Sports Psychology Exam 4

Total Word Count: 11498
   Send article as PDF   

Research findings indicate that exercise is associated with

a. increases in energy and alertness
b. changing a bad mood
c. increases in fatigue and anger
d. a and b
e. a and c

*d. a and b

Research out of Germany on the "runner’s high" has recently revealed

a. endorphins were produced by the brain during running
b. no specific chemical effects associated with the "runner’s high"
c. a runner needs to run at least 30 minutes to experience the "runner’s high"
d. the "runner’s high" is experienced more by females than males
e. the "runner’s high" is only experienced by people under 50 years of age

*a. endorphins were produced by the brain during running

The nature of the conclusions from the National Institute of Mental Health regarding exercise and mental health was

a. causal
b. correlational
c. descriptive
d. qualitative
e. quantitative

*b. correlational

Which of the following statements was (were) a conclusion(s) derived from the National Institute of Mental Health workshop on physical activity and mental health?

a. Physical fitness is positively associated with mental health.
b. Males benefit more from exercise than females.
c. Long-term exercise is usually associated with reductions in traits such as neuroticism and anxiety.
d. a and b
e. a and c

*e. a and c

Research investigating the relationship between exercise and quality of life has revealed that

a. older adults who exercise report greater life satisfaction and physical health
b. physically active individuals report more stamina and positive attitudes about work
c. there were no differences in reported quality of life between college students who participated in an endurance conditioning program and a comparable control group
d. a and b

*d. a and b

According to research studies, the "runner’s high" is experienced by approximately what percentage of runners?

a. 10%
b. 25%
c. 50%
d. 75%
e. Results are inconsistent.

*e. Results are inconsistent.

The relationship between exercise and hardiness has recently been investigated. A hardy personality style is characterized by

a. a sense of personal control over external events
b. a sense of commitment and purpose in daily life
c. the flexibility to adapt to unexpected changes in life
d. all of the above

*d. all of the above

The feelings characterizing the "runner’s high" are similar to the concept of

a. beta waves
b. flow
c. transcendental meditation
d. peripheral narrowing
e. overtraining

*b. flow

Which of the following regarding the relationship between exercise and depression is (are) true?

a. The positive effects are seen across age, health status, and gender.
b. Both aerobic exercise and anaerobic exercise are associated with reductions in depression.
c. Reductions in depression after exercise depend on fitness levels.
d. a and b
e. a and c

*d. a and b

Which of the following is (are) true?

a. Aerobic exercise is associated with less consistent reductions in state anxiety than anaerobic exercise is.
b. The anxiety reduction after exercise occurs only during intensity exercise.
c. Activities such as weightlifting and yoga have been found to be associated with positive psychological well-being.
d. a and c
e. a and b

*c. Activities such as weightlifting and yoga have been found to be associated with positive psychological well-being.

Researchers have found that exercise usually reduces state anxiety for approximately

a. 36 hours
b. 30 minutes
c. 12 hours
d. 2 to 6 hours
e. 8 to 10 hours

*d. 2 to 6 hours

Which of the following conditions is generally not related to positive changes in mood?

a. closed and predictable activities
b. enjoyment
c. rhythmic and repetitive movements
d. abdominal breathing
e. interpersonal competition

*e. interpersonal competition

Various research studies have indicated that regular physical activity is associated with

a. positive mental health
b. frequent symptoms of anxiety and depression
c. reduced probability of hypertension and coronary heart disease
d. a and b
e. a and c

*e. a and c

Aerobic exercise refers to physical activity that

a. is less than 10 minutes in duration
b. does not use oxygen
c. increases pulmonary and cardiovascular fitness
d. a and c
e. b and c

*c. increases pulmonary and cardiovascular fitness

The primary measure of mood in sport and exercise is the

a. Profile of Mood States
b. Positive Affect-Negative Affect Scale
c. mood alteration scale
d. affective checklist
e. Cognitive-Affective Profile

*a. Profile of Mood States

Exercise is related to increased quality of life as measured by

a. increased feelings of enjoyment
b. decreased feelings of stress
c. decreased levels of self-confidence
d. a and b

*d. a and b

Some new research on the relationship between exercise and psychological well-being among HIV-1 populations showed that

a. anaerobic exercise produced the most positive psychological benefits
b. both aerobic and weight-training exercise produced positive psychological benefits
c. aerobic exercise had no effect on psychological well-being
d. a and c
e. a and b

*b. both aerobic and weight-training exercise produced positive psychological benefits

A recent study has investigated the relationship between exercise and multiple sclerosis (MS). Results indicated that exercise produced

a. less pain and fatigue
b. poorer sexual functioning
c. higher levels of energy and vigor
d. a and b
e. a and c

*e. a and c

If exercise is used as an adjunct to traditional therapy, then which of the following statements is (are) true?

a. Anaerobic activities appear to produce the most positive psychological effects.
b. A precise diagnosis of the problem and individually tailored program of exercise should be employed.
c. Exercise therapy can be used for both underweight and obese patients.
d. a and b
e. b and c

*b. A precise diagnosis of the problem and individually tailored program of exercise should be employed.

The results of studies investigating the relationship of exercise and changes in self-concept have been inconsistent. The main reason for this is that

a. self-concept is a multidimensional construct
b. there were not enough subjects in the studies
c. self-concept cannot be measured through paper-and-pencil tests
d. a and c
e. a and b

*a. self-concept is a multidimensional construct

The "runner’s high" has been described as

a. complete joy in the run
b. a very alert mind
c. freedom from worry and guilt
d. all of the above
e. a and c

*d. all of the above

Which of the following is (are) true regarding the relationship between exercise and self-esteem?

a. Positive changes have been found only with individuals initially lower in self-esteem.
b. Positive changes in self-esteem through exercise last only one to two months.
c. Positive changes in self-esteem related to exercise have been found in normal populations.
d. a and b
e. b and c

*c. Positive changes in self-esteem related to exercise have been found in normal populations.

According to Ismail and Young’s study on the effects of a fitness program on middle-aged men, exercise

a. improves fitness levels
b. increases self-confidence
c. increases anxiety
d. a and b

*d. a and b

A negative addiction to exercise can result in

a. increased sexual functioning
b. strains on interpersonal relationships
c. decrease in work productivity
d. b and c
e. a and c

*d. b and c

The term "positive addiction to exercise" was coined by

a. Gould
b. Burke
c. Morgan
d. Glasser
e. Bahrke

*d. Glasser

If a person feels withdrawal symptoms after 24 to 36 hours without exercise, then the individual is considered

a. positively addicted to exercise
b. negatively addicted to exercise
c. neurotic
d. psychotic

*b. negatively addicted to exercise

Which of the following psychological explanations has NOT been put forth to help describe the positive relationship between exercise and psychological well-being?

a. enhanced feelings of control
b. "time-out"
c. positive changes in personality
d. positive social interactions
e. feelings of competency

*c. positive changes in personality

Which of the following physiological explanations has NOT been put forth to help describe the positive relationship between exercise and psychological well-being?

a. increases in cerebral blood flow
b. reductions in muscle tension
c. structural changes in the brain
d. increases in endorphins
e. decreased maximal oxygen consumption to the tissues

*e. decreased maximal oxygen consumption to the tissues

What conclusion have researchers reached concerning the effects of exercise on cognitive functioning?

a. Intense exercise bouts enhance cognitive functioning more than easy exercise bouts.
b. Overall, there is a moderate relationship between exercise and improved cognitive functioning.
c. Exercise programs conducted over longer periods are associated with gains in cognitive functioning.
d. b and c
e. a and b

