fostered the development of modern-day applied psychology was

functionalism

Although functionalism faded away as a theoretical force in psychology, historians credit it with two important contributions to the discipline that includes the development of

behaviorism and applied psychology

Functionalism was founded by

William James

The _____ believed that consciousness developed in humans because it serves a useful purpose.

functionalists

The concept of "stream consciousness" is associated with

William James

The notion that unconscious motivations can influence our overt behavior is MOST consistent with the views of

Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud developed an innovative procedure for treating people with psychological problems, which he called

psychoanalysis

You are interviewing a new member of the psychology department for the university newspaper. The faculty member states, "Many times people are unaware of the unconscious motivations that drive their actions." The faculty member’s views are MOST similar with those of

Sigmund Freud

Freud concluded that psychological disturbances are largely caused by

Personal conflicts that exist at an unconscious level

The major departure of Freud’s position from prevailing viewpoints around the early 1900s was that he

saw people as not fully aware of the forces that control their behavior

Which of the following statements about Freud’s psychoanalytic theory is MOST accurate?

Many psychoanalytic concepts have filtered into mainstream psychology

Psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disturbances by

focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior

Which of the following did NOT have a significant influenced on the development of Freud’s theory?

the results of his experimental research

The psychologist who proposed that the study of conscious should be replaced with the study of behavior was

John B. Watson

The theoretical orientation that insisted on verifiablitity of observation was

behaviorism

The school of psychology that suggests that psychologists should only study what can be objectively observed

behaviorism

With which of the statements would a behaviorist agree?

Psychology should be the science of behavior that can be observed by others

John B. Watson argued that psychologists should

abandon the study of consciousness

According to John Watson, behavior is governed primarily by

the environment

Strict behaviorist would be MOST sympathetic to which of the statements?

Human behavior is primarily caused by environmental factors

Alison believes that individuals learn to be either aggressive or non-aggressive as a result of the experiences they have. Alison’s views are most consistent with the

behaviorist view of psychology

The school of psychology that was MOST responsible for the rise of animal research in psychology

behaviorism

Christine is a psychologist who conducts research on the effects of reward on maze learning in rats. Christine would most likely be considered a

behaviorist

Which of the following statements BEST reflects the main advantage of conducting psychological research with animals?

A researcher can exert more control over an animal than a human subjects.

Watson described psychology as

the study of behavior

The fact that behaviors can be observed and thoughts and feelings cannot is the basis of

behaviorism

Which psychological approach is often referred to as stimulus-response (S-R) psychology?

behaviorism

If Dr. Maple is a behaviorist he would MOST likely believe that the cause of a child’s disruptive behavior in school is the result of

his prior experiences

A group of psychologists are conducting conducting research to determine whether people ear more when they are in the presence of environmental stimuli that increase anxiety, such as loud noises or flashlights. These scientists MOST likely follow

the behavioral perspective

Marissa wants to study people’s emotional reactions to increases in temperature. Her classmate, Bernard, tells her that she should focus on observable behaviors, rather than internal states in her study. Bernard’s views are MOST similar to those found in

the behavioral perspective

The notion that all behavior is fully governed by external stimuli is MOST consistent with

behaviorism

You are interviewing a new member of the psychology department for the university newspaper. The faculty member states, "Internal states undoubtedly exist, but it is not necessary to draw inferences about unobservable states in order to understand behavior." This faculty member’s view are most similar to views held by

B. F. Skinner

The psychologist who took the position that organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes was

B. F. Skinner

With which of the following individual is B.F. Skinner MOST in agreement with on the issue of internal mental events?

John Watson

Janet trained her dog to sit on command by following this behavior with a reward of a dog biscuit and praise. Janet used the principal of

behaviorism

Which of the following psychologist would have been MOST likely to assert that "free will is an illusion"?

