Sports Psychology Exam 1 Chapters 1-4

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Sport psychology specialists have three roles. These include:

a. teaching, researching, and consulting.
b. teaching, administration, and consulting.
c. research, administration, and teaching.
d. teaching, intervention, and research.
e. intervention, teaching, and consulting.

a. teaching, researching, and consulting.

Which of the following will the field of sport and exercise psychology face in the future?

a. unqualified people doing consulting in sport psychology.
b. few full-time positions in sport psychology involving consulting with athletes.
c. a glut of positions teaching sport psychology at universities.
d. a and b
e. a and c

d. a and b

Which type of question would NOT fall under the category of "What effect do psychological factors have on an individual’s performance?"

a. Does self-confidence influence a child’s ability to learn to swim?
b. How does anxiety affect a tennis player’s service accuracy?
c. Does running reduce one’s anxiety and depression?
d. How does punishment influence an individual’s motivation to continue participation in sport?
e. How does concentration affect performance in fine motor tasks?

c. Does running reduce one’s anxiety and depression?

Research by Landers and his colleagues, using biofeedback techniques to train elite marksmen to shoot between heartbeats, is a good example of a:

a. cognitive-behavioral orientation.
b. cognitive-affective orientation.
c. behavioral orientation.
d. psychophysiological orientation.
e. physiological-environmental orientation.

d. psychophysiological orientation.

Behavior is determined by the interaction of the environment and personal makeup of the performer. This idea is an example of a:

a. cognitive-behavioral orientation.
b. behavioral orientation.
c. cognitive-affective orientation.
d. social-psychological orientation.
e. cognitive-environmental orientation.

d. social-psychological orientation.

Emotional disorders affecting sport performance, such as eating disorders and drug abuse, would best be treated by a:

a. clinical sport psychologist.
b. developmental psychologist.
c. educational sport psychologist.
d. Rogerian sport therapist.
e. Gestalt sport therapist.

a. clinical sport psychologist.

Which of the following are major sport and exercise psychology journals?

a. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology
b. Journal of Applied Research in Sport Psychology
c. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
d. a and b
e. a and c

e. a and c

The limitations of professional practice knowledge include its:

a. susceptibility to biasing influences
b. high internal validity
c. lack of explanations
d. a and b
e. a and c

e. a and c

Which professional sport psychology association developed standards for certification of individuals working in applied sport psychology settings?

a. North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity
b. International Society of Sport Psychology
c. Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology
d. American Psychological Association Division 47
e. Applied Sport Psychology Society

c. Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology

Sport and exercise psychology is first and foremost a:

a. science
b. paradigm
c. applied field of study
d. laboratory-based field of study

a. science

In the fifth period, sport psychology experienced a tremendous growth in:

a. theoretical development
b. applied research
c. professional service
d. a and b
e. b and c

e. b and c

Which of the following are sport psychology organizations?

a. Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology (AAASP)
b. North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (NASPSPA)
c. American Sport Psychology Association
d. a and b

d. a and b

Which of the following events did NOT occur in period 6 (2000-present)?

a. The journal Psychology of Sport and Exercise is published in Europe.
b. Division 47 of the American Psychological Association focuses on sport psychology as a specialized competency area.
c. The Association for Applied Sport Psychology is established.
d. a and c
e. b and c

c. The Association for Applied Sport Psychology is established.

Which of the following events did not occur during period 5?

a. Journal of Sport Psychology was established.
b. The Olympic committee hired the first full-time sport psychologist.
c. The journal The Sport Psychologist was established.
d. Sport psychologists started licensure standards.
e. APA Division 47 was formed.

d. Sport psychologists started licensure standards.

The leading researcher during period 3 (1938-1965) was:

a. Franklin Henry
b. Richard Schmidt
c. George Stelmach
d. Jack Adams
e. Scott Kelso

a. Franklin Henry

Coleman Griffith established the first research laboratory in sport psychology at the University of:

a. Notre Dame
b. Illinois
c. Minnesota
d. Wisconsin
e. Iowa

b. Illinois

Coleman Griffith worked with all of the following famous coaches and athletes except:

a. Red Grange
b. Knute Rockne
c. Dizzy Dean
d. Babe Ruth

d. Babe Ruth

The father of American sport psychology is:

a. Coleman Griffith
b. Rainer Martens
c. Dan Landers
d. Dan Gould
e. Robert Singer

a. Coleman Griffith

Which of the following statements is true?

a. Sport psychology focuses on the concerns of the elite athlete.
b. Sport psychology focuses on the competitive sport of young athletes.
c. Sport psychology is actually concerned with both sport and exercise settings.
d. Sport psychology focuses on recreational athletes.

c. Sport psychology is actually concerned with both sport and exercise settings.

