Sociology Chapter 12

Total Word Count: 1577
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Which from the following list would be described as an economic issue?

Poverty

The economy first became a distinct social institution during which historical stage of technological development?

Agrarian Societies

For which of the following reasons might you argue that the United States is not truly democratic?

All of the above: There is a lot of economic inequality, Millions of bureaucratic officials are not elected, Rich people have much more influence on our way of life than poor people

Turning metals into automobiles is work that falls within the…?

People with lower social standing in the United States tend to be… on social issues and… on economic issues.

Conservative; liberal

With respect to war, the text explains that…

The postindustrial economy is defined by…

Service work largely based on computer technology

Modernization theorists see large corporations as…

Unleashing the productive power of capitalism to speed development in poor nations

In Max Weber’s view, monarchy claims legitimacy based on…

Traditional Authority

Which of the following traits DOES NOT describe the operation of a socialist economy?

Laissez-faire Economy

In the United States, about what percent of the labor force performs tertiary sector work?

85 percent

The military-industrial complex refers to…

The close link between the government, defense contractors, and the military.

A sociological profile of men and women in the U.S armed forces today reveals a large share of young people who…

All of the above: Are of working-class background, are looking to the military for a job/job training, join the military to earn money for college or just to get out of a small home town

Which of the following countries best exemplifies a system of state capitalism?

South Korea

In general, high-income people tend to be … on social issues and … on economic issues.

Liberal; Conservative

Which of the following new sources of energy launched the Industrial Revolution?

The steam engine

A power-elite model of the U.S. political system suggest that…

Power is concentrated in the hands of the few

Over the course of the last century, the share of people in the U.S. labor force involved in agricultural work…

Has declined steadily

Dependency theorists see large corporations as…

Intensifying global inequality

In general, terrorism is the strategy favored by…

A weak organization against a stronger foe

For almost fifty years, what strategy has kept the peace between the world’s nuclear superpowers?

Deterrence

Preindustrial societies, explained Max Weber, are characterized by having…

Mostly traditional authority

Which of Weber’s types of authority rests on extraordinary personal abilities that inspire devotion in followers?

Charismatic Authority

The United States is a mostly capitalist nation because…

The vast majority of productive businesses are privately owned.

A conglomerate is…

A giant corporation composed of many smaller corporations

The social thinker whose ideas provide the greatest support for the operation of a free-market economy was…

Adam Smith

As a social institution, the economy…

All of the above: produces goods and services, guides the consumption of goods and services, and distributes goods and services.

The concept "state capitalism" refers to a system in which…

Privately-owned companies cooperate closely with the government

Which of the following responses is a factor encouraging political revolution?

All of the above; rising expectation of a better life, unresponsive government, radical leadership by intellectuals

Concerning the issue of personal freedom, capitalist systems emphasize people’s…, while socialist systems emphasize people’s…

Freedom to pursue their self-interest; freedom from basic want

Which of the following statements is correct?

Revolution can and does produce many types of government.

Terrorism refers to…

The use or threat of violence as a political strategy by an individual or group

About how much money does the world as a whole spend annually for military purposes?

$1.8 trillion

Politics is a social institution that is defined in terms of society’s…

Distribution of power, goals, and decision making.

In the United States, … people tend to vote Democratic, while … people mostly vote Republican.

Urban; rural

By the early 1960s, most of the people in the U.S. labor force had which type of job?

White-collar

Which of the following concepts refers to an economy based on computer technology?

Postindustrial economy

Max Weber defined power as…

The ability to achieve desired ends, despite resistance.

Capitalist societies base their claim to democracy on…

People having personal liberties

People who attract followers, including Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, display…

Charismatic Authority

Socialism is an economic system in which there is…

The Marxist political-economy model suggest that…

An anti-democratic bias exists in the capitalist system

Globalization of the economy means that…

The text describes three technological revolutions that transformed all of social life. Which of the following is NOT one of them?