*d. b and c

Which illness or disease is predicted to be the second-leading cause of death after heart disease by 2020?

a. anxiety neurosis
b. depression
c. skin cancer
d. abdominal cancer
e. pancreatic cancer

*b. depression

Depression is seen most in

a. older adults
b. girls and women
c. boys and men
d. African American males
e. African American females

*b. girls and women

Recent research on the relationship between cardiovascular fitness and cognitive functioning indicates that

a. the effects were largest on tasks involving executive control
b. the effects occur more in males than in females
c. the effects were largest after exercise training exceeded 60 minutes
d. a and b

*a. the effects were largest on tasks involving executive control

Research on the use of mirrors during exercise for women indicates

a. no mirrors should be used regardless of previous exercise levels
b. mirrors should not be used when women have been sedentary
c. there should be at least two mirrors during exercise classes
d. there should be only one mirror used during exercise classes

*b. mirrors should not be used when women have been sedentary

The effect of exercise on cancer indicates

a. exercise can cause breast cancer to disappear
b. exercise can be beneficial for breast cancer patients
c. exercise can be beneficial to non-breast cancer patients
d. a and b
e. b and c

*e. b and c

Recent research on depression and extracurricular organized sport activities has found that

a. females in extracurricular sport activities exhibited less depression than those not involved in extracurricular sport activities
b. there was no difference in depression for young athletes who participated or had not participated in extracurricular sport activities
c. males participating in extracurricular sport activities exhibited less depression than those not participating in extracurricular sport activities
d. a and c

*c. males participating in extracurricular sport activities exhibited less depression than those not participating in extracurricular sport activities

In a study investigating the effects of winning and losing on psychological factors, 4-6 days after a regular season competition, results indicated that winners (when compared to losers) exhibited

a. higher somatic anxiety
b. lower levels of depression
c. lower levels of anger
d. a and c

*d. a and c

Although no empirical research has been conducted to date, Pilates (a popular form of exercise focusing on flexibility and balance) has received anecdotal support to help improve quality of life for people who have

a. HIV
b. pancreatic cancer
c. Parkinson’s
d. muscular dystrophy
e. congestive heart failure

*c. Parkinson’s

A recent study has shown that acute exercise can improve cognitive functioning in the form of working memory for people

a. over the age of 65
b. who are low in working memory
c. who have I.Q.s under 100
d. under the age of 30
e. who use English as a second language

*b. who are low in working memory

The premise of the health belief model is that individuals will engage in preventive health behaviors depending on the individual’s perception of the

a. severity of past illnesses
b. time available to exercise
c. social support network
d. exercise history

*a. severity of past illnesses

According to the Surgeon General’s report, individuals exercising at ______ or lower of their aerobic capacity had the best adherence rates.

a. 40%
b. 50%
c. 20%
d. 60%
e. 70%

*b. 50%

Which of the following statements is (are) TRUE?

a. Ten to fifteen percent of all adults participate in vigorous and frequent physical activity.
b. Fifty percent of adults are sedentary.
c. Seventy-five percent of adults participate in exercise on a weekly basis.
d. a and b
e. a and c

*d. a and b

The two major categories of processes used by individuals for behavior change are

a. cognitive and physiological
b. cognitive and behavioral
c. social and physiological
d. behavioral and social
e. cognitive and social

*b. cognitive and behavioral

In a large worksite promotion study by Marcus and colleagues, most participants were classified in which stage of the transtheoretical model?

a. action
b. action and reaction
c. preparation
d. precontemplation
e. contemplation

*e. contemplation

Which of the following is NOT a stage in the transtheoretical model?

a. contemplation
b. precontemplation
c. action and reaction
d. preparation
e. action

*c. action and reaction

The key elements in social cognitive theory are that the environment affects behavior and behavior affects the environment. This is known as

a. reciprocal control
b. reciprocal interception
c. self-efficacy
d. reciprocal determinism
e. perceived behavioral control

*d. reciprocal determinism

Which of the following styles is most likely to be taken by a counselor using motivational interviewing?

a. being directive
b. being authoritative
c. being persuasive
d. being confrontational
e. being a partner

*e. being a partner

In terms of environmental factors affecting adherence, which of the following is (are) FALSE?

a. People exercising in groups display higher adherence than people exercising alone.
b. People in walking programs have lower adherence than people in running programs.
c. People who perceive their exercise leader as knowledgeable and likable exhibit higher levels of adherence.
d. a and b
e. b and c

*b. People in walking programs have lower adherence than people in running programs.

According to the Surgeon General’s report, people exercising for ____ at a time had the best adherence rates.

a. 20 to 30 minutes
b. 30 to 60 minutes
c. 30 to 40 minutes
d. 15 to 45 minutes
e. 30 to 45 minutes

*a. 20 to 30 minutes

In terms of affecting adherence, which of the following is (are) true?

a. Overweight people are more likely to adhere to exercise programs.
b. People with documented heart disease are less likely to adhere to exercise programs.
c. The higher the cost of the exercise program, the lower the adherence.
d. b and c
e. a and c

*c. The higher the cost of the exercise program, the lower the adherence.

Which of the following statements is (are) true?

a. Knowing the health benefits of physical activity enhances adherence.
b. Feelings of enjoyment enhance adherence.
c. Expecting health benefits from exercise enhances adherence.
d. a and b
e. b and c

*e. b and c

Reasons for attrition from exercise programs can be classified as

a. internal and controllable
b. external and controllable
c. internal and uncontrollable
d. external and uncontrollable

*a. internal and controllable

Studies have shown that in terms of barriers to exercise,

a. there were no differences between whites and blacks
b. blacks gave lack of time more as a reason for not exercising
c. whites gave lack of time more as a reason for not exercising
d. blacks mentioned lack of energy more often as a barrier to exercise
e. whites mentioned lack of energy more often as a barrier to exercise

*a. there were no differences between whites and blacks

Which of the following will have a positive effect on adherence to a new exercise program?

a. previous participation in supervised exercise programs
b. participation in intercollegiate sports
c. class size
d. b and c
e. a and b

*a. previous participation in supervised exercise programs

According to research on adherence to exercise programs, what percentage of individuals starting an exercise program will likely drop out after six months?

a. 50%
b. 75%
c. 25%
d. 10%
e. 65%

*a. 50%

Which of the following statements is (are) FALSE?

a. Exercise of moderate or short duration does not increase appetite.
b. Regular exercise can produce substantial decreases in weight over time.
c. An estimated 10 to 15 million American adults are overweight.
d. a and c
e. b and c

*c. An estimated 10 to 15 million American adults are overweight.