B. F. Skinner

In the 1950s Skinner argued that psychology should return to a strict interpretation of the principles of

behaviorism

It should be easiest to teach a child to pick up his toys by utilizing the principles and techniques developed by

B. F. Skinner

Skinner would agree with the statements

1) All behavior is governed by external consequences 2) Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes 3) Organisms tend to not repeat responses that lease to neutral or negative outcomes NOT individuals have free will

Which of the following groups of psychologists would be MOST likely to focus on individual uniqueness, freedom, and potential for growth as a person

humanists

The school of psychology that takes the most positive view of human nature is

humanism

Which type of psychologist would be LEAST likely to generalize from studies of animal subjects to human behavior?

a humanist

Oliver is studying motivation in chimpanzees. His roommate doesn’t think that Oliver’s research will produce must useful information about human motivation because he believes that information from animal studies will not provide meaningful information about human experiences. Oliver’s roommate apparently has a

humanistic perspective

Which of the following statements is LEAST likely to be made by a humanist?

The behavior of humans tends to be dictated by environmental circumstances

The theoretical viewpoint that is MOST closely associated with Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow

humanism

Humanists believe that people’s behavior is governed by

their self-concepts

Manny tends to be very passive and allows people to take advantage of him. What would a humanist be MOST likely to say about Manny?

Manny can become more assertive once he begins to feel better about himself and recognizes that he has the ability to fulfill his potential

Which of the following psychologists would be MOST likely to stress that each person has a drive to grow and fulfill his or her potential?

Abraham Maslow

Imagine that the editor of your local newspaper writes a column supporting a reduction in government intervention with a transfer of more rights to individual citizens. The editor bases this argument on the assumption that people are ration beings who will fulfill their maximum potential as long as others do no infringe on their basic human need. This editor’s views reflect those of

The humanistic perspective

A psychologist who primary goal is to help people reach their potential MOST likely follows the principles of

humanism

The branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems is called

Applied psychology

Margaret is an industrial psychologist who advises companies on how to improve worker morale. As a psychologist who attempts to solve practical problems, Margaret would MOST likely be considered

An applied psychologist

The area of applied psychology MOST stimulated by World War II was

clinical psychology

A clinical psychologist would probably be MOST interested in

figuring out the most effective ways of treating anxiety

The branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders is

clinical psychology

Michael is having problems relating to other people because he is exhibiting delusions (false beliefs) and hallucinations. Michael would MOST likely seek help from

a clinical psychologist

During World War II, many academic psychologists were pressed into service, mainly as

clinicians

One of the first areas of applied psychology to develop was

mental testing

Which of the following contributed MOST to the development of applied psychology?

the high demand for mental testing of military recruits

Which of the following organizations was established in 1988 to serve exclusively as an advocate for the science of psychology?

American Psychological Society

The major event that influenced the development of psychology as a profession was

World War II

The major organization the represents BOTH the scientific and professional branches of psychology in the United States is the

American Psychological Association

After World War II, many psychologists began to specialize in

clinical psychology

The term that refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge is

cognition

Which of the following is a recent movement in psychology that has revived the old interest in mental and conscious events?

cognitive psychology

The approach that contends psychology must study internal mental events in order to fully understand behavior is

cognitive psychology

Which of the following is MOST likely to be studied by a cognitive psychologist?

strategies used by college students to solve a particular problem

Programmers who were working on a chess-playing super computer asked a psychologist from their university for some help in working out the problem-solving algorithms they would be using. The psychologist who helped with this project was MOST likely

a cognitive psychologist

Which of the following psychologists demonstrated that electrical stimulation of the brain could evoke emotional responses such as pleasure and rage in animals?

James Olds

Which of the following would be LEAST likely to be studied by a cognitive psychologist?

shaping behavior by reinforcement

The results from a recent study suggest that the cognitive perspective surpassed the behavioral perspective in influence sometime around

1970

Darnell is working on a computer system that will have full language recognition capabilities. The type of psychologist that could probably give Darnell the MOST help in developing this computer system would be

a cognitive psychologist

Annabel wants to investigate differences in the way language is processed by the brain hemisphere in individuals from different cultures. If Annabel could work with a psychologist who has made a significant contribution in this area of research, she would MOST likely chose to work with

Roger Sperry

A psychological perspective that emerged in the 1950s and 1960s which reflects a renewed interest in the study of the mind or consciousness that existed in psychology when it first became a science in the late 1800s is the

cognitive perspective

The cognitive perspective contends that to fully understand human behavior, psychologists need to focus attention on

internal mental events

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