The Immigration Revolution

The concept of "global economy" refers to…

Economic activity that moves across national borders.

Contrasted with socialist economic systems, capitalist economic systems typically…

Generate more economic inequality

In 2014, about what percentage of the world’s people lived in countries that can be considered politically "free"?

40 percent

Which sector of the economy generates raw materials directly from the natural environment?

Primary Sector

Socialist societies base their claim to democracy on…

Meeting the basic needs of all

Which of the following statements about the Information Revolution is NOT correct?

There was a shift from farming to turning raw materials into finished products.

In recent decades, union membership…

Has declined in the United States and other high-income nations.

Read the four descriptions below. Which of them does NOT apply to a profession?

Working for a large, well-established country.

In general, how does income affect the likelihood of voting in the United States?

Most high-income people vote; most low-income people do not.

Which statement about terrorism is TRUE?

All of the above; Whether someone is a "terrorist" or a "freedom fighter" is often a matter of definition, democratic societies are especially vulnerable to terrorism, identifying and effectively targeting terrorists is usually difficult.

The development of agriculture was set in motion by…

Using animals to pull the plow

Computers are having which of the following effects on the workplace?

All of the above; deskilling labor, limiting workplace interaction, enhancing employers’ control of workers.

Globalization of the economy means that…

In the United States, yesterday’s family farms have given way to…

Corporate agribusinesses

Industrialization decreases the importance of which type of authority?

Traditional Authority

The concept "oligopoly" refers to…

Domination of a market by a few producers

In the United States, about what percentage of the labor force performs tertiary sector work?

85 Percent

In the 2012 presidential election, about what percentage of registered voters actually went to the polls?

About 58 percent

Which of the following statements about political parties in the United States is true?

Which of the following categories of the U.S. population is LEAST likely to vote in national elections?

Hispanic people

A pluralist approach to the U.S. political system suggests that…

Power is widely dispersed throughout society.

The concept of "political economy" refers to…

The interplay of politics and economics

In a capitalist economic system, "justice" amounts to…

Freedom of the marketplace allowing people to follow their self-interest.

Which nations in the world today claim to be democratic?

Most high-income nations

A totalitarian political system…

Concentrates power and closely regulates people’s lives.

Which social institution do most sociologists claim has the greatest effect on society as a whole?

The economy

Over the course of human history, revolutionary changes in which of the following have brought great transformation to the economy?

Production technology

The industrial revolution was based on…

New sources of energy

The concept "authoritarian" refers to political system that…

In 2011, a wave of popular uprising seeking more democratic government swept across which region of the world?

Which of the following concepts refers to a political and economic system that combines a mostly market based economy with extensive social welfare programs?

Welfare Capitalism

Contrasted with socialist economic systems, capitalist economic systems are typically…

More productive

Capitalism is an economic system in which there is…

Which of the following concepts refers to the use of violence by governments, often against their own people?

The arms race refers to efforts by the United States and the former Soviet Union to…

Increase their military power

Which of all U.S. wars was the most deadly in terms of loss of (U.S.) lives?

The civil war

The National Rifle Association is an example of a(n)…

Special-interest group

In the United States about what share of the population aged 16 and older is in the paid labor force?

59 Percent

Which of the following nations comes closest to having a political system that is "totalitarian"?

North Korea

What Weber called the "routinization of charisma: involves charismatic authority…

Which of the following concepts refers to a political system in which a single family rules form generation to generation?

Monarchy

Which of the following concepts refers to the formal organization that directs the political life of a society?

Government

The expansion of office work marks the growth of the economy’s…

Terrorism has been called a new kind of warfare because…

It lacks clearly stated objectives and is not about controlling territory.

In a socialist economic system, "justice" amounts to…

Trying to meet the basic needs of all in an equal manner.

Which of the following concepts refers to a political system in which power resides in the hands of the people as a whole?

Democracy.

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