Exercise can be beneficial in which of the following ways?

a. weight control
b. building self-esteem
c. reducing the risk of hypertension
d. all of the above
e. a and c

*d. all of the above

The theory of planned behavior extends the theory of reasoned action by including the factor of

a. perceived ability
b. perceived behavioral control
c. perceived barriers to exercise
d. exercise history
e. previous participation in varsity sport

*b. perceived behavioral control

Studies on social support as a strategy to help adherence have indicated that

a. social support, compared to a lack of it in control groups, produces increases in adherence
b. social support does not increase adherence
c. social support works only with support from spouses and family
d. social support works only with support from close friends

*a. social support, compared to a lack of it in control groups, produces increases in adherence

Which of the following is (are) recommended for school and community programs promoting physical activity in young people?

a. Include parents in physical activity instruction.
b. Implement a health education curriculum about healthy lifestyles.
c. Eliminate extracurricular activities since they distract from the school’s physical education instruction.
d. a and c
e. a and b

*e. a and b

The number one barrier to physical activity is

a. lack of energy
b. lack of motivation
c. injury or illness
d. lack of time
e. lack of facilities

*d. lack of time

Which of the following is NOT a criterion to evaluate theories of health behaviors?

a. integration
b. utility
c. parsimony
d. impact
e. performance

*e. performance

In a research study, exercise adherence in a walking program was maximized when participants were called _______ to prompt them to walk.

a. once a week
b. once a month
c. once every other week
d. every day

*a. once a week

Research by Williams (2007; 2008) has indicated that to increase adherence, obese people should be encouraged to

a. choose self-paced activities that produce positive effects
b. exercise whenever they choose
c. exercise 3 days a week for 30 minutes each time
d. exercise every day for at least 10 minutes
e. exercise with a partner

*a. choose self-paced activities that produce positive effects

The three basic constructs in self-determination theory are

a. relatedness, autonomy, effectance
b. relatedness, autonomy, sense of control
c. autonomy, sense of control, effectance
d. relatedness, self-efficacy, self-motivation
e. self-motivation, self-efficacy, autonomy

*a. relatedness, autonomy, effectance

Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding the determinants of exercise adherence?

a. Higher income is associated with more active lifestyles.
b. College-educated individuals have lower participation rates in exercise than those individuals with only a high school education.
c. High self-efficacy is associated with higher levels of physical activity.
d. a and b
e. a and c

*e. a and c

Which of the following is NOT a guideline for setting up an exercise program to enhance adherence?

a. Exercise alone.
b. Make the exercise enjoyable.
c. Reinforce early success.
d. a and c
e. b and c

*a. Exercise alone.

The setting producing the best adherence is

a. worksite
b. community
c. hospital based
d. home
e. fitness club

*b. community

Which of the following statements is (are) true of the use of a decision balance sheet?

a. It involves sensitizing potential exercise participants to the positive and negative outcomes of participating in an exercise program.
b. It helps exercise leaders make decisions on who will adhere to an exercise program.
c. It helps exercise leaders make decisions concerning the best activities for the exercisers.
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

*d. all of the above

Two ways to increase intrinsic motivation for exercise are to focus on one’s self and have what type of orientation?

a. product
b. outcome
c. process
d. performance

*c. process

According to research on association and dissociation strategies and adherence,

a. dissociation produces better attendance than association does
b. association produces better attendance than dissociation does
c. dissociation produces better long-term maintenance than association does
d. a and c
e. b and c

*d. a and c

According to research on goal setting and adherence,

a. flexible goals are better than rigid goals
b. time-based goals are better than distance-based goals
c. short-term goals (weekly) are better than long-term goals (six weeks)
d. a and c
e. a and b

*d. a and c

The goal most often given by exercisers was

a. to improve strength
b. to lose weight
c. to improve cardiovascular fitness
d. to tone muscles
e. to have fun

*c. to improve cardiovascular fitness

Based on research findings, which of the following statements is (are) true?

a. Attendance contracts and lotteries are successful in improving adherence rates.
b. Individual feedback produces more adherence than group feedback.
c. Self-reward decreases adherence rates.
d. b and c
e. a and b

*e. a and b

Which of the following findings using behavior modification approaches to exercise adherence is (are) true?

a. A poster encouraging stair climbing instead of taking the elevator immediately increased people’s incidences of taking the stairs from 6% to 34%.
b. People willing to sign a statement of intent to comply with the exercise program had significantly better attendance than those refusing to sign such a statement.
c. Individuals given a choice concerning the activities they participated in had higher levels of adherence than individuals who were not given a choice.
d. a and b
e. b and c

*e. b and c

According to charting attendance and participation approaches, charts can be important in

a. maintaining interest
b. keeping people constantly informed
c. enhancing the effects of social facilitation
d. all of the above
e. a and b

*d. all of the above

Which of the following is NOT an approach used in enhancing exercise adherence?

a. social support
b. decision making
c. behavior modification
d. goal setting
e. association

*e. association

According to American College of Sports Medicine guidelines, exercise should be

a. performed three or four days a week
b. performed for 45 minutes to 1 hour per exercise bout
c. performed at 50% to 80% of maximal heart rate
d. a and c

*d. a and c

For special populations, which of the following is NOT a major reason for not exercising?

a. inconvenience
b. lack of motivation
c. lack of money
d. lack of opportunity
e. lack of time

*d. lack of opportunity

Exercise adherence has been difficult in part because of exercise prescriptions that

a. are too flexible in intensity, frequency, and duration
b. are overly restrictive (do not enhance motivation)
c. are based solely on fitness data (not psychological readiness to exercise)
d. b and c
e. a and c

*d. b and c

To prevent a relapse in physical activity, it is suggested that a person

a. use positive self-talk and imagery strategies
b. replace "wants" with "shoulds"
c. expect and plan for lapses
d. a and c
e. a and b

*d. a and c

As a person moves through the stages of changes, reasons for exercise become more

a. external
b. internal
c. hypothetical
d. behavioral
e. stable

*b. internal

According to the ecological model, the key aspect of these models is

a. the social environment
b. the physical environment
c. one’s emotional environment
d. one’s mental outlook on the environment

*b. the physical environment

Americans spent much more money on exercise equipment between 1986 and 1996. As a result, the amount of physical activity during that period has increased

a. 5%
b. 10%
c. 2%
d. 15%
e. 23%

*c. 2%

In order to facilitate adherence to mental training, it is suggested that

a. mental skills be integrated into existing routines
b. enjoyment of mental training be emphasized
c. the perceived costs (e.g., time) of mental training be increased
d. a and b
e. e. and c

*d. a and b

Irregular exercisers, compared to regular exercisers, place more significance on

a. goals that are more difficult
b. goals that are too easy
c. goals that are interfering
d. goals that are specific
e. goals that are general

*c. goals that are interfering

A study by Williams et al. (2006) on the relationship between enjoyment and adherence to individually-tailored physical activity found

a. greater adherence when participants got to choose enjoyable activities
b. the greater the enjoyment at the start of the program, the greater the adherence
c. enjoyment did not influence adherence to physical activity
d. the greater the enjoyment at the end of the program, the greater the adherence

*b. the greater the enjoyment at the start of the program, the greater the adherence

A recent study by Netz et al. (2008) focusing on age and gender differences in adherence found

a. males gave more internal reasons (e.g., lack of self-discipline) for not exercising than females
b. young adults gave more reasons for not exercising than older adults
c. older adults had more internal barriers to not exercising than younger adults
d. a and c
e. b an c

*c. older adults had more internal barriers to not exercising than younger adults

According to recent studies, which of the following is (are) FALSE?

a. self-efficacy predicts exercise behavior for type I but not type II diabetes
b. social support was the best predictor of physical activity in inner-city African American youth
c. the best predictor of whether an individual would resume exercise is recovery self-efficacy
d. a and c
e. a and b

*a. self-efficacy predicts exercise behavior for type I but not type II diabetes

Based on research by Petitpas and Danish, which of the following is (are) a psychological reaction(s) associated with injury?

a. identity loss
b. lack of confidence
c. fear and anxiety
d. all of the above
e. a and c

*d. all of the above

Which of the following has research shown to be predictive of athletic injury?

a. personality
b. self-esteem
c. life stress
d. independence
e. self-concept

*c. life stress

In a study by Smith, Smoll, and Ptacek examining the relationship between life stress, social support, coping skills, and injury, the researchers found that

a. athletes with high levels of life stress had the highest injury rates
b. athletes with high levels of life stress and low levels of social support and coping exhibited the highest injury rates
c. athletes with low levels of social support, high levels of life stress, and high coping skills exhibited the highest injury rates
d. athletes with high levels of life stress and high levels of social support exhibited the highest injury rates
e. there was no relationship between life stress, social support, coping skills, and injury rates