Educational sport psychology specialists usually have years of training in:

a. psychology
b. education
c. sport and exercise science
d. sociology
e. educational psychology

c. sport and exercise science

Scientifically derived knowledge has some limitations, including that it:

a. is reductionistic
b. is very fast to evolve
c. tends to be conservative
d. a and c

d. a and c

Which of the following researchers was NOT prominent during period 1 (1895-1920)?

a. E.W. Scripture
b. G.T. Patrick
c. Norman Triplett
d. R. Cummins
e. Ed McAuley

e. Ed McAuley

Which of the following is NOT a general ethical principle outlined by the American Psychological Association?

a. social responsibility
b. integrity
c. professional and scientific responsibility
d. individualization
e. competence

d. individualization

Credit for much of the development of sport psychology internationally goes to _____________, the first president of the International Society for Sport Psychology.

a. Franklin Henry
b. Dietmar Klein
c. Yuri Hanin
d. Ferruccio Antonelli
e. Gershon Tanenbaum

d. Ferruccio Antonelli

Which of the following is (are) seen as a major growth area(s) in the field in the upcoming years?

a. exercise psychology
b. life skills development
c. personality
d. a and b

d. a and b

Which of the following is NOT a current or future trend in the field of sport and exercise psychology?

a. more emphasis on training in clinical psychology and counseling
b. increase in quantitative research methodologies
c. increased emphasis on ethics and competency
d. increased interest in psychological skills training
e. continuing tension between academic and applied sport psychology

b. increase in quantitative research methodologies

Which of the following explain(s) the sport psychology research-to-practice gap?

a. few applied forums in which to disseminate research to practitioners
b. emphasis on basic laboratory research in the 1960s and 1970s
c. emphasis on field experiments in the 1980s
d. a and b

d. a and b

Knowledge gained through experience working in exercise and sport science field situations is called:

a. empirical knowledge
b. professional practice knowledge
c. scientific knowledge
d. associative knowledge
e. theoretical knowledge

b. professional practice knowledge

The most reliable method of obtaining knowledge is:

a. introspection
b. a single case study
c. systematic observation
d. the scientific method
e. shared experience

d. the scientific method

The major strength of scientifically derived knowledge is its:

a. factorial modeling
b. reliability
c. importance
d. impact on society

b. reliability

Zajonc’s social facilitation theory predicts that:

a. performance on well-learned tasks is facilitated by an audience
b. performance on novel tasks is facilitated by an audience
c. performance on well-learned tasks is hindered by an audience
d. performance is not affected by an audience
e. performance is improved on both novel and well-learned tasks performed in front of an audience

a. performance on well-learned tasks is facilitated by an audience

The ultimate goal of science is:

a. prediction
b. description
c. explanation
d. control
e. theory

e. theory

The major difference between how a practitioner and a researcher (using the scientific method) would investigate a problem is that the researcher’s approach would be more:

a. systematic
b. controlled
c. biased
d. a and c
e. a and b

e. a and b

Scientific research is not:

a. controlled
b. systematic
c. empirical
d. critical
e. infallible

e. infallible

Which successful coach is noted for adopting a sport science approach in his coaching?

a. "Doc" Counsilman
b. Robert Rotella
c. Jim Thorpe
d. Casey Stengel
e. a and b

a. "Doc" Counsilman

The least reliable method of obtaining knowledge is:

a. introspection
b. intuition
c. shared experience
d. a single case study
e. systematic observation

b. intuition

Which of the following is NOT a method of knowing?

a. a single case study
b. shared public experience
c. introspection
d. rationalism
e. systematic observation

d. rationalism

Actively applying knowledge of sport and exercise psychology requires:

a. staying active in your sport
b. holding realistic expectations concerning the strengths and limitations of scientific principles
c. applying scientific principles in your professional practice setting
d. b and c
e. a and b

d. b and c

The strength of professional practice knowledge is its:

a. holistic nature
b. innovative contribution
c. scientific validity and reliability
d. a and b

d. a and b

Which company (started by sport psychologist Graham Jones) has taken sport psychology concepts and applied them to the business world?

