Sports Psych Exam 4

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a. severity of past illnesses

1. The premise of the health belief model is that individuals will engage in preventive health behaviors depending on the individual’s perception of the a. severity of past illnesses b. time available to exercise c. social support network d. exercise history e. none of the above

b. 50%

2. According to the Surgeon General’s report, individuals exercising at ______ or lower of their aerobic capacity had the best adherence rates. a. 40% b. 50% c. 20% d. 60% e. 70%

d. a and b

3. Which of the following statements is (are) TRUE? a. 10% to 15% of all adults participate in vigorous and frequent physical activity. b. 50% of adults are sedentary. c. 75% of adults participate in exercise on a weekly basis. d. a and b e. a and c

b. cognitive and behavioral

4. The two major categories of the processes used by individuals for behavior change are a. cognitive and physiological b. cognitive and behavioral c. social and physiological d. behavioral and social e. cognitive and social

e. contemplation

5. In a large worksite promotion study by Marcus and colleagues, most participants were classified in which stage of the transtheoretical model? a. action b. action and reaction c. preparation d. precontemplation e. contemplation

c. action and reaction

6. Which of the following is NOT a stage in the transtheoretical model? a. contemplation b. precontemplation c. action and reaction d. preparation e. action

d. reciprocal determinism

The key elements in social cognitive theory are that the environment affects behavior and behavior affects the environment. This is known as a. reciprocal control b. reciprocal interception c. self-efficacy d. reciprocal determinism e. perceived behavioral control

e. changing individuals

To investigate the effectiveness of physical activity interventions, you could focus on different target populations or settings. These can include all of the following except a. political environment b. physical environment c. changing communities d. networking individuals e. changing individuals

b. People in walking programs have lower adherence than people in running programs.

In terms of environmental factors affecting adherence, which of the following is (are) FALSE? a. People exercising in groups display higher adherence than people exercising alone. b. People in walking programs have lower adherence than people in running programs. c. People who perceive their exercise leader as knowledgeable and likable exhibit higher levels of adherence. d. a and b e. b and c

a. 20 to 30 minutes

According to the Surgeon General’s report, people exercising for ____ at a time had the best adherence rates. a. 20 to 30 minutes b. 30 to 60 minutes c. 10 to 20 minutes d. 15 to 45 minutes e. 30 to 45 minutes

d. all of the above

In terms of affecting adherence, which of the following is (are) true? a. Overweight people are less likely to adhere to exercise programs. b. People with documented heart disease are more likely to adhere to exercise programs. c. The higher the cost of the exercise program, the lower the adherence. d. all of the above e. a and c

e. b and c

Which of the following statements is (are) true? a. Knowing the health benefits of physical activity enhances adherence. b. Feelings of enjoyment enhance adherence. c. Expecting health benefits from exercise enhances adherence. d. a and b e. b and c

a. internal and controllable

Reasons for attrition from exercise programs can be classified as a. internal and controllable b. external and controllable c. internal and uncontrollable d. external and uncontrollable e. none of the above

a. there were no differences between whites and blacks

Studies have shown that in terms of barriers to exercise, a. there were no differences between whites and blacks b. blacks gave lack of time more as a reason for not exercising c. whites gave lack of time more as a reason for not exercising d. blacks mentioned lack of energy more often as a barrier to exercise e. whites mentioned lack of energy more often as a barrier to exercise

a. previous participation in supervised exercise programs

Which of the following will have a positive effect on adherence to a new exercise program? a. previous participation in supervised exercise programs b. participation in intercollegiate sports c. class size d. b and c e. a and b

a. 50%

According to research on adherence to exercise programs, what percentage of individuals starting an exercise program will likely drop out after six months? a. 50% b. 75% c. 25% d. 10% e. 65%

c. An estimated 10 to 15 million American adults are overweight.