*b. athletes with high levels of life stress and low levels of social support and coping exhibited the highest injury rates

Which of the following is (are) a potential explanation(s) for the relationship between stress and injury?

a. Stress disrupts an athlete’s attention by causing a decline in peripheral vision.
b. Stress causes muscle tension, which disrupts coordination.
c. Stress causes loss in confidence, which changes movement patterns.
d. a and b

*d. a and b

Which type(s) of attitudes have consultants identified as being related to injury?

a. Act tough and always give 110%.
b. If you are injured, you are worthless.
c. Pressure is a privilege.
d. a and b
e. a and c

*d. a and b

In a study by Gould and colleagues (1997), the greatest sources of stress for individuals rehabilitating from injury were

a. psychological and physical
b. psychological and social
c. physical and social
d. physical and emotional
e. emotional and behavioral

*b. psychological and social

Which of the following is (are) a typical reaction(s) to injury?

a. Injury is viewed as a disaster.
b. Injury is viewed as a way to get a break from tedious practice.
c. Injury is viewed as a socially acceptable reason for not playing.
d. all of the above
e. a and c

*d. all of the above

Which of the following is NOT one of the five stages of grief reaction?

a. denial
b. depression
c. anger
d. rationalization
e. bargaining

*d. rationalization

Which is the first stage of the grief reaction response?

a. anger
b. acceptance and reorganization
c. rationalization
d. depression
e. denial

*e. denial

Which of the following factors influence(s) the stress response, which in turn influences the probability of injury?

a. coping resources
b. personality
c. ability level
d. a and c
e. a and b

*e. a and b

How many children and adults are estimated to be injured in sport, exercise, and recreational settings each year?

a. 9 to 10 million
b. 3 to 4 million
c. 1 to 2 million
d. 6 to 7 million
e. 600,000 to 800,000

*b. 3 to 4 million

From a study of injured elite skiers, which of the following was NOT a recommendation to coaches for helping athletes cope with season-ending injuries and for facilitating rehabilitation?

a. Motivate by pushing the athlete hard to improve.
b. Provide positive empathy and support.
c. Provide for lots of coach-athlete contact and involvement.
d. Have realistic expectations.
e. Understand individual differences.

*a. Motivate by pushing the athlete hard to improve.

Which of the following is (are) a guideline(s) for providing social support for injury recovery?

a. Need is greatest when the rehabilitation process is fastest.
b. Family and friends provide information support, whereas coaches provide emotional support.
c. Social support that athletes need varies across the rehabilitation phases.
d. a and b
e. b and c

*c. Social support that athletes need varies across the rehabilitation phases.

According to Cupal and Brewer’s (2001) study on effects of imagery and relaxation on recovery from injury, relaxation plus imagery versus a control or placebo control condition produced

a. less reinjury anxiety
b. greater knee strength
c. no change in pain
d. a and c
e. a and b

*e. a and b

The three phases of injury recovery as expressed in the model by Bianco, Malo, and Orlick (1999) include which of the following?

a. injury or illness phase
b. injury and pain management phase
c. rehabilitation and recovery phase
d. a and b
e. a and c

*e. a and c

A variety of studies investigated the effects of psychological training on adherence to injury rehabilitation protocols. Which of the following psychological factors was (were) found to be related to rehabilitation adherence?

a. self-motivation
b. positive self-talk
c. attentional control
d. a and b

*d. a and b

Which of the following has NOT been identified as a sign of potential problematic adjustment to athletic injury?

a. rapid mood swings
b. withdrawal from significant others
c. high levels of anxiety
d. feelings of anger and confusion
e. exaggerated bragging about accomplishments

*c. high levels of anxiety

In interviews with fast- and slow-healing athletes, Ievleva and Orlick found that fast healers used more

a. goal setting
b. positive self-talk
c. relaxation
d. a and b

*d. a and b

Which of the following characteristics was (were) identified by athletic trainers as a way to distinguish between athletes who coped most and least successfully with injury?

a. willingness to listen to the trainer
b. maintaining a positive attitude about injury
c. low life stress
d. a and b

*d. a and b

Which of the following is NOT one of the procedures used in the rehabilitation process?

a. educating individuals relative to the injury and recovery process
b. fostering social support
c. being overly optimistic
d. building rapport with the injured individual
e. preparing the individual to cope with setbacks

*c. being overly optimistic

According to Hardy and Crace, social support may take the form of

a. emotional support
b. informational support
c. qualitative support
d. a and b

*d. a and b

Which of the following is (are) a psychological skill(s) employed during the rehabilitation process?

a. goal setting
b. self-talk
c. simulation
d. a and b
e. a and c

*d. a and b

Building rapport with an injured athlete can be accomplished by

a. being there
b. showing empathy
c. being overly optimistic
d. a and b

*d. a and b

From a study of injured elite skiers, which of the following was NOT a recommendation to other athletes for coping with season-ending injuries and facilitating rehabilitation?

a. Set goals.
b. Use imagery.
c. Focus on quantity training.
d. Use social resources.
e. Work on mental skills training.

*c. Focus on quantity training.

Research by Perna and colleagues has shown that high levels of stress can affect the physiology of injury recovery by

a. causing a disturbance in sleep
b. interfering with the removal of damaged tissue
c. interfering with the body’s healing process
d. all of the above
e. a and c

*d. all of the above

Research by Perna and colleagues using cognitive-behavioral stress management on rowers found

a. a decrease in days lost due to injury over the season
b. fewer rowers got injured throughout the season
c. there was no effect on days lost due to injury over the season
d. injury actually increased in rowers across the season

*a. a decrease in days lost due to injury over the season

Which of the following statements is (are) FALSE?

a. over 25 million people are injured each year in the U.S. participating in sport, exercise, and recreation settings
b. there are approximately 3.7 million emergency room sport injury visits each year
c. Swedish data indicate that approximately 75% of elite Swedish soccer players get injured each season
d. approximately 10 million children under the age of 14 experience an injury each season
e. a and d

*d. approximately 10 million children under the age of 14 experience an injury each season

The stress-injury model explains physical injuries but may also be used to explain

a. physical performance
b. physical illness
c. physical fitness
d. burnout
e. overtraining

*b. physical illness

Stress management has been shown to be particularly effective in reducing injuries for individuals who are

a. high in perfectionism
b. high in risk of becoming injured
c. low in hardiness
d. high in state anxiety
e. low in hope

*b. high in risk of becoming injured

Imagery has been used in injury rehabilitation in which of the following ways?

a. setting of goals
b. relaxation
c. maintaining a positive attitude
d. all of the above
e. b and c

*d. all of the above

Which of the following is not a factor predisposing athletes to eating disorders?

a. weight restrictions and standards
b. parental pressure
c. performance demands
d. critical comments about body shape and weight
e. coach and peer pressure

*b. parental pressure

The two most abused substances in the United States are

a. stimulants and anabolic steroids
b. marijuana and alcohol
c. alcohol and tobacco
d. beta-blockers and stimulants
e. anabolic steroids and beta-blockers

*c. alcohol and tobacco

Substance abuse and eating disorders in athletes should be treated by

a. an educational sport psychologist
b. a clinical sport psychologist
c. a social worker
d. an educational counseling psychologist

