Social Psychology Quiz #2

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When Gloria tells people she is taking AP Psychology, many people assume that she has a very high GPA (even though she does not). The perception that people have of students who take AP classes would be considered which of the following?
a. groupthink
b. discrimination
c. out-group bias
d. prejudice
e. stereotype

e. stereotype

A store owner charges black customers more than Hispanic customers for the very same merchandise. The owner is most clearly engaging in
a. deindividuation
b. discrimination
c. group polarization
d. stereotyping
e. ingroup bias

b. discrimination

On the basis of what Americans say, in the last half-century
a. gender prejudice has decreased and racial prejudice has decreased
b. gender prejudice has stayed the same and racial prejudice has stayed the same
c. gender prejudice has decreased and racial prejudice has increased
d. gender prejudice has increased and racial prejudice has decreased
e. gender prejudice has increased and racial prejudice has increased

a. gender prejudice has decreased and racial prejudice has decreased

Studies of implicit attitudes indicate that prejudice is often
a. unconscious
b. unlearned
c. triggered by deindividuation
d. a response to frustration
e. conditioned

a. unconscious

If poverty causes high rates of crime, the high crime rates can be used to justify discrimination against those who live in poverty. This best illustrates
a. ingroup bias
b. the mere exposure effect
c. deindividuation
d. the blame-the-victim dynamic
e. the bystander effect

d. the blame-the-victim dynamic

Most children believe their school is better than the other schools in town. This best illustrates
a. ingroup bias
b. the just-world phenomenon
c. the fundamental attribution error
d. the reciprocity norm
e. scapegoating

a. ingroup bias

Following 9/11, some outraged people lashed out at innocent Arab-Americans. This venting of hostility can best be explained in terms of
a. the just-world phenomenon
b. the bystander effect
c. scapegoat theory
d. the mere exposure effect
e. social facilitation

c. scapegoat theory

When four-year-old Chris grabs a toy car from two-year-old Pat because Chris wants to play with the toy, Chris is demonstrating
a. social facilitation
b. locus of control
c. cognitive dissonance
d. instrumental aggression
e. social inhibition

d. instrumental aggression

Which situation would be least likely to result in a decrease of prejudice?
a. allowing people to interact with as many others as possible to complete a task
b. asking people to complete a common task together
c. forcing people to cooperate with each other in order to get credit for completing a task
d. giving each person a piece of information to share with others to complete a task
e. telling people to complete separate tasks while sitting in the same room

e. telling people to complete separate tasks while sitting in the same room

We are most likely to ____________ the diversity among members of an _________.
a. overestimate; outgroup
b. underestimate; ingroup
c. correctly estimate; outgroup
d. underestimate; outgroup
e. overestimate; ingroup

d. underestimate; outgroup

Mr. Ignatenko thinks that most unemployed people are to blame for their own misfortune. His belief best illustrates a potential consequence of
a. deindividuation
b. the just-world phenomenon
c. ingroup bias
d. the social responsibility norm
e. the mere exposure effect

b. the just-world phenomenon

According to the text, aggression always involves
a. the intent to hurt
b. anger and hostility
c. a reaction to frustration
d. nonverbal behavior
e. physical damage

a. the intent to hurt

Which of the following persons is most clearly acting aggressively?
a. a boxer working out alone and practicing her uppercut
b. an assertive salesperson who interrupts your evening meal with a telephone sales pitch
c. a noisy neighbor who often mows his lawn at 8 o’clock on Saturday mornings
d. a child who tries to hit another child with a rock
e. a careless motorist who accidentally smashes into the fender of a parked car

d. a child who tries to hit another child with a rock

After Ravi lost the student election for president of his high school class, he spread false rumors intended to spoil the newly chosen president’s reputation. Ravi’s behavior is best explained in terms of the
a. fundamental attribution error
b. foot-in-the-door phenomenon
c. mere exposure effect
d. frustration-aggression principle
e. ingroup bias