Which of the following statements is (are) FALSE? a. Exercise of moderate or short duration does not increase appetite. b. Regular exercise can produce substantial decreases in weight over time. c. An estimated 10 to 15 million American adults are overweight. d. a and c e. b and c

d. all of the above

Exercise can be beneficial in which of the following ways? a. weight control b. building self-esteem c. reducing the risk of hypertension d. all of the above e. a and c

d. none of the above

Which of the following statements is (are) TRUE? a. Throughout adolescence, physical activity declines among girls but not among boys. b. Inactivity is more prevalent among whites than blacks. c. Daily attendance in physical education classes increased from 25% to 40% between 1990 and 1995. d. none of the above e. a and c

b. perceived behavioral control

The theory of planned behavior extends the theory of reasoned action by including the factor of a. perceived ability b. perceived behavioral control c. perceived barriers to exercise d. exercise history e. previous participation in varsity sport

a. social support, compared to a lack of it in control groups, produces increases in adherence

Studies on social support as a strategy to help adherence have indicated that a. social support, compared to a lack of it in control groups, produces increases in adherence b. social support does not increase adherence c. social support works only with support from spouses and family d. social support works only with support from close friends e. none of the above

e. a and b

Which of the following is (are) recommended for school and community programs promoting physical activity in young people? a. Include parents in physical activity instruction. b. Implement a health education curriculum about healthy lifestyles. c. Eliminate extracurricular activities since they distract from the school’s physical education instruction. d. a and c e. a and b

d. lack of time

The major barrier to physical activity is a. lack of energy b. lack of motivation c. injury or illness d. lack of time e. lack of facilities

e. communities

The most positive effects for exercise intervention programs occur in which of the following settings? a. home b. health care c. schools d. worksites e. communities

a. once a week

In a research study, exercise adherence in a walking program was maximized when participants were called _______ to prompt them to walk. a. once a week b. once a month c. once every other week d. every day e. none of the above

c. the participant paid the entire reimbursement fee

In a corporate study on exercise adherence, attendance was lowest when a. the company paid the entire reimbursement fee b. the reimbursement fee was split between the company and participant c. the participant paid the entire reimbursement fee d. no reimbursement fee was paid e. none of the above

d. all of the above

Contracts to enhance exercise adherence should include a. realistic goals b. dates by which the goals should be reached c. consequences for not meeting goals d. all of the above e. a and b

e. a and c

Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding the determinants of exercise adherence? a. Higher income is associated with more active lifestyles. b. College-educated individuals have lower participation rates in exercise than those individuals with only a high school education. c. High self-efficacy is associated with higher levels of physical activity. d. a and b e. a and c

a. Exercise alone.

Which of the following is NOT a guideline for setting up an exercise program to enhance adherence? a. Exercise alone. b. Make the exercise enjoyable. c. Reinforce early success. d. a and c e. b and c

b. community

The setting producing the best adherence is a. worksite b. community c. hospital based d. home e. fitness club

d. all of the above

Which of the following statements is (are) true of the use of a decision balance sheet? a. It involves sensitizing potential exercise participants to the positive and negative outcomes of participating in an exercise program. b. It helps exercise leaders make decisions on who will adhere to an exercise program. c. It helps exercise leaders make decisions concerning the best activities for the exercisers. d. all of the above e. none of the above

c. process

Two ways to increase intrinsic motivation for exercise are to focus on one’s self and have what type of orientation? a. product b. outcome c. process d. performance e. none of the above

d. a and c

According to research on association and dissociation strategies and adherence, a. dissociation produces better attendance than association does b. association produces better attendance than dissociation does c. dissociation produces better long-term maintenance than association does d. a and c e. b and c

d. all of the above

According to research on goal setting and adherence, a. flexible goals are better than rigid goals b. distance-based goals are better than time-based goals c. short-term goals (weekly) are better than long-term goals (six weeks) d. all of the above e. none of the above

c. to improve cardiovascular fitness

The goal most often given by exercisers was a. to improve strength b. to lose weight c. to improve cardiovascular fitness d. to tone muscles e. to have fun

d. all of the above

Based on research findings, which of the following statements is (are) true? a. Attendance contracts and lotteries are successful in improving adherence rates. b. Individual feedback produces more adherence than group feedback. c. Self-reward increases adherence rates. d. all of the above e. a and b

e. b and c

Which of the following findings using behavior modification approaches to exercise adherence is (are) true? a. A poster encouraging stair climbing instead of taking the elevator immediately increased people’s incidences of taking the stairs from 6% to 34%. b. People willing to sign a statement of intent to comply with the exercise program had significantly better attendance than those refusing to sign such a statement. c. Individuals given a choice concerning the activities they participated in had higher levels of adherence than individuals who were not given a choice. d. a and b e. b and c

