Social Psychology Practice Exam 3

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According to numerous studies, particularly those conducted by Brad Bushman and his colleagues, letting off steam by acting in a violent way (e.g., hitting a punching bag)
A.will reduce aggression in response to a previous insult
B.will increase aggression in response to a previous insult

B.will increase aggression in response to a previous insult Feedback: will increase aggression for men, but decrease it for women, in response to a previous insult.

Many U.S. troops present at My Lai later reported that they were frightened and confused about whether people in the villages were really enemy soldiers. Others reported that they didn’t know whether the rifle fire they heard was from enemy guns the guns of fellow troops. Still, frightened and bewildered, many of them began setting fire to hooches and shooting old men, women, and children. This tragic example illustrates that informational influence is most likely to occur when
A.authorities model the appropriate behavior.
B.situations are interpreted as a crisis.
C.we look to experts for cues.
D.charismatic leaders provide a new definition of reality.

B.situations are interpreted as a crisis.

"Hello. I’m asking for donations to the Save the Mollusk Foundation. Would you please donate $400?" This solicitor is using the ______ technique.
A.the door-in-the-face
B.the foot-in-the-door
C.the door-on-the-foot
D.the high-numbers-first

A.the door-in-the-face

Normative social influence often results in _____ but not _____.
A.public compliance; private acceptance
B.private acceptance; public compliance
C.individuation; total independence
D.private compliance; public acceptance

A.public compliance; private acceptance

In essence, normative social influence arises from humans’ fundamental
A.selfishness, which must be kept in check.
B.need for companionship, affection, and acceptance.
C.need for accurate perceptions and beliefs about a confusing world.
D.desire to submit to knowledgeable authorities.

B.need for companionship, affection, and acceptance.

Given the role of informational and normative social influence processes in contributing to participants’ willingness to shock a confederate learner (e.g., Milgram, 1974) which of the following situations would yield the least obedience?
A.The experimenter administers shocks to himself to demonstrate that the shocks are not lethal.
B.The experimenter tells participants that the learner will later be allowed to administer shocks to them.
C.The experimenter tells participants that the best teacher will be awarded a prize at the conclusion of the experiment.
D.Before leaving the room, two experimenters disagree on instructions before finally telling participants to take their time and choose their own shock levels.

D.Before leaving the room, two experimenters disagree on instructions before finally telling participants to take their time and choose their own shock levels.

_____ conformity is to the desire to be right as _____ conformity is to the desire to be liked.
A.Normative; informational
B.Mindless; normative
C.Informational; mindless
D.Informational; normative

D.Informational; normative

Majorities tend to rely on ____, whereas minorities tend to rely on ______.
A.informational social influence; normative social influence
B.normative social influence; informational social influence
C.normative social influence; idiosyncrasy credits
D.informational social influence; conversion

B.normative social influence; informational social influence

In a series of studies by Solomon Asch (1951, 1956), when participants judged the lengths of lines alone rather than in a group of confederates, their judgments were accurate about 99% of the time. Still, when other participants made judgments in a group of people who gave the wrong answers, they often reported incorrect judgments. These findings suggest that
A.experts exert informational social influence in ambiguous situations.
B.conformity was due mostly to normative influence because the stimulus was unambiguous
C.informational social influence happens, even in unambiguous situations.
D.people will distort reality to avoid punishment or social censure.

B.conformity was due mostly to normative influence because the stimulus was unambiguous

In ambiguous situations, we sometimes fall prey to the influence of others’ attitudes or behaviors, and bring our own attitudes or behaviors into line with theirs. This type of conformity arises from
A.normative social influence.
B.voluntary obedience.
C.unintentional social influence.
D.informational social influence.

D.informational social influence.

Recall that when Solomon Asch (1955) conducted an experiment in which five confederates gave the wrong judgment about the lengths of lines and in which a sixth confederate gave the correct judgment, participants’ normative conformity dropped drastically. These findings support the importance of _____ in creating conformity.
A.unanimity
B.normative pressures
C.immediacy
D.strength

A.unanimity

The _____ technique refers to a way of inducing compliance by first presenting people with a small request, and then to a larger request.
A.door-in-the-face
B.lowballing
C.foot-in-the-door
D.reciprocal obligation

C.foot-in-the-door

Going along with the crowd (e.g., swallowing goldfish, smoking pot, train-surfing) because of a fear of social censure is an example of
A.normative social influence.
B.informational social influence.
C.social impact.
D.social dominance.

A.normative social influence.

All of the following are examples of informational social influence EXCEPT:
A.You are running a race, and you wait to check which of two roads the other runners follow.
B.You’ve just started work at a new job, and a fire alarm goes off. You watch your coworkers to see what to do.
C.You ask your advisor which classes you should take next semester.
D.You decide to lose weight, because people you see on the covers of popular magazines are thinner than you are and you want people to like you more.

D.You decide to lose weight, because people you see on the covers of popular magazines are thinner than you are and you want people to like you more.