d. frustration-aggression principle

Stress often generates a readiness to be aggressive that is associated with
a. the fight-or-flight reaction
b. ingroup bias
c. stereotyping
d. social facilitation
e. the fundamental attribution error

a. the fight-or-flight reaction

Bullying younger children earns Diego the attention and respect of many classmates. As a result, his bullying behavior increases. This most clearly suggests that his aggression is a(n)
a. biologically triggered behavior
b. instinctive behavior
c. learned response
d. product of deindividuation
e. reaction to frustration

c. learned response

Ostracism has been observed to intensify
a. self-disclosure
b. deindividuation
c. aggression
d. hindsight bias
e. conformity

c. aggression

Although the effect dissipates within an hour or so, one violent TV program is most likely to ___________ in its viewer.
a. trigger violent behaviors
b. reduce testosterone levels
c. prime aggressive thoughts
d. reduce angry feelings
e. provoke frustration

c. prime aggressive thoughts

In contrast to watching violence on television, participating in violent video games involves
a. acquiring social scripts
b. priming aggressive thoughts
c. models of aggression
d. role-playing aggression
e. desensitization to violence

d. role-playing aggression

People often have expectations about another person that influences how they act toward that person. Such expectations in turn cause that person to behave consistently with the original expectations. This phenomenon is known as
a. the self-fulfilling prophecy
b. social facilitation
c. hindsight bias
d. mental set
e. the mere-exposure effect

a. the self-fulfilling prophecy

Vince, an extraverted university freshman, has just moved into a dormitory. Vince is most likely to become friends with
a. Bill, his assigned roommate who is majoring in computer science
b. Ester, a freshman who sits across the row from him in his first large lecture class
c. Mohammed, an introverted student who lives on the next floor and enjoys playing chess
d. Alfonse, a junior who is majoring in psychology and lives across the hall
e. James, a lonely sophomore who lives down the hall and is undecided about his major

a. Bill, his assigned roommate who is majoring in computer science

The mere exposure effect most directly contributes to the positive relationship between __________ and liking.
a. similarity
b. self-disclosure
c. physical arousal
d. proximity
e. physical attractiveness

d. proximity

After three months of riding the 8:30 bus to work, Cindy has actually started to fell affection for the gruff and scowling old bus driver. Cindy’s reaction best illustrates
a. the bystander effect
b. the fundamental attribution error
c. mirror-image perceptions
d. the mere exposure effect
e. the social exchange theory

d. the mere exposure effect

Our first impressions of people we meet are most likely to be determined by their
a. superordinate goals
b. emotional intelligence
c. physical appearance
d. attitudes
e. intelligence

c. physical appearance

Which of the following is NOT a major cause of interpersonal attraction?
a. similarity
b. reciprocity of liking
c. complementary qualities
d. intelligence
e. physical attractiveness

d. intelligence

Research on physical attractiveness has shown that
a. most people disregard physical attractiveness when forming first impressions of others
b. good-looking people tend to be viewed as less intelligent and competent
c. judgments of women’s personalities are affected by their physical attractiveness, but judgments of men’s personalities are not
d. men are less likely than women to make biased judgments of others based on physical appearance
e. desirable personality characteristics are typically ascribed to good-looking people

e. desirable personality characteristics are typically ascribed to good-looking people

Which of the following is most clearly supported by research on social attraction?
a. familiarity breeds contempt
b. the beautiful are the lonely
c. opposites attract
d. birds of a feather flock together
e. absence makes the heart grow fonder

d. birds of a feather flock together

Liking those who share and validate our attitudes is best explained in terms of
a. social facilitation
b. the mere exposure effect
c. the social responsibility norm
d. deindividuation
e. a reward theory

e. a reward theory

Casandra, who is attractive and likable, has just telephoned Mike and asked him for a date. According to the two-factor theory of emotion, Mike is likely to experience the most intense romantic feelings for Casandra during their telephone conversation if he has just
a. completed a series of aerobic exercises
b. been studying his history lecture notes
c. started writing a romantic poem
d. awakened from a short nap
e. finished eating a delicious meal