*b. a clinical sport psychologist

What percentage of athletes said they would take a performance-enhancing substance, even if it meant they would die from the side effects, if the substance guaranteed winning every competition for the next five years?

a. 10%
b. 20%
c. 40%
d. 60%
e. 5%

*d. 60%

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) states that one of the criteria for psychoactive substance abuse is that the disturbance has persisted for at least

a. six months
b. two weeks
c. one month
d. three months
e. one week

*c. one month

Garner and Rosen recommend that if a coach suspects an athlete has an eating disorder, the coach should

a. immediately discuss her concerns with the parents
b. drop the athlete from the team until the condition is resolved
c. discuss her concerns with the athlete in a private meeting
d. go to the athlete’s teammates to find out what’s going on

*c. discuss her concerns with the athlete in a private meeting

Research suggests that people are less likely to take drugs if they have

a. a low level of anxiety
b. high self-esteem
c. a low level of aggression
d. a highly competitive nature

*b. high self-esteem

Unusual eating patterns are often one of the best indicators of an eating disorder. If a person hides food and disappears after eating, this can be a sign of

a. bulimia
b. anorexia nervosa
c. anorexia nervosa and bulimia
d. psychological depression
e. c and d

*a. bulimia

Which of the following is (are) true?

a. About 25% of high school athletes take performance-enhancing drugs.
b. Close to 50% of elite athletes report steroid use.
c. Athletes report that approximately 80% of their teammates are using steroids.
d. a and b
e. b and c

*b. Close to 50% of elite athletes report steroid use.

Which of the following is (are) true regarding the prevalence of eating disorders in sport?

a. There are no differences in frequency of eating disorders between athlete and nonathlete populations.
b. Eating disorders in athletics tend to be sport specific.
c. A significant percentage of athletes engage in some type of weight loss behavior.
d. a and b
e. b and c

*e. b and c

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), which of the following is (are) characteristic of bulimia?

a. recurrent episodes of binge eating in a discrete period of time
b. a minimum average of four binge-eating episodes a week for at least six months
c. a feeling of lack of control over eating behavior during eating binges
d. a and c
e. a and b

*d. a and c

The most prevalent form of eating problems is

a. anorexia
b. bulimia
c. disordered eating
d. anorexbulimia
e. secondary anorexia

*c. disordered eating

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), which of the following is (are) characteristic of anorexia nervosa?

a. refusal to maintain minimal body weight (15% below normal)
b. intense fear of weight loss
c. disturbed body image
d. a and c
e. b and c

*d. a and c

According to Thompson, eating disorders are likely to appear in individuals with

a. low self-esteem
b. high stress levels related to pleasing others
c. high levels of aggression
d. a and b

*d. a and b

Which of the following is (are) characteristic of bulimia?

a. Eating behavior results in significant weight loss.
b. Eating behavior is excessive in an effort to feel better.
c. Feelings of guilt from eating result in purging.
d. b and c

*d. b and c

Thompson and Garner and Rosen list some dos and don’ts for dealing with eating disorders. Which of the following are don’ts?

a. Get help and advice from a specialist.
b. Emphasize the importance of good long-term nutrition.
c. Recommend weight loss in order to improve performance.
d. Hold team weigh-ins.
e. c and d

*e. c and d

Which of the following is NOT an approach or technique to detect and combat drug use?

a. family systems approach
b. educational approaches
c. cognitive techniques
d. behavioral techniques
e. psychophysiological techniques

*e. psychophysiological techniques

In general, what percentage of collegiate athletes (football and basketball players) engage in some form of gambling?

a. 10%
b. 25%
c. 40%
d. 50%
e. 75%

*e. 75%

Which of the following is (are) true?

a. About 2% of the population are compulsive gamblers.
b. About 15% of the population are problem gamblers.
c. About 15% of college students are compulsive gamblers.
d. a and c
e. a and b

*a. About 2% of the population are compulsive gamblers.

Which of the following is (are) a characteristic(s) of compulsive gamblers?

a. boastfulness
b. pessimism
c. extreme competitiveness
d. a and b
e. a and c

*e. a and c

Which of the following is (are) a technique(s) to reduce the probability of becoming negatively addicted to exercise?

a. working out regularly with a faster partner
b. keeping the intensity of exercise high to maximize benefits
c. setting realistic short- and long-term goals
d. a and c
e. b and c

*c. setting realistic short- and long-term goals

Which of the following is (are) a symptom(s) of a person who is negatively addicted to exercise?

a. decreased tolerance to the amount of exercise performed
b. exercise is given increased priority over other activities
c. relief or withdrawal of symptoms by continuing to exercise
d. a and b

*d. a and b

If we look at high school and college athletes’ use of steroids, certain gender differences appear. For instance,

a. females use steroids twice as often as males
b. males use steroids 10 times as often as females
c. males use steroids 3 to 5 times as often as females
d. females use steroids twice as often as males but only in individual sports
e. females use steroids twice as often as males but only in team sports

*c. males use steroids 3 to 5 times as often as females

Educating athletes and exercisers about the harmful effects of drug use usually deters what percentage of people from using drugs?

a. 5%
b. 20%
c. 30%
d. 40%
e. 50%

*a. 5%

The most common physical reason for athletes to use drugs is

a. for performance enhancement
b. to help recovery from injury
c. to control appetite
d. to look better
e. to feel better

*a. for performance enhancement

Which of the following is NOT a sign or symptom of people who are substance abusers?

a. major change in personality
b. poor hygiene and grooming
c. very little sweating
d. impaired judgment
e. muscle twitches

*c. very little sweating

Which of the following is (are) NOT a good way(s) to detect drug use and abuse?

a. drug testing
b. searching the athletes’ lockers on a random basis
c. observation
d. listening
e. a and d

*b. searching the athletes’ lockers on a random basis

When discussing the effects of anabolic steroids with athletes, coaches should

a. discuss the health risks involved in taking anabolic steroids
b. deemphasize the performance gains of anabolic steroids
c. inform the athletes of the policy of the organization in cases of drug use
d. a and c

*d. a and c

Which of the following is the most common recreational drug?

a. marijuana
b. alcohol
c. tobacco
d. cocaine
e. amphetamines

*b. alcohol

Which of the following is NOT common among the side effects of ingesting anabolic steroids?

a. increased risk of liver disease
b. increased aggression
c. loss of coordination
d. premature heart disease
e. increased optimism

*e. increased optimism

An effect of stimulants on performance is

a. reduced pain
b. reduced fatigue
c. increased strength
d. steadier nerves
e. increased muscle endurance

*b. reduced fatigue

The major categories of drugs in sport and exercise are performance-enhancing and recreational drugs. Performance-enhancing drugs include

a. anabolic steroids
b. beta-blockers
c. cocaine
d. a and b

*d. a and b

Which of the following is (are) a psychological reason(s) for athletes to use drugs?

a. build confidence
b. reduce anxiety
c. increase extroversion
d. a and b
e. a and c

*d. a and b

Which of the following is (are) NOT among guidelines for preventing eating disorders in athletes and exercisers?

a. promote proper nutritional practices
b. focus on body weight to prevent overeating
c. be sensitive to weight issues
d. use a cognitive dissonance intervention
e. a and c

*b. focus on body weight to prevent overeating

According to research, about what percentage of men desire to change their physique?

a. 20%
b. 50%
c. 10%
d. 70%
e. 5%

*b. 50%

Which of the following personality traits is (are) related to eating disorders in athletes?

a. submissiveness
b. shyness
c. conformity
d. a and b
e. a and c

*e. a and c

Which of the following major professional sports does NOT have a mandatory drug policy?