a. Lane 4 Management Group
b. TLC and Associates
c. Human Performance Institute
d. Goldman-Sachs
e. AT&T

a. Lane 4 Management Group

Which early pioneer in sport psychology took a more scientific data-based approach to psychology, seeing sport as an excellent way to demonstrate the value of this "new scientific psychology" and to investigate character development in sport?

a. Rainer Martens
b. E,W. Scripture
c. W.A. Hubbard
d. G.T.W. Patrick
e. R. Cummins

b. E,W. Scripture

Taking a world view of sport psychology, which Russian sport psychologist focused on psychological preparation for athletic competition around the same time as Coleman Griffith?

a. Puni
b. Safin
c. Andreev
d. Kirielenko
e. Youzeny

a. Puni

Trait anxiety refers to _________ anxiety, whereas state anxiety refers to __________ anxiety.

a. general; momentary
b. momentary; general
c. competitive; noncompetitive
d. noncompetitive; competitive

a. general; momentary

When administering tests to athletes, which of the following guidelines should be followed?

a. Explain to athletes why the tests are being given.
b. Give clinical as well as sport-specific tests.
c. Provide specific feedback concerning test results.
d. a and c
e. a and b

d. a and c

The phenomenological approach to personality is consistent with the interactional approach except that it focuses on:

a. the individual’s interpretation of the situation and himself or herself
b. the traits of an individual
c. the situation a person is dealing with at the time
d. the behavior of the individual
e. the outcome of the behavior

a. the individual’s interpretation of the situation and himself or herself

A weakness in the psychodynamic approach is its:

a. sole focus on internal determinants of behavior
b. lack of attention to the social environment
c. sole focus on external determinants of behavior
d. a and b
e. b and c

d. a and b

Recently, the psychodynamic approach has been applied to sport by Swedish sport psychologist Erwin Apitzsch. This new approach came from his work with athletes focusing on:

a. the superego
b. defense mechanisms
c. ego development
d. early childhood experiences
e. conflicts between the id and superego

b. defense mechanisms

Which of the following is not a subscale from the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory?

a. concentration
b. coachability
c. goal setting
d. imagery
e. freedom from worry

d. imagery

Test anxiety is an example of a:

a. trait measure
b. state measure
c. situation-specific trait measure
d. situation-specific state measure

c. situation-specific trait measure

Taking an intra-individual approach to psychological testing means that:

a. individuals are compared against population norms
b. individuals are compared against how they usually score on a particular psychological inventory
c. individuals are compared to norms for their age and gender
d. individuals are compared based on objective and subjective assessments

b. individuals are compared against how they usually score on a particular psychological inventory

Which of the following is (are) NOT a question(s) that a researcher using the interactional approach would ask?

a. Will highly anxious athletes perform better than less anxious athletes in situations that are not stressful?
b. Will extroverts perform better than introverts in a team situation?
c. Will highly motivated people choose to participate in competitive situations?
d. Will kids with high self-esteem prefer competitive sport situations to a greater degree than kids with low self-esteem?
e. a and c

c. Will highly motivated people choose to participate in competitive situations?

The interactional approach assumes that:

a. situational and personal variables are codeterminants of behavior
b. personality interacts with the psychological core to determine behavior
c. highly aggressive people, for example, will usually react in an aggressive manner when placed in an aggressive situation
d. a and c
e. a and b

d. a and c

The situational approach to personality assumes that:

a. individuals behave differently across situations
b. individuals behave similarly across situations
c. if the situation is strong, the effect of personality traits would be minimal
d. a and b
e. a and c

e. a and c

Personality12 Eysenck and Eysenck argue that personality can best be understood by focusing on which of the following traits?

a. emotionality and stability
b. introversion and extroversion
c. relaxation and anxiety
d. a and b

d. a and b

The trait approach to personality assumes that:

a. people behave differently in different situations
b. people behave similarly in different situations
c. personality does not change much over time
d. a and c
e. b and c

e. b and c

The most superficial and therefore most easily changed part of a personality structure is its:

a. psychological core
b. role-related behavior
c. typical responses
d. belief system

b. role-related behavior

Which of the following is NOT a level in Hollander’s model of personality structure?

a. childhood experiences
b. psychological core
c. typical responses
d. role-related behavior
e. a and b

a. childhood experiences

Which is NOT an example of a situation-specific sport inventory?

a. Sport Competition Trait Anxiety Test
b. Group Environment Questionnaire
c. Profile of Mood States
d. Trait-Sport Confidence Inventory
e. Competitive State Anxiety Inventory

c. Profile of Mood States

Recent research has been critical of some of the findings concerning the relationship between mood states and performance. Which of the following is NOT a recommended guideline for using mood profiling with elite athletes?

a. Use it as a monitor of training load.
b. Use it as a monitor of the acclimatization process.
c. Use it as a predictor of team success.
d. Use it as a monitor of emotional response to injury.
e. Use it for identification of overtrained athletes.

c. Use it as a predictor of team success.