d. all of the above

According to charting attendance and participation approaches, charts can be important in a. maintaining interest b. keeping people constantly informed c. enhancing the effects of social facilitation d. all of the above e. a and b

c. contingency management

Which of the following is NOT an approach used in enhancing exercise adherence? a. social support b. decision making c. contingency management d. goal setting e. behavior consequence

e. a and c

According to American College of Sports Medicine guidelines, exercise should be a. performed three or four days a week b. performed for 45 minutes to 1 hour per exercise bout c. performed at 50% to 80% of maximal heart rate d. all of the above e. a and c

d. lack of opportunity

For special populations, which of the following is NOT a major reason for not exercising? a. inconvenience b. lack of motivation c. lack of money d. lack of opportunity e. lack of time

d. all of the above

Exercise adherence has been difficult in part because of exercise prescriptions that a. are too rigid in intensity, frequency, and duration b. are overly restrictive (do not enhance motivation) c. are based solely on fitness data (not psychological readiness to exercise) d. all of the above e. a and c

d. a and c

To prevent a relapse in physical activity, it is suggested that a person a. use positive self-talk and imagery strategies b. replace "wants" with "shoulds" c. expect and plan for lapses d. a and c e.a amd b

b. internal

As a person moves through the stages of changes, reasons for exercise become more a. external b. internal c. hypothetical d. behavioral e. stable

b. the physical environment

According to the ecological model, the key aspect of these models is a. the social environment b. the physical environment c. one’s emotional environment d. one’s mental outlook on the environment e. none of the above

c. 2%

Americans spent much more money on exercise equipment between 1986 and 1996. As a result, the amount of physical activity during that period has increased a. 5% b. 10% c. 2% d. 15% e. 23%

d. all of the above

In order to facilitate adherence to mental training, it is suggested that a. mental skills not be integrated into existing routines b. enjoyment of mental training be emphasized c. the perceived costs (e.g., time) of mental training be reduced d. all of the above e. e. and c

c. goals that are interfering

Irregular exercisers, compared to regular exercisers, place more significance on a. goals that are more difficult b. goals that are too easy c. goals that are interfering d. goals that are specific e. goals that are general

d. all of the above

Based on research by Petitpas and Danish, which of the following is (are) psychological reaction(s) associated with injury? a. identity loss b. lack of confidence c. fear and anxiety d. all of the above e. a and c

c. life stress

Which of the following has research shown to be predictive of athletic injury? a. personality b. self-esteem c. life stress d. independence e. self-concept

b. athletes with high levels of life stress and low levels of social support and coping exhibited the highest injury rates

In a study by Smith, Smoll, and Ptacek examining the relationship between life stress, social support, coping skills, and injury, the researchers found that a. athletes with high levels of life stress had the highest injury rates b. athletes with high levels of life stress and low levels of social support and coping exhibited the highest injury rates c. athletes with low levels of social support, high levels of life stress, and high coping skills exhibited the highest injury rates d. athletes with high levels of life stress and high levels of social support exhibited the highest injury rates e. there was no relationship between life stress, social support, coping skills, and injury rates

e. a and b

Which of the following is (are) a potential explanation for the relationship between stress and injury? a. Stress disrupts an athlete’s attention by causing a decline in peripheral vision. b. Stress causes muscle tension, which disrupts coordination. c. Stress causes loss in confidence, which changes movement patterns. d. all of the above e. a and b

d. all of the above

Which type(s) of attitudes have consultants identified as being related to injury? a. Act tough and always give 110%. b. If you are injured, you are worthless. c. No pain, no gain. d. all of the above e. a and c

b. psychological and social

In a study by Gould and colleagues (1997), the greatest sources of stress for individuals rehabilitating from injury were a. psychological and physical b. psychological and social c. physical and social d. physical and emotional e. emotional and behavioral

d. all of the above

Which of the following is (are) a typical reaction to injury? a. Injury is viewed as a disaster. b. Injury is viewed as a way to get a break from tedious practice. c. Injury is viewed as a socially acceptable reason for not playing. d. all of the above e. a and c

d. rationalization

Which of the following is NOT one of the five stages of grief reaction? a. denial b. depression c. anger d. rationalization e. bargaining

e. denial

Which is the first stage of the grief reaction response? a. anger b. acceptance and reorganization c. rationalization d. depression e. denial

d. all of the above

Which of the following factors influence(s) the stress response, which in turn influence(s) the probability of injury? a. coping resources b. personality c. history of stressors d. all of the above e. a and b

b. 3 to 4 million

How many children and adults are estimated to be injured in sport, exercise, and recreational settings each year? a. 9 to 10 million b. 3 to 4 million c. 1 to 2 million d. 6 to 7 million e. 600,000 to 800,000

a. Motivate by pushing the athlete hard to improve.