a. baseball
b. basketball
c. hockey
d. football

*c. hockey

The rate of steroid use in high schools has increased from 1 in 27 in 1999 to what in 2003?

a. 1 in 10
b. 1 in 16
c. 1 in 20
d. 1 in 7
e. 1 in 22

*b. 1 in 16

What percentage of high school girls admit to using steroids at least once?

a. 5%
b. 10%
c. 15%
d. 20%
e. 25%

*a. 5%

A recent decision-making model for drug use in sports has the three components of costs, benefits, and

a. personality factors
b. situational factors
c. specific rules of the sport
d. a and b
e. b and c

*b. situational factors

In a 2003 survey, what percentage of male and female athletes, respectively, bet on sports?

a. 10% and 30%
b. 35% and 10%
c. 20% and 25%
d. 5% and 10%
e. 50% and 20%

*b. 35% and 10%

The Mitchell Report focused on

a. the use of steroids in football
b. the potential for gambling on professional basketball games by referees
c. the use of steroids in baseball
d. the reasons for fighting in professional hockey
e. the salary cap in professional basketball

*c. the use of steroids in baseball

Which of the following psychiatric disorders has the highest associated mortality rate (5%)?

a. compulsive gambling
b. anorexia nervosa
c. bulimia
d. paranoid schizophrenia
e. obsessive-compulsive disorder

*b. anorexia nervosa

A recent study (Kerr et al. 2006) found that when compared to retired gymnasts (looking back on their careers), gymnasts still active in their careers

a. reported significantly more eating disorders
b. reported significantly fewer eating disorders
c. reported lower levels of injury
d. reported higher satisfaction rates with coaches
e. reported higher levels of overtraining

*b. reported significantly fewer eating disorders

A recent review article (Striegel-Moore & Bulik, 2007) discussing the influence of environmental and genetic factors on the development of eating disorders concluded

a. genetic factors are more predictive of eating disorders than environmental factors
b. environmental factors were more predictive of eating disorders than genetic factors
c. the interaction of genetic and environmental factors needs to be explored
d. genetic factors were particularly important until age 7
e. environmental factors were particularly important from ages 8-16

*c. the interaction of genetic and environmental factors needs to be explored

Research by Martens et al. (2008) found that athletes in the off-season were at risk for

a. increased use of recreational drugs (e.g., marijuana)
b. heavy drinking
c. gaining weight
d. increased gambling
e. inactivity

*b. heavy drinking

Viagra may be on the banned list of substances in the future because it has the potential to

a. increase strength
b. increase confidence
c. decrease anxiety
d. increase endurance
e. decrease percent body fat

*d. increase endurance

A study by Donahue et al. (2006) on motivation and sportspersonship found

a. intrinsic motivation was associated with higher levels of sportspersonship
b. extrinsic motivation was associated with lower levels of sportspersonship
c. there was no relationship between sportspersonship and motivation
d. a and b

*d. a and b

A Web-based individualized feedback program (Martens et al., 2006) has shown to

a. significantly reduce drinking in athletes at high risk for drinking
b. significantly reduce use of steroids in high school athletes
c. significantly reduce the use of appetite suppressants
d. significantly increase sportspersonhip
e. significantly reduce eating disorders

*a. significantly reduce drinking in athletes at high risk for drinking

A recent survey by Ellenbogen et al. (2008) on NCAA college athletes and gambling found

a. approximately half of the athletes were unsure of the rules regarding gambling and NCAA athletes
b. approximately 75% of male athletes and 65% of female athletes reported gambling
c. approximately 20% of male athletes reported having a gambling problem
d. a and c
e. a and b

*a. approximately half of the athletes were unsure of the rules regarding gambling and NCAA athletes

The ATLAS and ATHENA programs focus on

a. reducing substance abuse in professional athletes
b. reducing eating disorders in collegiate athletes
c. reducing substance abuse and poor nutrition among high school boys and girls
d. reducing gambling among collegiate and professional male athletes
e. reducing substance abuse in professional male football and basketball players

*c. reducing substance abuse and poor nutrition among high school boys and girls

Recent cross-cultural research has revealed that staleness is a problem for approximately what percentage of adolescents?

a. 30% to 40%
b. 10% to 20%
c. 50% to 60%
d. 20% to 30%
e. 40% to 50%

*a. 30% to 40%

Increased burnout among athletes in recent years is due to which of the following factors?

a. increased pressure from coaches
b. year-round training and competition
c. increased financial rewards for success
d. b and c
e. a and c

*d. b and c

According to the latest research on overtraining, if the source of the stressor is psychological, then the recovery strategy should focus on

a. nutrition
b. thought management strategies
c. active rest
d. rest
e. hydration

*b. thought management strategies

According to Morgan’s research, which of the following is true?

a. The heavier the training stimulus, the greater the mood disturbance.
b. The heavier the training stimulus, the less the mood disturbance.
c. The amount of training is not related to mood disturbance.
d. Athletes experiencing overtraining display an inverted-U profile.

*a. The heavier the training stimulus, the greater the mood disturbance.

According to Morgan’s research, top-level athletes form a psychological profile known as the

a. iceberg profile
b. inverted-U profile
c. U-shaped profile
d. peak performance profile
e. Morgan profile

*a. iceberg profile

Which of the following is NOT a symptom of burnout?

a. lack of caring
b. elevated resting heart rate
c. sleep disturbances
d. physical and mental exhaustion
e. increased anxiety

*b. elevated resting heart rate

Morgan’s research on athletes’ training stress and mood states has shown that

a. positive mental health is associated with high performance levels
b. mood state disturbance is associated with decreases in performance
c. as training loads increase, mood states improve
d. a and c
e. a and b

*e. a and b

Based on Silva’s study on burnout and staleness, which of the following statements is (are) FALSE?

a. Forty-two percent of athletes experience overtraining.
b. Twenty-five percent of athletes experience burnout at some point in their careers.
c. More than 70% of athletes reported some staleness during their sport seasons.
d. a and b
e. b and c

*d. a and b

Which of the following is NOT a component of Smith’s model of burnout?

a. situational demands
b. cognitive appraisal of demands
c. cognitive responses
d. physiological responses
e. coping behaviors

*c. cognitive responses

A new sport-specific burnout scale developed by Raedeke and Smith has three burnout subscales including which of the following?

a. reduced sense of accomplishment
b. sport devaluation
c. detachment with others
d. a and b

*d. a and b

The common thread or threads among the different definitions of burnout include

a. physical, but not mental, exhaustion
b. high feeling of personal accomplishment
c. impersonal responses to others
d. a and c
e. b and c

*c. impersonal responses to others

According to the new model of overtraining developed by Kentta and Hassmen, overtraining can lead to

a. improved performance
b. no change in performance
c. impaired performance
d. all of the above
e. b and c

*d. all of the above

In various research studies investigating staleness in athletes, at least _____ of athletes reported staleness as occurring at least one time in their careers.

a. 5%
b. 10%
c. 15%
d. 20%
e. 30%

*e. 30%

The difference between overtraining and periodized training depends largely on individual differences and

a. personality differences
b. capabilities
c. mood states
d. perfectionism
e. Type A behavior

*b. capabilities

The deliberate strategy of exposing athletes to high-volume and high-intensity loads for performance enhancement is called

a. overtraining
b. burnout
c. periodized training
d. staleness

*c. periodized training

Overtraining refers to a training cycle of approximately

a. a few days to a few weeks
b. a few weeks to two months
c. a few days to one year
d. a few days to six months
e. six months to one year

*a. a few days to a few weeks

Which of the following is NOT a symptom of overtraining?

a. apathy
b. sleep disturbances
c. mood changes
d. weight loss
e. deteriorating relationships

*e. deteriorating relationships

Which of the following is NOT a component of burnout in the Maslach Burnout Inventory?

a. isolation
b. emotional exhaustion
c. depersonalization
d. personal accomplishment

*a. isolation

Which of the following suggestions did burned-out youth tennis players give other players to help prevent burnout in the future?

a. Try to make it fun.
b. Balance tennis with other aspects of your life.
c. Don’t take much time off because you will lose motivation.
d. a and b

*d. a and b

Which of the following suggestions did burned-out youth tennis players give to parents to help prevent burnout in the future?

a. Get more involved with your tennis-playing children.
b. Do not push your child at all.
c. Involve your child in decision making.
d. a and b
e. b and c

*c. Involve your child in decision making.