Researchers have recently used the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory (ACSI) to investigate the relationship between coping skills and performance. Results have indicated that:

a. good psychological coping skills help athletes get the most out of their ability
b. good psychological coping skills are associated with continued involvement in professional baseball
c. the ACSI is a good tool to use for team selection
d. a and b

d. a and b

Recently, the "big five" model of personality has become widely accepted. Which of the following is not one of the five personality factors in the model?

a. agreeableness
b. conscientiousness
c. neuroticism
d. extraversion
e. depression

e. depression

The "big five" model of personality is important because these five characteristics:

a. represent a cognitive approach to personality
b. are consistent with a behavioral approach to personality
c. have been found to exist across individuals
d. represent a state approach to personality
e. are consistent with Morgan’s mental health model

c. have been found to exist across individuals

According to results from in-depth interviews with Olympic athletes, medalists exhibited which of the following mental strategies?

a. less positive self-talk
b. more extensive mental preparation
c. better preparedness for unforeseen negative events
d. b and c
e. a and b

d. b and c

Which of the following is (are) important when administering psychological inventories?

a. knowledge of testing principles and measurement error
b. sensitivity to one’s own limitations
c. using psychological tests for optimal team selection
d. a and b
e. a and c

d. a and b

The research criticizing Morgan’s mental health model and the implications of the "iceberg profile" has argued that:

a. the iceberg profile accounts for only a very small percentage of athletes’ performance variation
b. the iceberg profile only differentiates athletes from nonathletes and does not differentiate between athletes of different ability levels
c. the Profile of Mood States (POMS) is not a reliable test
d. a and b
e. a and c

d. a and b

Research in the general psychological literature indicates that nature (i.e., genetics) generally accounts for approximately what percentage of behavior?

a. 10 to 20%
b. 20 to 30%
c. 30 to 40%
d. 50 to 60%
e. 80 to 90%

d. 50 to 60%

In the iceberg profile developed by Morgan, which of the following psychological characteristics that successful athletes display is typically above the mean of the population?

a. anxiety
b. anger
c. fatigue
d. vigor
e. confusion

d. vigor

Which of the following is (are) true?

a. Successful female athletes differ in personality from female nonathletes.
b. Male and female elite athletes have different personality profiles.
c. Female athletes are less aggressive and more dependent than female nonathletes.
d. a and b
e. a and c

a. Successful female athletes differ in personality from female nonathletes.

Morgan developed the _________ model to help explain the relationship between personality and athletic success.

a. normative
b. mental health
c. psychological skills
d. psychopathology
e. cognitive-behavioral

b. mental health

Personality28
Which of the following is (are) true?

a. Participation in competitive sport produces changes in personality structure.
b. Compared with nonathletes, individual-sport athletes are less anxious and more dependent.
c. Compared with nonathletes, team-sport athletes are more introverted and independent.
d. a and b
e. b and c

b. Compared with nonathletes, individual-sport athletes are less anxious and more dependent.

Showing a person a picture of an athlete arguing with an official and then asking the person to write about what is happening is an example of:

a. objective testing
b. projective testing
c. multidimensional personality assessment
d. unidimensional personality assessment
e. psychological trait-state inventory

b. projective testing

The research investigating the personality profiles of athletes and nonathletes has found that:

a. no specific personality profile distinguishes athletes from nonathletes.
b. athletes have higher levels of anxiety than nonathletes.
c. athletes are more introverted than nonathletes.
d. athletes have higher levels of self-esteem than nonathletes.

a. no specific personality profile distinguishes athletes from nonathletes.

Which of the following statements about exercise and personality is (are) true?

a. There is a positive relationship between exercise and self-concept.
b. Exercise has consistently been related to changes from Type A behavior to Type B behavior.
c. Exercise participation is highly correlated with anxiety.
d. a and b
e. a and c

a.There is a positive relationship between exercise and self-concept.