From a study of injured elite skiers, which of the following was NOT a recommendation to coaches for helping athletes cope with season-ending injuries and for facilitating rehabilitation? a. Motivate by pushing the athlete hard to improve. b. Provide positive empathy and support. c. Provide for lots of coach-athlete contact and involvement. d. Have realistic expectations. e. Understand individual differences.

c. Social support that athletes need varies across the rehabilitation phases.

Which of the following is (are) a guideline for providing social support for injury recovery? a. Need is greatest when the rehabilitation process is fastest. b. Family and friends provide information support, whereas coaches provide emotional support. c. Social support that athletes need varies across the rehabilitation phases. d. a and b e. b and c

d. all of the above

According to Cupal and Brewer’s (2001) study on effects of imagery and relaxation on recovery from injury, relaxation plus imagery versus a control or placebo control condition produced a. less reinjury anxiety b. greater knee strength c. less pain d. all of the above e. a and b

e. a and c

The three phases of injury recovery as expressed in the model by Bianco, Malo, and Orlick (1999) include which of the following? a. injury or illness phase b. injury and pain management phase c. rehabilitation and recovery phase d. a and b e. a and c

e. a and b

A variety of studies investigated the effects of psychological training on adherence to injury rehabilitation protocols. Which of the following psychological factors was (were) found to be related to rehabilitation adherence? a. self-motivation b. positive self-talk c. attentional control d. all of the above e. a and b

c. high levels of anxiety

Which of the following has NOT been identified as a sign of potential problematic adjustment to athletic injury? a. rapid mood swings b. withdrawal from significant others c. high levels of anxiety d. feelings of anger and confusion e. exaggerated bragging about accomplishments

e. a and b

In interviews with fast- and slow-healing athletes, Ievleva and Orlick found that fast healers used more a. goal setting b. positive self-talk c. relaxation d. all of the above e. a and b

e. a and b

Which of the following characteristics was (were) identified by athletic trainers as a way to distinguish between athletes who coped most and least successfully with injury? a. willingness to listen to the trainer b. maintaining a positive attitude about injury c. low life stress d. all of the above e. a and b

c. being overly optimistic

Which of the following is NOT one of the procedures used in the rehabilitation process? a. educating individuals relative to the injury and recovery process b. fostering social support c. being overly optimistic d. building rapport with the injured individual e. preparing the individual to cope with setbacks

e. a and b

According to Hardy and Crace, social support may take the form of a. emotional support b. informational support c. qualitative support d. all of the above e. a and b

d. all of the above

Which of the following is (are) a psychological skill employed during the rehabilitation process? a. goal setting b. self-talk c. relaxation d. all of the above e. a and c

e. a and b

Building rapport with an injured athlete can be accomplished by a. being there b. showing empathy c. being overly optimistic d. all of the above e. a and b

c. Focus on quantity training.

From a study of injured elite skiers, which of the following was NOT a recommendation to other athletes for coping with season-ending injuries and facilitating rehabilitation? a. Set goals. b. Use imagery. c. Focus on quantity training. d. Use social resources. e. Work on mental skills training.

d. all of the above

Research by Perna and colleagues has shown that high levels of stress can affect the physiology of injury recovery by a. causing a disturbance in sleep b. interfering with the removal of damaged tissue c. interfering with the body’s hearing process d. all of the above e. a and c

a. a decrease in days lost due to injury over the season

Research by Perna and colleagues using cognitive-behavioral stress management on rowers found a. a decrease in days lost due to injury over the season b. fewer rowers got injured throughout the season c. there was no effect on days lost due to injury over the season d. injury actually increased in rowers across the season e. none of the above

b. parental pressure

Which of the following is not a factor predisposing athletes to eating disorders? a. weight restrictions and standards b. parental pressure c. performance demands d. judging criteria e. coach and peer pressure