Raedeke argues that burnout can be studied within a sport commitment approach. In essence, many athletes feel burned out but nevertheless continue to participate in their sport because of

a. social pressure from others
b. perceived lack of control over the situation
c. too much self-identity tied up with their sport
d. all of the above
e. a and c

*d. all of the above

Which of the following is (are) a helpful treatment(s) for burnout?

a. Take relaxation breaks.
b. Keep a positive outlook.
c. Keep working out but with a friend.
d. a and b
e. a and c

*d. a and b

According to Dale and Weinberg’s study on leadership style and burnout,

a. coaches with a consideration style of leadership exhibited higher levels of burnout than coaches with an initiating structure style of leadership
b. coaches with an initiating structure style of leadership exhibited higher levels of burnout than coaches with a consideration leadership style
c. there was no relationship between leadership style and burnout
d. coaches with a laissez-faire leadership style exhibited the highest level of burnout

*a. coaches with a consideration style of leadership exhibited higher levels of burnout than coaches with an initiating structure style of leadership

According to Murphy’s study of training loads and mood states among Olympic judo athletes,

a. increased conditioning training produced increases in negative mood states
b. increased sport-specific training produced increases in negative mood states
c. increased conditioning training did not result in increases in negative mood state
d. b and c
e. a and b

*d. b and c

According to the research on burnout among athletic trainers and officials,

a. both athletic trainers and officials feel that role conflict is related to burnout
b. time demands are related to burnout for officials
c. fear of negative evaluation is related to burnout for athletic trainers
d. a and c
e. b and c

*a. both athletic trainers and officials feel that role conflict is related to burnout

The principle psychological symptom of staleness is

a. lowered self-esteem
b. increased mood disturbance
c. high levels of aggression
d. lowered anxiety
e. lowered self-efficacy

*b. increased mood disturbance

The motivational map of burned-out youth tennis players that Gould and colleagues developed underscores the importance of _____________ in determining burnout.

a. individual differences
b. training methods
c. goal orientations
d. group interactions
e. social support

*a. individual differences

The factor that youth tennis players note most often regarding their reasons for burnout is

a. physiological
b. psychological
c. social
d. biomechanical
e. motoric

*b. psychological

Gould and colleagues summarized their findings by stating that there are two major "strains" of burnout. These two strains are _________ and _________ in nature.

a. social-psychological; cognitive
b. sociological; psychological
c. psychological; cognitive
d. social-psychological; physical
e. physical; cognitive

*d. social-psychological; physical

In a series of studies involving competitive youth tennis players, Gould and colleagues found that burnout involved

a. logistical concerns
b. social and interpersonal concerns
c. physical concerns
d. all of the above
e. b and c

*d. all of the above

Compared to Silva’s model of burnout and Smith’s model of burnout, Coakley’s model is more ___________ in orientation.

a. physiological
b. psychological
c. cognitive
d. sociological
e. anthropological

*d. sociological

Coakley’s model of burnout emphasizes which two concepts?

a. self-efficacy and training stress
b. unidimensional identity and the lack of athlete control over the environment
c. distress and eustress
d. external stressors and perceptions of control
e. training stress and cognitive-affective reactions

*b. unidimensional identity and the lack of athlete control over the environment

According to Silva’s model of burnout, the key component to producing burnout is

a. the potential negative stress of too much training
b. increased pressure to win
c. lack of feelings of personal accomplishment
d. increased isolation
e. decreased perceptions of control

*a. the potential negative stress of too much training

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of burnout?

a. depersonalization
b. cognitive dissociation
c. decreased feelings of personal accomplishment
d. isolation
e. emotional and physical exhaustion

*b. cognitive dissociation

According to the research on gender and coaches’ burnout,

a. males have higher burnout rates than females
b. females have higher burnout rates than males
c. no conclusive results have been found
d. males have higher rates than females only in individual sports
e. males have higher rates than females only in team sports

*c. no conclusive results have been found

According to research by Gould and colleagues, approximately what percentage of Olympians reported that they overtrained for the Olympics?

a. 50%
b. 5%
c. 20%
d. 30%
e. 65%

*a. 50%

Recent research by Meehan and colleagues has indicated that feelings of overtraining can occur because of

a. nonsport stress
b. high physical demands of the sport
c. high mental demands of the sport
d. pressure from teammates
e. pressure from coaches

*a. nonsport stress

Research by Gastafsson (2007) indicates that severe burnout occurs in what percentage of elite adolescent athletes?

a. 10%-15%
b. 1%-2%
c. 20%-25%
d. 7%-9%
e. 30%-35%

*b. 1%-2%

Research investigating self-determination theory and burnout has found

a. higher levels of competence, autonomy, and relatedness were related to lower levels of burnout
b. self-determined forms of motivation were related to lower levels of burnout
c. higher levels of self-esteem and self-efficacy were related to lower levels of burnout
d. a and b
e. a and c

*d. a and b

Hjam et al. (2007) investigated gender differences and burnout in coaches and found

a. coaches of female teams had higher levels of burnout than coaches of male teams
b. female coaches had higher levels of burnout than male coaches
c. no differences in burnout among male and female coaches
d. male coaches had higher levels of burnout than female coaches
e. both male and female coaches of individual sports had lower levels of burnout than coaches of team sports

*a. coaches of female teams had higher levels of burnout than coaches of male teams

Which of the following is NOT a negative dimension of friendship as identified by young athletes?

a. betrayal
b. inaccessibility
c. conflict
d. lack of empathy
e. unattractive personal qualities

*d. lack of empathy

Gould and Martens found that, on average, children participated for ____ hours per week in their specific sport.

a. 5
b. 11
c. 15
d. 8
e. 3

*b. 11

Sport participation for youth peaks at what age?

a. 9 years old
b. 14 years old
c. 17 years old
d. 12 years old
e. 10 years old

*d. 12 years old

Which of the following statements is (are) true?

a. Sport participation builds character.
b. Sport participation builds leadership skills.
c. The benefits of sport participation depend on the quality of the adult leadership.
d. a and b

*c. The benefits of sport participation depend on the quality of the adult leadership.