A meta-analysis of the "big five" model of personality revealed:

a. extraversion and conscientiousness were positively correlated with physical activity.
b. neuroticism was negatively correlated with physical activity levels.
c. social support was positively correlated with academic performance.
d. all of the above
e. a and b

e. a and b

Which of the following statements about perfectionism is (are) true?

a. Perfectionists are at greater risk for psychological problems if they have poor coping skills.
b. Adaptive perfectionism is positively related to individual sport athletes.
c. Maladaptive perfectionism is related to team sport athletes.
d. a and b
e. a and c

a. Perfectionists are at greater risk for psychological problems if they have poor coping skills.

Participant motivation is usually the result of:

a. personal factors
b. situational factors
c. a combination of personal and situational factors
d. the history of success or failure

c. a combination of personal and situational factors

Achievement motivation can best be viewed as a(n):

a. situational factor
b. personality factor
c. interactional factor
d. attributional factor
e. unstable factor

b. personality factor

The entity view of goal perspectives argues that individuals:

a. view their ability primarily as fixed
b. adopt a task focus
c. adopt maladaptive motivational patterns
d. b and c
e. a and c

e. a and c

What is critical in affecting the performance and behavior of sport and exercise participants?

a. motivation
b. physiology
c. biomechanics
d. sociological factors
e. all of the above

e. all of the above

An effective technique to use to change undesirable motives of a participant is:

a. behavior modification
b. cognitive intervention
c. rational emotive therapy
d. cognitive restructuring
e. self-monitoring

a. behavior modification

The most difficult but most important component of structuring sport and exercise environments to meet an athlete’s or exerciser’s needs is:

a. individualizing coaching and teaching
b. finding rigorous training environments
c. deciding on what motivational strategy to use
d. balancing extrinsic and intrinsic motivation

a. individualizing coaching and teaching

To understand students’, athletes’, and exercisers’ motives for involvement, one should:

a. observe participants to see what they like and do not like about the activity
b. talk to others who know the athletes and exercisers
c. periodically ask the participants to list their reasons for participation
d. all of the above
e. a and c

d. all of the above

Recent research indicates interesting cross-cultural differences in motives for participation. Which of the following is FALSE?

a. U.S. youngsters are more intrinsically motivated than Korean youngsters.
b. Participants in Asian countries are more interdependent, whereas North Americans are more independent.
c. American youngsters are more motivated by competition than Chinese youngsters, who are more motivated by social affiliation.
d. Chinese Americans are primarily motivated because of travel and having fun.
e. U.S. children are primarily motivated to win, whereas German children are primarily motivated to please parents.

e. U.S. children are primarily motivated to win, whereas German children are primarily motivated to please parents.

Which of the following statements is (are) true?

a. Mastery goals should be used more often than outcome goals.
b. Feedback to athletes should emphasize attributing their success to high ability and high effort.
c. Lack of ability, rather than lack of effort, should be emphasized after a failure.
d. a and c
e. a and b

e. a and b

Which of the following is NOT one of the major motives for participating in sport and exercise?

a. having fun
b. being with friends
c. improving skills
d. pleasing parents
e. developing fitness

d. pleasing parents

"A disposition to strive for satisfaction when making comparisons with some standard of excellence in the presence of evaluative others" is the definition of which of the following?

a. achievement motivation
b. self-esteem
c. self-confidence
d. self-concept
e. competitiveness

e. competitiveness

The results of the Sorrentino and Sheppard study have which of the following practical implications?

a. The four fastest swimmers would not necessarily make the best relay team.
b. Both situation and personal factors should be considered in understanding motivation.
c. Rejection-oriented swimmers would perform best in relays.
d. a and c
e. a and b

e. a and b

A study by Sorrentino and Sheppard on motivation of swimmers found that:

a. approval-oriented swimmers demonstrated faster times in the group situation than in the individual situation.
b. approval-oriented swimmers demonstrated faster times in the individual situation than in the group situation.
c. rejection-oriented swimmers swam faster individually than in relay situations.
d. a and c
e. b and c

d. a and c

The interactional view of motivation claims that motivation is an interaction of which two factors?

a. person and situation
b. goals and coach’s style
c. personality and goals
d. personality and needs
e. goals and win-loss record

a. person and situation

An athlete is more motivated when she plays against competitors who are better than she is than when she plays better than her competitors. This is an example of which approach to motivation?