c. alcohol and tobacco

The two most abused substances in the United States are a. stimulants and anabolic steroids b. marijuana and alcohol c. alcohol and tobacco d. beta-blockers and stimulants e. anabolic steroids and beta-blockers

b. a clinical sport psychologist

Substance abuse and eating disorders in athletes should be treated by a. an educational sport psychologist b. a clinical sport psychologist c. a social worker d. an educational counseling psychologist e. none of the above

d. 60%

What percentage of athletes said they would take a performance-enhancing substance, even if it meant they would die from the side effects, if the substance guaranteed winning every competition for the next five years? a. 10% b. 20% c. 40% d. 60% e. 5%

c. one month

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) states that one of the criteria for psychoactive substance abuse is that the disturbance has persisted for at least a. six months b. two weeks c. one month d. three months e. one week

c. discuss her concerns with the athlete in a private meeting

Garner and Rosen recommend that if a coach suspects an athlete has an eating disorder, the coach should a. immediately discuss her concerns with the parents b. drop the athlete from the team until the condition is resolved c. discuss her concerns with the athlete in a private meeting d. go to the athlete’s teammates to find out what’s going on e. all of the above

b. high self-esteem

Research suggests that people are less likely to take drugs if they have a. a low level of anxiety b. high self-esteem c. a low level of aggression d. a highly competitive nature e. all of the above

a. bulimia

Unusual eating patterns are often one of the best indicators of an eating disorder. If a person hides food and disappears after eating, this can be a sign of a. bulimia b. anorexia nervosa c. anorexia nervosa and bulimia d. psychological depression e. c and d

b. Close to 50% of elite athletes report steroid use.

Which of the following is (are) true? a. About 25% of high school athletes take performance-enhancing drugs. b. Close to 50% of elite athletes report steroid use. c. Athletes report that approximately 80% of their teammates are using steroids. d. a and b e. b and c

e. b and c

Which of the following is (are) true regarding the prevalence of eating disorders in sport? a. There are no differences in eating disorders between athlete and nonathlete populations. b. Eating disorders in athletics tend to be sport specific. c. A significant percentage of athletes engage in some type of weight loss behavior. d. a and b e. b and c

d. a and c

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), which of the following is (are) characteristic of bulimia? a. recurrent episodes of binge eating in a discrete period of time b. a minimum average of four binge-eating episodes a week for at least six months c. a feeling of lack of control over eating behavior during eating binges d. a and c e. a and b

c. disordered eating

The most prevalent form of eating disorders is a. anorexia b. bulimia c. disordered eating d. anorexbulimia e. secondary anorexia

d. all of the above

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), which of the following is (are) characteristic of anorexia nervosa? a. refusal to maintain minimal body weight (15% below normal) b. intense fear of weight gain c. disturbed body image d. all of the above e. b and c

e. a and b

According to Thompson, eating disorders are likely to appear in individuals with a. low self-esteem b. high stress levels related to pleasing others c. high levels of aggression d. all of the above e. a and b

e. b and c

Which of the following is (are) characteristic of bulimia? a. Eating behavior results in significant weight loss. b. Eating behavior is excessive in an effort to feel better. c. Feelings of guilt from eating result in purging. d. all of the above e. b and c

e. c and d

Thompson and Garner and Rosen list some dos and don’ts for dealing with eating disorders. Which of the following are don’ts? a. Get help and advice from a specialist. b. Emphasize the importance of good long-term nutrition. c. Recommend weight loss in order to improve performance. d. Hold team weigh-ins. e. c and d

e. psychophysiological techniques

Which of the following is NOT an approach or technique to detect and combat drug use? a. family systems approach b. educational approaches c. cognitive techniques d. behavioral techniques e. psychophysiological techniques

e. 75%

In general, what percentage of collegiate athletes (football and basketball players) engage in some form of gambling? a. 10% b. 25% c. 40% d. 50% e. 75%

a. About 2% of the population are compulsive gamblers.