Dropout rates for youth sport participants have been estimated to be about what percentage each year?

a. 10%
b. 20%
c. 35%
d. 45%
e. 5%

*c. 35%

Which of the following is the number one reason that young athletes give for participating in school and other youth sports?

a. to make new friends
b. to improve skills
c. to get exercise
d. to stay in shape
e. to have fun

*e. to have fun

Which of the following is NOT one of the top five reasons given for participating in youth sport?

a. to improve sport skills
b. to stay in shape
c. to have fun
d. to make new friends
e. to do something I’m good at

*d. to make new friends

Which is the major reason that young athletes give for dropping out of sport?

a. other things to do
b. boredom
c. did not like the coach
d. did not like the pressure
e. not exciting enough

*a. other things to do

According to the swimming study by Gould and colleagues, what percentage of young athletes dropped out of competitive sport because of negative experiences (e.g., too much pressure, no fun)?

a. 10%
b. 19%
c. 44%
d. 28%
e. 37%

*d. 28%

Research has indicated that participants in youth sport differ from dropouts in what psychological attribute?

a. perceived competence
b. trait anxiety
c. self-esteem
d. independence
e. self-motivation

*a. perceived competence

A good way to enhance young athletes’ perceptions of their abilities is to have them

a. focus on winning
b. focus on comparing their performance to that of other athletes
c. focus on improving their own performance
d. a and b

*c. focus on improving their own performance

In the study by Klint and Weiss on former competitive youth gymnasts, what percentage were still participating in gymnastics or in another sport?

a. 40%
b. 80%
c. 27%
d. 95%
e. 77%

*d. 95%

The reasons given most often for participating in youth sport are

a. extrinsic in nature
b. intrinsic in nature
c. equally divided between intrinsic and extrinsic motives
d. situational in nature
e. personal in nature

*b. intrinsic in nature

Approximately how many children under the age of 18 are involved in school and other sport programs?

a. 10 million
b. 5 million
c. 45 million
d. 1 million
e. 50 million

*c. 45 million

Which of the following statements regarding peer relationships is (are) true?

a. Female participants, as compared to their male counterparts, identify emotional support as a positive aspect of friendship.
b. Children who have more positive relationships with peers in physical activity reported more positive feelings toward physical activity.
c. Intimacy (close personal bonds), as a positive aspect of peer friendships, was seen as less important with increasing age.
d. a and b

*d. a and b

In reviewing the literature that had reported personal accounts of burnout among young athletes, Gould found which of the following to be important factors associated with the burnout?

a. coaches’ lack of overtraining knowledge
b. parental pressure
c. very high self- and other-imposed expectations
d. b and c
e. a and c

*d. b and c

The positive "sandwich" approach to correcting errors involves

a. positive statement, corrective feedback, positive statement
b. corrective feedback, positive statement, corrective feedback
c. positive statement, negative statement, positive statement
d. verbal feedback, nonverbal feedback, verbal feedback

*a. positive statement, corrective feedback, positive statement

According to recent research on early specialization and participation in competitive sport, elite athletes

a. start to specialize in one sport by age 5
b. start to specialize in one sport by age 8
c. start out playing many sports at an early age
d. start out specializing in one sport by age 10

*c. start out playing many sports at an early age

Which of the following is NOT a coaching guideline put forth by Smoll and Smith (1980) and Weiss (1991)?

a. Catch kids doing things right.
b. Reward outcome more than effort.
c. Develop realistic expectations.
d. Modify skills and activities for appropriate developmental levels.
e. Employ a positive "sandwich" approach to error correction.

*b. Reward outcome more than effort.

Which of the following is (are) an aspect(s) of the Sport Friendship Quality Scale developed by Weiss and Smith?

a. loyalty and intimacy
b. conflict resolution
c. self-esteem enhancement and supportiveness
d. all of the above
e. a and c

*d. all of the above

Smith, Smoll, and Curtis (1979), in phase 2 of their study comparing an experimental group of coaches using a positive approach with a control group of coaches, found that players who played for experimental coaches

a. rated their coaches as better teachers
b. liked their teammates and coaches more
c. exhibited lower levels of trait anxiety
d. a and b

*d. a and b

Which of the following did Orlick and McCaffrey recommend for modifying arousal regulation strategies in children?

a. Keep strategies fun.
b. Do not use arousal regulation strategies for children under 9 years old.
c. Use concrete physical strategies.
d. a and c
e. a and b

*d. a and c

According to the code of ethics developed by the American Sport Education Program, which of the following is NOT part of a sport parent’s responsibility?

a. Help your child set realistic performance goals.
b. Keep winning in perspective.
c. Discipline your child appropriately when necessary.
d. Act as a coach as well as a parent if you know the sport.
e. Make sure the coach is qualified to guide your child through the sport experience.

*d. Act as a coach as well as a parent if you know the sport.

According to the study by Coakley on youth sport burnout, which of the following was (were) found to be characteristic of children who have burned out in sport?

a. They viewed themselves only as athletes.
b. Coaches and parents made all the important decisions with little input from the young athletes.
c. They played on a series of losing teams.
d. a and c
e. a and b

*e. a and b

Which of the following is (are) NOT among situational variables that cause increased state anxiety in young athletes?

a. game outcome (i.e., winning versus losing)
b. event importance
c. type of sport (i.e., individual versus team)
d. coaching style
e. c and d

*d. coaching style

Based on research with elite high school wrestlers and distance runners, which of the following are the two major sources of the stress experienced by junior elite athletes?

a. fear of failure and coaches’ expectations
b. coaches’ expectations and feelings of inadequacy
c. parents’ expectations and fear of failure
d. fear of failure and feelings of inadequacy
e. parents’ expectations and feelings of inadequacy

*d. fear of failure and feelings of inadequacy

A young athlete is "at risk" for developing heightened state anxiety if he has which of the following characteristics?

a. high self-esteem
b. frequent worries about failure
c. low self-performance expectations
d. b and c
e. a and b

*d. b and c

According to research, which of the following statements concerning trait anxiety and young athletes is (are) true?

a. Young athletes have only slightly elevated levels of trait anxiety.
b. Sport participation causes high levels of trait anxiety.
c. Sport participation produces lower levels of trait anxiety.
d. Sport participation produces higher levels of trait anxiety only for girls.
e. Sport participation produces higher levels of trait anxiety only for boys.

*a. Young athletes have only slightly elevated levels of trait anxiety.

According to the study by Simon and Martens comparing state anxiety before competitive sports with that before other childhood evaluative activities, the activity with the highest state anxiety levels was

a. baseball
b. football
c. golf
d. band solo
e. school test

*d. band solo

Based on the research on peer friendships, what implication(s) can you draw for practice?

a. Coaches should use an autocratic coaching style.
b. Teamwork and group goals should be emphasized.
c. Time should be provided for children to be with their friends.
d. a and b
e. b and c

*e. b and c

According to Coakley (2006), parents are becoming overly involved in their child’s sport because

a. parents are wealthier
b. parents have more time on their hands
c. their child’s success makes it more likely they will receive a college scholarship
d. their child’s success reflects their worth as a parent
e. parents have easier access to gamers and practices

*d. their child’s success reflects their worth as a parent

The professionalization of children’s sports can be seen in

a. early specialization
b. year-round training
c. private coaching
d. all of the above
e. a and c

*d. all of the above

Most sport psychologists are opposed to taking a professionalized approach to children’s sports because

a. it focuses the majority of resources on the most talented children
b. it creates more anxiety in young athletes
c. it decreases young athletes’ self-esteem
d. it creates unequal competition
e. it undermines self-efficacy in young athletes

*a. it focuses the majority of resources on the most talented children

Which of the following is (are) a common myth(s) regarding children in sport?

a. athlete talent can be accurately predicted at a young age
b. stages of athletic development can be skipped
c. early sport specialization is not needed for later success
d. a and b
e. b and c

*d. a and b

In 1990, The Women’s Tennis Association instituted a rule regarding age-eligibility that limited the amount of tournament play for young players. Looking at its success over a 10-year period, it was found that

a. career length increased significantly
b. players under 21 won more tournaments
c. premature retirements were reduced
d. a and c
e. b and c

*d. a and c

Scroll to Top