a. trait-centered
b. situational
c. interactional
d. individual

b. situational

Which is the most widely endorsed view of motivation taken by sport psychologists?

a. trait-centered
b. situational
c. interactional
d. individual

c. interactional

Motivated behavior is primarily a function of individual characteristics. This is consistent with which view of motivation?

a. trait-centered
b. situational
c. individual
d. interactional

a. trait-centered

Which one of the following is NOT a general orientation to motivation?

a. trait-centered
b. situational
c. individual
d. interactional

c. individual

In a general sense, motivation can be defined as:

a. the intensity and direction of one’s effort.
b. the direction and width of one’s effort.
c. the intensity of one’s effort.
d. the direction of one’s effort.

a. the intensity and direction of one’s effort.

Bill is always concerned with comparing his ability to others’ and with winning. Thus, Bill has:

a. a mastery goal orientation.
b. a task goal orientation.
c. an attribution goal orientation.
d. an outcome goal orientation.
e. an achievement goal orientation.

d. an outcome goal orientation.

Which of the following is NOT a major reason for initially joining an exercise program?

a. weight loss
b. fitness
c. health factors
d. affiliation
e. to feel better

d. affiliation

Stable attributions are linked to:

a. affect
b. cognition
c. expectations of future success or failure.
d. emotions

c. expectations of future success or failure.

The overriding characteristic of individuals who exhibit learned helplessness is:

a. attributing success to effort.
b. feeling their actions have no impact on desired outcomes.
c. attributing failure to bad luck.
d. feeling they are in control of their actions.

b. feeling their actions have no impact on desired outcomes.

Attribution retraining generally focuses on changing:

a. low-ability attributions.
b. high-effort attributions.
c. high-ability attributions.
d. task difficulty attributions.
e. luck attributions.

a. low-ability attributions.

Which of the following is NOT a stage of development in competitiveness and achievement motivation?

a. autonomous competence stage.
b. integrated stage.
c. social-comparison stage.
d. perceived competence stage.

d. perceived competence stage.

In the competence motivation theory, ______ and _________ influence perceived competence, which in turn influences affect and motivation.

a. feedback; attributions.
b. feedback; motivational orientations.
c. motivational orientations; attributions.
d. motivational climate; self-esteem.
e. perceived control; feedback.

b. feedback; motivational orientations.

Competence motivation theory was based on the research of developmental psychologist:

a. Tara Scanlan.
b. Susan Harter.
c. Thelma Horn.
d. Glyn Roberts.
e. Albert Bandura.

b. Susan Harter.

Which type of motivational climate is associated with the most adaptive motivational changes?

a. mastery
b. performance
c. outcome
d. decision making
e. attributional

a. mastery

A task goal orientation will usually lead to which of the following?

a. persistence in the face of failure.
b. selecting a very difficult task or opponent.
c. a strong work ethic.
d. a and c
e. a and b

d. a and c

The sport-specific form of achievement motivation is called:

a. competitiveness
b. confidence
c. mental preparation
d. mental toughness

a. competitiveness

Internal and external attributions are linked to:

a. emotional reactions
b. cognitions
c. expectations
d. behavioral intent
e. self-talk

e. self-talk

"Self-competition" refers to ________, whereas performance in socially evaluative situations refers to ______.

a. competition; achievement motivation.
b. competition; social facilitation.
c. achievement motivation; competition.
d. achievement motivation; social facilitation.
e. competition; ego involvement.

c. achievement motivation; competition.

Ability is considered a(n) _______ and ________ attribute.

a. stable; external
b. stable; internal
c. unstable; internal
d. unstable; external
e. controllable; unstable

b. stable; internal

Which of the following is NOT an attribution category?

a. stability
b. causality
c. control
d. persistence

d. persistence

Attribution theory focuses on:

a. how individuals explain their success and failure.
b. how groups explain their personality attributes.
c. how individuals explain their personal attributes.
d. how individuals explain their personal biases.

a. how individuals explain their success and failure.