Which of the following is (are) true? a. About 2% of the population are compulsive gamblers. b. About 15% of the population are problem gamblers. c. About 15% of college students are compulsive gamblers. d. a and c e. a and b

d. all of the above

Which of the following is (are) a characteristic of compulsive gamblers? a. boastfulness b. unbounded optimism c. extreme competitiveness d. all of the above e. a and c

c. setting realistic short- and long-term goals

Which of the following is (are) a technique to reduce the probability of becoming negatively addicted to exercise? a. working out regularly with a faster partner b. keeping the intensity of exercise high to maximize benefits c. setting realistic short- and long-term goals d. a and c e. b and c

e. a and b

Which of the following is (are) a symptom of a person who is negatively addicted to exercise? a. decreased tolerance to the amount of exercise performed b. exercise given increased priority over other activities c. relief or withdrawal of symptoms by further exercise d. all of the above e. a and b

c. males use steroids 3 to 5 times as often as females

If we look at high school and college athletes’ use of steroids, certain gender differences appear. These are that a. females use steroids twice as much as males b. males use steroids 10 times as much as females c. males use steroids 3 to 5 times as often as females d. females use steroids twice as often as males but only in individual sports e. females use steroids twice as often as males but only in team sports

a. 5%

Educating athletes and exercisers about the harmful effects of drug use usually deters what percentage of people from using drugs? a. 5% b. 20% c. 30% d. 40% e. 50%

a. for performance enhancement

The most common physical reason for athletes to use drugs is a. for performance enhancement b. to help recovery from injury c. to control appetite d. to look better e. to feel better

c. very little sweating

Which of the following is NOT a sign or symptom of people who are substance abusers? a. major change in personality b. poor hygiene and grooming c. very little sweating d. impaired judgment e. muscle twitches

b. searching the athletes’ lockers on a random basis

Which of the following is (are) NOT a good way to detect drug use and abuse? a. drug testing b. searching the athletes’ lockers on a random basis c. observation d. listening e. a and d

e. a and c

When discussing the effects of anabolic steroids with athletes, coaches should a. discuss the health risks involved in taking anabolic steroids b. deemphasize the performance gains of anabolic steroids c. inform the athletes of the policy of the organization in cases of drug use d. all of the above e. a and c

e. none of the above

Which of the following is NOT a common recreational drug? a. marijuana b. alcohol c. tobacco d. cocaine e. none of the above

e. all of the above

Which of the following is (are) common among the side effects of ingesting anabolic steroids? a. increased risk of liver disease b. increased aggression c. loss of coordination d. premature heart disease e. all of the above

b. reduced fatigue

An effect of stimulants on performance is a. reduced pain b. reduced fatigue c. increased strength d. steadier nerves e. increased muscle endurance

e. a and b

The major categories of drugs in sport and exercise are performance-enhancing and recreational drugs. Performance-enhancing drugs include a. anabolic steroids b. beta-blockers c. cocaine d. all of the above e. a and b

d. a and b

Which of the following is (are) a psychological reason(s) for athletes to use drugs? a. build confidence b. reduce anxiety c. increase extroversion d. a and b e. a and c

b. Focus on body weight to prevent overeating.

Which of the following is (are) NOT among guidelines for preventing eating disorders in athletes and exercisers? a. Promote proper nutritional practices. b. Focus on body weight to prevent overeating. c. Be sensitive to weight issues. d. all of the above e. a and c

b. 50%

According to research, about what percentage of men desire to change their physique? a. 20% b. 50% c. 10% d. 70% e. 5%

d. all of the above

Which of the following personality traits is (are) related to eating disorders in athletes? a. submissiveness b. asceticism c. conformity d. all of the above e. a and c

c. hockey

Which of the following major professional sports does NOT have a mandatory drug policy? a. baseball b. basketball c. hockey d. football e. none of the above

b. 1 in 16

The rate of steroid use in high schools has increased from 1 in 27 in 1999 to what in 2003? a. 1 in 10 b. 1 in 16 c. 1 in 20 d. 1 in 7 e. 1 in 22

a. 5%

What percentage of high school girls admit to using steroids at least once? a. 5% b. 10% c. 15% d. 20% e. 25%

b. situational factors

A recent model for drug use in sports (drugs in sport decision model) has the three components of costs, benefits, and a. personality factors b. situational factors c. specific rules of the sport d. a and b e. b and c

b. 35% and 10%

In a 2003 survey, what percentage of male and female athletes, respectively, bet on sports? a. 10% and 30% b. 35% and 10% c. 20% and 25% d. 5% and 10% e. 50% and 20%

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