Test 1 Abnormal Psychology

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John’s family has a difficult time understanding why he chooses to wear an overcoat, a hat, and gloves during the summer. This is an example of which of the four D’s?

Deviance

This clinical theorist believes that the whole concept of mental illness is invalid and is a myth.

Szasz

Eileen has chosen not to get married and have children, but lives with ten dogs. She rarely goes out, yet she does not bother anyone. This is considered an example of a(n):

Eccentricity

Which clinical theorist stated that all forms of therapy have three key features?

Frank

Which is NOT an essential feature of therapy?

There is a series of contacts between healer and sufferer.
The sufferer seeks advice from friends and/or family.
The sufferer seeks relief from the healer.
There is a trained healer whose qualifications are accepted by the sufferer.

The sufferer seeks advice from friends and/or family.

Who is the individual who stated that "therapists are not in agreement as to their goals or aims…. It seems as though the field is completely chaotic and divided."

Rogers

During the Middle Ages, large numbers of people shared absurd false beliefs and imagined sights or sounds. This was known as:

Mass Madness

By the end of the nineteenth century, the moral treatment movement declined due to all of the following EXCEPT:

the emergence of prejudice against people with mental illness.
declining recovery rates.
the development of psychotropic medications.
severe money and staffing shortages.

the development of psychotropic medications.

His discovery that syphilis led to general paresis played an important factor in the rise of the somatogenic perspective

Von Krafft Ebing

This practice was begun in the 1960s to release hundreds of thousands of patients from public mental hospitals.

Deinstitutionalization

Before the 1950s, psychotherapy was offered only by:

Psychiatrists

About a decade ago, some clinicians and researchers began using ___________ to help track the behaviors, thoughts, and emotions of clients with psychological problems.

text messages

A hunch that certain variables are related in certain ways is called a(n):

hypothesis

The case study is limited by all of the following EXCEPT:

confounding variables

In an experiment, the variable being manipulated by the researcher is the _________ variable.

independent

The biological model is BEST rooted in

medicine

During times of stress, the adrenal glands secrete the hormone:

Cortisol

The three main biological treatments include all of the following EXCEPT:
electroconvulsive therapy.
neurosurgery.
drug therapy.
psychotherapy

psychotherapy

Which model looks at people’s unconscious internal processes and conflicts?

psychodynamic

Freud believed that there were _____ central forces that shape personality.

three

Sharon is worried to truly tell her male therapist how she feels, as she fears he may not accept her, just like her father did not accept her. Sharon’s concerns may best be explained by:

transference

Which model concentrates on the responses an organism makes to its environment?

behavioral

Many clinicians in the _____ became frustrated with the psychodynamic model, which gave rise to the behavioral model of abnormality.

1950s

In which process of learning is behavior that leads to satisfying consequences likely to be repeated?

Operant Conditioning

Approximately _____ percent of today’s clinical psychologists report that their approach is eclectic.

22

Which famous therapist proposed that many forms of abnormal behavior can be traced to cognitive factors?

Beck

Which of the following was one of two clinicians who proposed that cognitive processes are at the center of behaviors, thoughts, and emotions?

Ellis

Who is considered to be the pioneer of the humanistic perspective?

Rogers

Unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and empathy are all aspects of _____ therapy.

client centered

The humanistic and existential theories were extremely popular during the:

1960s and 1970s

Who conducted a study in 1973 to demonstrate the effect of how labels may encourage people to accept and play the assigned social role?

Rosenhan

Family therapy was first introduced in the:

1950s

In _____ therapy, therapists work with two individuals who are in a long-term relationship.

couples

States of anxiety regularly increase the following physiological aspects EXCEPT:
galvanic skin response.
body temperature.
hunger.
heart rate.

hunger

Which neuroimaging test provides a computer-produced motion picture of chemical activity throughout the brain?

PET scan

Which neuroimaging technique uses the magnetic property of certain hydrogen atoms in the brain to create a detailed picture of the brain’s structure?

MRI

A list of disorders, along with descriptions of symptoms and guidelines for making appropriate diagnoses, is known as a:

Classification system

Who developed the first modern classification system for abnormal behavior in 1883?

Kraepelin

In the United States, _____ percent of people qualify for three or more diagnoses during their lives.

17.3

A number of studies suggest that more than _____ percent of patients actually seem to get worse because of therapy.

