Sports Psychology Exam 4~Ch. 19,20,21

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Based on research by Petitpas and Danish, which of the following is a psychological reaction associated with injury?

identity loss, lack of confidence, fear and anxiety (all)

Which of the following has research shown to be predictive of athletic injury?

life stress

Which of the following is a potential explanation for the relationship between stress and injury?

stress disrupts athlete’s attention by causing a decline in peripheral vision and stress causes muscle tension, which disrupts coordination

Which type of attitude have consultants identified as being related to injury?

Act tough and always give 110% and if you are injured, you are worthless

A study by Gould and colleagues (1997) concluded the greatest sources of stress for individuals rehabilitating from injury were

psychological and social

Which is the first stage of the grief reaction response?

denial

Which of the following factors influences the stress response, which in turn influences the probability of injury?

coping resources and personality

How many children and adults are estimated to be injured in sport, exercise, and recreational settings each year?

25 million

Which of the following is a guideline for providing social support for injury recovery?

social support that athletes need varies across the rehabilitation phases

According to Cupal and Brewer’s (2001) study on recovery from injury, relaxation plus imagery versus a control or placebo control condition produced

less reinjury anxiety and greater knee strength

In interviews with fast-and-slow-healing athletes, levleva and Orlick found that fast healers used more

goal setting & positive self-talk

Which of the following is NOT one of the procedures used in the rehabilitation process?

being overly optimistic

According to Hardy and Crace, social support may take the form of

emotional support and informational support

Building rapport with an injured athlete can be accomplished by

being there & showing empathy

According to a study of injured elite skiers, which of the following was NOT a recommendation to other athletes for coping with season-ending injuries and facilitating rehabilitation?

focus on quantity training

Research by Perna and colleagues has shown that high levels of stress can affect the physiology of injury recovery by

causing sleep disturbance, interfering with removal of damaged tissue, interfering with body’s healing process (all)

Which of the following statements is FALSE?

Approximately 10 mill. children under the age of 14 experience an injury each season

The stress-injury model explains physical injuries but may also be used to explain

physical illness

Imagery has been used in injury rehabilitation in which of the following ways?

setting of goals, relaxation, and maintaining a positive attitude (all)

Which of the following is NOT a social factor related to injury prevalence in sport?

people who are perfectionists are less likely to play with pain

The statement "winners never quit and quitters never win" exemplifies the notion of

the sport ethic

Returning to play after injury includes many psychological challenges except for

uncertainty of meeting expectations of others

Which of the following is a predictor of adherence to sport injury rehabilitation?

personal attributes and adherence interventions

The two most abused substances in the U.S. are

alcohol and tobacco

What percentage of athletes said they would take a performance-enhancing substance, even if it meant they would die from the side effects, if the substance guaranteed winning every competition for the next five years?

60%

Unusual eating patterns are often one of the best indicators of an eating disorder. If a person hides food and disappears after eating, this could be a sign of

bulimia

Which of the following is true?

Approximately 40-60% of elite athletes report steroid use

In general, what percentage of collegiate athletes (football and basketball players) engage in some form of gambling?

75%

Which of the following is a characteristic of compulsive gamblers?

boastfulness and extreme competitiveness

Which of the following is a technique to reduce the probability of becoming negatively addicted to exercise

setting realistic short and long-term goals

If we look at high school and college athletes’ use of steroids, certain gender differences appear. For instance,

males use steroids 3-5 times as often as females

Educating athletes and exercisers about the harmful effects of drug use usually deters what percentage of people from using drugs?

5%

The most common physical reason athletes use drugs is

for performance enhancement

Which of the following is the most common recreational drug?

alcohol

An effect of stimulants on performance is

reduced fatigue

The major categories of drugs in sport and exercise are performance-enhancing drugs and recreational drugs. Performance-enhancing drugs include:

anabolic steroids and beta-blockers

Which of the following is a psychological reason athletes use drugs?

build confidence and reduce anxiety

Which of the following is NOT among the guidelines for preventing eating disorders in athletes and exercisers?

focus on body weight to prevent overeating

According to research, about what percentage of men desire to change their physique?