In terms of emotional factors, high achievers focus on _______, whereas low achievers focus on ________.

a. pride; shame
b. elation; depression
c. fun; depression
d. shame; pride
e. pride; depression

a. pride; shame

For low achievers, which situation provides the LEAST incentive for engaging in achievement behaviors?

a. 50% chance of success
b. 25% chance of success
c. 75% chance of success
d. 60% chance of success
e. 10% chance of success

a. 50% chance of success

For high achievers, which situation provides the MOST incentive for engaging in achievement behavior?

a. 50% chance of success
b. 25% chance of success
c. 75% chance of success
d. 60% chance of success
e. 10% chance of success

a. 50% chance of success

What are the two primary situational considerations in need achievement theory?

a. probability of success and motive to achieve success.
b. probability of success and incentive value of success.
c. resultant achievement motivation and probability of success.
d. incentive value of success and pride or shame.
e. pride or shame and probability of success.

b. probability of success and incentive value of success

Which of the following is (are) false concerning need achievement theory?

a. Low achievers have high motivation to achieve success and low motivation to avoid failure.
b. High achievers enjoy evaluating their abilities.
c. Low achievers often become preoccupied with thoughts of failure.
d. a and b
e. a and c

a. Low achievers have high motivation to achieve success and low motivation to avoid failure.

Which of the following is NOT a component of achievement motivation theory?

a. motive to achieve success.
b. probability of success.
c. incentive value of success.
d. motive to avoid failure.
e. motive to seek approval from others.

e. motive to seek approval from others.

The results of Weinberg and Hunt’s (1976) study on college students with high and low trait anxiety demonstrated that:

a. increased muscle soreness contributed to inferior performance.
b. increased muscle tension contributed to inferior performance.
c. increased coordination difficulties contributed to inferior performance.
d. a and c
e. b and c

e. b and c

A substantial imbalance between demand and response capability under conditions in which failure has important consequences refers to:

a. arousal
b. sensational pressure
c. stress
d. state anxiety
e. trait anxiety

c. stress

There is a positive correlation between one’s level of:

a. cognitive anxiety and somatic anxiety.
b. trait anxiety and state anxiety.
c. arousal and stress.
d. a and c
e. b and c

b. trait anxiety and state anxiety.

Physiological responses occur in which stage of the stress process?

a. stage 1
b. stage 2
c. stage 3
d. stage 4
e. stage 5

c. stage 3

Arousal refers to the:

a. direction of motivation.
b. intensity of motivation.
c. frequency of motivated behavior.
d. interaction of cognition and emotions.
e. a and d

b. intensity of motivation.

Which of the following is NOT a physical manifestation of excess state anxiety?

a. worry
b. muscle tension
c. attentional problems
d. a and c
e. b and c

a. worry

The importance placed on an event and the uncertainty that surrounds the actions of that event are sources of:

a. somatic anxiety
b. trait anxiety
c. arousal
d. personal stress
e. situational stress

e. situational stress

Which personality disposition(s) is (are) related to change in state anxiety?

a. trait anxiety
b. self-esteem
c. optimism
d. a and b
e. a and c

d. a and b

A highly trait-anxious athlete (compared to a less trait-anxious athlete) would perceive competition as:

a. more threatening and less anxiety producing.
b. less threatening and less anxiety producing.
c. more threatening and more anxiety producing.
d. less threatening and more anxiety producing.

c. more threatening and more anxiety producing.

Athletes lower in self-esteem are more likely to experience:

a. low confidence and high state anxiety.
b. low confidence and low state anxiety.
c. low confidence and low trait anxiety.
d. high confidence and high state anxiety.
e. low confidence and low arousal.

a. low confidence and high state anxiety.

Which theory predicts a linear relationship between arousal and performance?

a. catastrophe theory
b. drive theory
c. inverted theory
d. individualized zones of optimal functioning
e. reversal theory

b. drive theory

The linear relationship between arousal and performance suggests that:

a. as arousal increases, performance decreases.
b. as arousal decreases, performance decreases.
c. as arousal increases, performance increases.
d. as arousal decreases, performance increases.
e. arousal performance increases to an optimal level, and beyond this, performance decreases.

c. as arousal increases, performance increases.

A moment-to-moment change in one’s perceived physiological activation is referred to as:

a. cognitive state anxiety
b. somatic state anxiety
c. activation
d. trait anxiety
e. stress

b. somatic state anxiety

According to the catastrophe model, a "catastrophe" occurs with:

a. high state and trait anxiety.
b. high physiological and somatic anxiety.
c. high cognitive anxiety and high physiological arousal.
d. high somatic anxiety and low physiological arousal.
e. low state and high trait anxiety.

c. high cognitive anxiety and high physiological arousal.