5 to 10

The _____ myth promotes the false belief that all therapies are equivalent despite differences in the therapists’ training, experience, theoretical orientations, and personalities.

Uniformity

A(n) _____ has tried to identify a set of common factors or strategies that may run through the work of all effective therapists, regardless of the clinicians’ particular orientation.

rapprochement movement

_____ is the central nervous system’s physiological and emotional response to a vague sense of threat or danger.

Anxiety

This theory suggests that people with generalized anxiety disorder have a greater bodily arousal than other people and that worrying actually serves to reduce this arousal, perhaps by distracting the individuals from their unpleasant physical feelings.

Avoidance theory

All of the following are benzodiazepines EXCEPT:
Klonopin.
Xanax.
Ativan.
Clozaril.

Clozaril

Phobia comes from the Greek word for:

fear

Exposure treatments include all of the following EXCEPT:

biofeedback

John is being forced to face his fear of snakes without any relaxation training or gradual buildup in an exposure treatment known as:

flooding

What percent of those with social anxiety disorder are women?

60

These are the medications that seem to provide the most relief from the symptoms of social anxiety disorders.

antidepressants

Surveys indicate that _____ percent of people in the United States and other Western countries experience social anxiety disorder in a given year.

7.4

Jill has been experiencing recurring periods of shortness of breath, sweating, trembling, faintness, and a feeling of unreality for over a month. She may be suffering from:

a phobia

Panic disorder is often accompanied by:

agoraphobia

This type of therapy has been found as least as helpful as various medications for panic disorder.

cognitive

Between _____ percent of people in the United States and other countries throughout the world suffer from obsessive-compulsive disorder in any given year.

1 and 2

The ratio of men to women who have obsessive-compulsive disorder is:

1:1

Trichotillomania is an obsessive-compulsive-related disorder that has _____ as the main symptom.

hair pulling

Rico’s family celebrates Dia de los Muertos on November 1 by remembering family members who are no longer living. This is an example of a behavior that is dictated by one’s:

culture

During this time, the power of the clergy increased greatly throughout Europe.

Renaissance

Considered the founder of the modern study of psychopathology, he was the first physician to specialize in mental illness. He believed that the mind was as susceptible to sickness as the body was.

Weyer

The __________ perspective is the view that the chief causes of abnormal functioning are psychological.

psychogenic

These medications reduce tension and worry.

antianxiety drugs

_________ psychology is the study and enhancement of positive feelings, traits, and abilities.

positive

These medications correct extremely confused and distorted thinking.

antipsychotics

The case study is limited by all of the following EXCEPT:

little basis for generalization.
confounding variables.
subjective evidence.
biased observers.

confounding variables

This is the research procedure used to determine how much events or characteristics vary along with each other.

experimental method

There is ________ correlation between depression and activity level.

negative

In which model is the consumer called a "client" and the therapist’s role is that of a "teacher"?

behavioral

In which model is the consumer called a "patient" and the therapist’s role is that of an "interpreter"?

psychodynamic

George was tormented by the disapproving voices he kept hearing in his head. The constant hallucinations caused him to feel both anxious and depressed on a daily basis. George’s reaction to the voices is an example of which of the four D’s?

distress

Hippocrates saw abnormal behavior as a disease caused by _____ problems.

internal physical

_____ is the total number of cases in the population during a given time period.

prevalence

A general understanding of the nature, causes, and treatments of abnormality is also called a(n) _____ understanding.

nomothetic

What percentage of psychiatrists are female?

25

At least _____ percent of all privately insured persons in the United States are currently enrolled in managed-care programs.

75

________ psychology is the examination of the impact of culture, race, gender, and similar factors on our behaviors and focuses on how such factors may influence abnormal behavior.

multicultural

He was the person MOST responsible for the early spread of moral treatment in the United States.

Rush

Which Boston schoolteacher made humane care of those with mental disorders a public and political concern in the United States?

Dix

Maria obsesses for hours over her hair and make-up in the morning. She has been fired from two jobs in the past four months, as she cannot get to work on time. This is an example of which of the four D’s?

Dysfunction

He is now considered the father of American psychiatry.

Rush

An English Quaker named _____ founded the York Retreat, wherein patients were treated with a combination of rest, talk, prayer, and manual work.

Tuke

Approximately _____ individuals with severe psychological disturbances are inmates of jails and prisons.

135,000

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