50%

Which of the following personality traits is related to eating disorders in athletes?

submissiveness and conformity

What percentage of high school girls admit to using steroids at least once?

5%

In a 2003 survey, what percentage of male and female athletes, respectively, bet on sports?

35 & 10%

Which of the following psychiatric disorders has the highest associated mortality rate (5%)?

anorexia nervosa

A study by Kerr and colleagues (2006) found that, when compared to retired gymnasts looking back on their careers, gymnasts still active in their careers

reported significantly more eating disorders

Research by Martens and colleagues (2008) found that athletes in the off-season were at risk for

heavy drinking

Viagra may be on the banned list of substances in the future because it has the potential to

increase endurance

A web-based individualized feedback program (Martens et al., 2006) has shown to

significantly reduce drinking by athletes at high risk for drinking

Which of the following are internal factors to the onset of eating disorders?

low self-esteem & perfectionism

Individuals can become exercise dependent if they use exercise to build

self-esteem

Increased burnout among athletes in recent years is due to which of the following factors?

year-round training and competition and increased financial rewards for success

According to the latest research on overtraining, if the source of the stressor is psychological, then the recovery strategy should focus on

though management strategies

According to Morgan’s research, which of the following is true?

the heavier the training stimulus, the greater the mood disturbance

Which of the following is NOT a symptom of burnout?

elevated resting heart rate

Morgan’s research on athlete’s training stress and mood states has shown that

positive mental health is associated with high performance levels and mood state disturbance is associated with decreases in performance

Which of the following is NOT a component of Smith’s model of burnout?

cognitive responses

A new sport-specific burnout scale developed by Raedeke and Smith has three burnout subscales, including which of the following?

reduced sense of accomplishment and sport devaluation

According to the new model of overtraining developed by Kentta and Hassmen, overtraining can lead to

improved performance, no change in performance, and impaired performance (all)

Invarious research studies investigating staleness in athletes, at least ___ of athletes reported staleness occurring at least one time in their careeres

30%

The difference between overtraining and periodized training depends largely on individual differences and

capabilities

Overtraining refers to a training cycle of approximately

a few days to a few weeks

Which of the following suggestions did youth tennis players suffering burnout give parents to help prevent burnout in the future?

do not push your child at all & involve your child in decision making

Raedeke argues that burnout can be studied within a sport commitment approach. In essence, many athletes feel burned out but nevertheless continue to participate in their sport because of

social pressure form others, perceived lack of control over the situation, and too much self-identity tied up in their sport (all)

Which of the following is a helpful treatment for burnout?

Take relaxation breaks & keep a positive outlook

According to Murphy’s study of training loads and mood states among Olympic judo athletes,

increased sport-specific training produced increases in negative mood states & increased conditioning training did not result in increases in negative mood state

According to the research on burnout among athletic trainers and officials,

both athletic trainers and officials feel that role conflict is related to burnout

The factor that youth tennis players not most often regarding their reasons for burnout is

psychological

In a series of studies involving competitive youth tennis players, Gould and colleagues found that burnout involved

logistical concerns, social and interpersonal concerns, and physical concerns (all)

According to Silva’s model of burnout, the key component to producing burnout is

the potential negative stress of too much training

According to the research on gender and coaches’ burnout.

no conclusive gender differences have been found

According to research by Gould & colleagues, approximately what percentage of Olympians reported that they overtrained for the Olympics?

50%

Research by Gastafsson (2007) indicates that severe burnout occurs in what percentage of elite adolescent athletes

1-2%

Which of the following is related to overtraining?

volume of physical training, intensity of physical training, and psychological and social stress (all)

Graduate assistant student athletic trainers are prone to burnout because

time needed to fulfill academic and clinical duties

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