In Hanin’s work on individualized zones of optimal functioning, he argues that for best performance to occur, an athlete needs:

a. an optimal level of state anxiety.
b. an optimal level of trait anxiety.
c. an optimal level of state anxiety and other emotions.
d. an optimal level of arousal.
e. an optimal level of physiological arousal.

c. an optimal level of state anxiety and other emotions.

Increased arousal affects attentional focus in which of the following ways?

a. narrowing of focus
b. broadening of focus
c. increase of scanning
d. a and b
e. b and c

a. narrowing of focus

A quarterback needs to shift his attentional focus from surveying the field for receivers to delivering a pass. This shift would be from:

a. broad-external to broad-internal.
b. broad-external to broad-external.
c. broad-external to narrow-external.
d. broad-external to narrow-internal.
e. narrow-external to broad-external.

c. broad-external to narrow-external.

One’s general level of anxiety that stays relatively stable over time refers to:

a. trait anxiety
b. state anxiety
c. cognitive anxiety
d. somatic anxiety
e. arousal

a. trait anxiety

In evaluative situations, individuals with high trait anxiety tend to exhibit:

a. high arousal
b. low state anxiety
c. high state anxiety
d. high somatic anxiety
e. low cognitive anxiety

c. high state anxiety

The inverted-U hypothesis predicts that:

a. as arousal increases, performance decreases.
b. arousal can be either too low or too high.
c. top performance occurs at a moderate level of arousal.
d. a and c
e. b and c

e. b and c

Hanin’s individualized zones of optimal functioning model suggests that:

a. each individual has a specific optimal level of efficiency.
b. performance is best when arousal is moderate.
c. performance is best when arousal is high.
d. the zone of optimal functioning is the same for all individuals.

a. each individual has a specific optimal level of efficiency.

The relationship between arousal and performance depends on one’s interpretation of the arousal level. This is the basic approach of:

a. catastrophe theory
b. drive theory
c. reversal theory
d. inverted-U hypothesis
e. zones of optimal functioning

c. reversal theory

Appropriate guidelines for applying arousal and anxiety knowledge include:

a. recognizing the signs of increased arousal and anxiety.
b. recognizing how personal and situational factors influence arousal and performance.
c. tailoring coaching and instructional practices to individuals.
d. all of the above
e. a and c

d. all of the above

Which of the following is NOT symptomatic of heightened state anxiety?

a. profuse sweating.
b. slowed breathing.
c. increased muscle tension.
d. inability to concentrate.
e. sleeping difficulties.

b. slowed breathing.

Multidimensional anxiety theory predicts:

a. a negative relationship between cognitive anxiety and performance.
b. an inverted-U relationship between somatic anxiety and performance.
c. an inverted-U relationship between cognitive anxiety and performance.
d. a and c
e. a and b

e. a and b

According to catastrophe theory, to recover from a catastrophe the athlete must:

a. completely relax physically.
b. control her worries through progressive relaxation.
c. reactivate herself in a controlled manner.
d. a and c
e. a and b

d. a and c

Which of the following is (are) true?

a. Increased anxiety is always debilitating to performance.
b. Athletes who perceive their anxiety as facilitating rather than harming their performances exhibit higher levels of performance.
c. The intensity of anxiety is more important than its direction.
d. a and b
e. b and c

b. Athletes who perceive their anxiety as facilitating rather than harming their performances exhibit higher levels of performance.

Which of the following is (are) true regarding the home-court advantage?

a. It is greatest in baseball and football.
b. Between 1924 and 1982, the home team in the baseball World Series won 38% of the time when there was a seventh game.
c. Between 1984 and 1994 in the National Basketball Association, the home team won 47% of the time when there was a seventh game during the play-offs.
d. a and b
e. b and c

b. Between 1924 and 1982, the home team in the baseball World Series won 38% of the time when there was a seventh game.

The catastrophe theory suggests that performance is determined by a complex interaction of:

a. arousal and stress.
b. arousal and trait anxiety.
c. arousal and state anxiety.
d. physiological arousal and cognitive anxiety.
e. state and trait anxiety.

d. physiological arousal and cognitive anxiety.

Increased levels of anxiety result in alterations in visual search patterns such as:

a. gaze tendencies.
b. eye fixations.
c. mental acuity.
d. a and b

d. a and b

Attribution theory focuses on:

a. how individuals explain their success and failure.
b. how groups explain their personality attributes.
c. how individuals explain their personal attributes.
d. how individuals explain their personal biases.

a. how individuals explain their success and failure.

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