a. completed a series of aerobic exercises

Sharing household chores ranks high on a list of things people associate with successful marriages. This best illustrates the perceived value of
a. reciprocity norm
b. proximity
c. equity
d. passionate love
e. self-disclosure

c. equity

Natasha and Dimitri have a fulfilling marital relationship because they readily confide their deepest hopes and fears to each other. This best illustrates the value of
a. deindividuation
b. the mere exposure effect
c. passionate love
d. self-disclosure
e. social facilitation

d. self-disclosure

The tragic murder of Kitty Genovese outside her New York apartment stimulated social psychological research on
a. the mere exposure effect
b. the effects of exposure to violent pornography
c. the fundamental attribution error
d. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon
e. altruism

e. altruism

The best explanation for the inaction of bystanders during the Kitty Genovese murder is that they failed to
a. act on their empathetic feelings
b. experience any empathy for a stranger
c. assume personal responsibility for helping the victim
d. realize that the incident was really an emergency situation
e. notice that the incident was taking place

c. assume personal responsibility for helping the victim

As Arlette walks through a shopping mall, she happens to pass an older woman who is sitting on a bench, clutching her arm, and moaning in pain. The presence of many other shoppers in the mall will most likely increase the probability that Arlette will
a. fail to notice the older woman’s problem
b. help the woman by calling an ambulance
c. experience a sense of empathy for the older woman
d. experience the emotional benefits of altruism by helping the older woman
e. experience contempt for the older woman

a. fail to notice the older woman’s problem

According to Sternberg, which of the following describes the feelings of emotional closeness between two people?
a. passion
b. commitment
c. friendship
d. infatuation
e. intimacy

e. intimacy

A social trap is a situation in which
a. people lose self-awareness in group situations that foster anonymity
b. there are insufficient resources to satisfy the needs of all group members
c. the pursuit of self-interest leads to collective harm
d. a lack of critical thinking results from a strong desire for group harmony
e. altruism violates a social responsibility norm

c. the pursuit of self-interest leads to collective harm

The concept of a superordinate goal is best illustrated by
a. the intent of management and labor to produce a fuel-efficient automobile that will outsell any car on the market
b. the plan of a university freshman to enter medical school and eventually become a physician
c. the desire of a social worker to do volunteer work in the inner city in order to improve race relations
d. the motivation of a student to achieve the highest test average in the class
e. a university president’s plan to give students two extra days of spring vacation

a. the intent of management and labor to produce a fuel-efficient automobile that will outsell any car on the market

Muzafer Sherif’s study of conflict in a Boy Scout camp indicated that conflict between two groups of boys could be reduced most effectively by
a. exposing the groups to tasks that required their joint cooperation
b. allowing leaders of the two groups to communicate
c. bringing the members of both groups into close contact
d. encouraging a friendly competition between the groups
e. having one group make conciliatory gestures to the other group

a. exposing the groups to tasks that required their joint cooperation

Diffusion of responsibility has been used to explain which of the following findings in social psychology?
a. people often conform because of peer pressure
b. a person who is alone while witnessing an emergency is more likely to help than if he or she were part of a group
c. people often perform better when working in a group than when working alone
d. many participants obey a researcher even if the researcher’s instructions might lead to harm for another participant
e. people in a group lose their individual identity and become more cohesive

b. a person who is alone while witnessing an emergency is more likely to help than if he or she were part of a group

The area of the brain that is most involved in aggression is the
a. pineal gland
b. cortex
c. amygdala
d. cerebellum
e. medulla

c. amygdala

Which of the following is classified as an altruistic act?
a. protecting a stranger from an attack
b. using aggression only in self-defense
c. conducting a non-violent protest
d. making a living tutoring children
e. saving a loved one from danger

a. protecting a stranger from an attack

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