In which of the following cases is conformity due to information social influence least likely to occur?
A.a new camper arrives at camp and needs to figure out procedures in the cafeteria
B.a person on the street is stumbling and it is not clear if they are hurt or drunk
C.a repairman falls off a ladder and breaks his leg while working in the hospital
D.an airplane hits major turbulence and it is a few minutes until the captain gets on the speaker to reassure the passengers

C.a repairman falls off a ladder and breaks his leg while working in the hospital

People who hold minority opinions influence the majority group through
A.informational social influence.
B.normative social influence.
C.public compliance.
D.assertive verbal jousting.

A.informational social influence.

Recall that Solomon Asch (1951, 1956) asked participants to estimate the lengths of lines. In response to the incorrect answers of others, some participants actually denied what their eyes saw. These studies provide evidence of
A.normative social influence.
B.informational social influence.
C.private acceptance.
D.contagion.

A.normative social influence.

Recall that Muzafer Sherif (1936) placed participants in a dark room and asked them to estimate the movement of a dot of light projected on a screen. This study of the autokinetic effect demonstrated the power of
A.normative social influence.
B.conversion.
C.informational social influence.
D.obedience to authority.

C.informational social influence.

People are especially likely to conform due to informational social influence _______________.
A.when the task is intellectual or academic
B.more in private than in public
C.when the situation is highly ambiguous
D.the more flexible and yielding the other people are

C.when the situation is highly ambiguous

Informational social influence occurs because
A.individuals have a need to belong and be liked.
B.social norms encourage cooperation.
C.others’ behaviors serve as cues in ambiguous situations.
D.others can reward or punish us for nonconformity.

C.others’ behaviors serve as cues in ambiguous situations.

In a variation of his standard experiment, Solomon Asch (1957) found that when participants could write their responses on a piece of paper, conformity dropped dramatically. This finding indicates that participants exhibited _____, not _____ during the standard experiment.
A.public compliance; private acceptance
B.private acceptance; public compliance
C.private acceptance; public compliance
D.mindless conformity; logical reasoning

A.public compliance; private acceptance

The ___________ technique involves making a large request followed by a smaller one.
A.foot-in-the-door
B.door-in-the-face
C.lowballing
D.slam-dunk

B.door-in-the-face

In his original study, Milgram found that about ________% of his participants went all the way to 450 mv when administering electric shocks to a learner.
A.25
B.50
C.63
D.85

C.63

Recall that in a study by Baron et al. (1996), some participants were asked to select perpetrators after a lineup in conditions of high ambiguity: the perpetrator wore different clothing in the lineup than in the original photo, and the slides were shown very quickly. Recall also that some participants were told that the task was one that was being normed for use by the police department and were offered $20 if they were the most accurate, while others were told that it was just a laboratory task under development. This study demonstrated that
A.the more important it was to participants to be correct, the more they conformed to other group members’ answers, but only in the high ambiguity condition.
B.the more important it was to participants to be correct, the less they conformed to other group members’ answers.
C.when the task was more important, people conformed more but their self-esteem decreased.
D.people were more resistant to influence in this study than in the Sherif study because of the greater degree of mundane realism.

A.the more important it was to participants to be correct, the more they conformed to other group members’ answers, but only in the high ambiguity condition.

Recall that James Michaels and his colleagues (1982) identified both good and bad pool players, and then stood around their tables to watch them play. These researchers found that poor players _____ because _____
A.made fewer shots; they were embarrassed.
B.made more shots; arousal facilitates performance.
C.made fewer shots; playing pool was a complex task.
D.made more shots; they were motivated to "show off."

C.made fewer shots; playing pool was a complex task.

The phenomenon of groupthink is most likely to occur when a group is under stress, highly _____, and when the leader is very __________.
A.cohesive; directive
B.cohesive; diplomatic
C.motivated; feared
D.motivated; relationship-oriented

A.cohesive; directive

_____ refers to the tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of their individual members.
A.Groupthink
B.The risky shift
C.Group polarization
D.Negotiation

C.Group polarization

Many Asian cultures are collectivistic; that is, they tend to place a greater emphasis on the welfare of the group than on the individual. Conversely, Western cultures tend to stress individual performance more than that of the group. A reasonable hypothesis would be that the social loafing effect is
A.stronger in Western culture.
B.stronger in collectivist cultures.
C.unaffected by cultural norms.
D.almost nonexistent in collectivistic cultures.

A.stronger in Western culture.

Most social psychologists agree that there are two reasons why deindividuation leads to more deviant behavior:
A.People feel anonymous in a group; group norms become more influential than personal standards.
B.People feel more self-aware, and people use others to shoulder the blame.
C.People become frustrated, and people feel less accountable for acting on their frustration.
D.People pay less attention to their environment, and people feel anonymous in a group.

A.People feel anonymous in a group; group norms become more influential than personal standards.

Although social groups vary tremendously (e.g., families, sororities, sports teams, religious congregations), they are all alike in that
A.members share the same space at the same time.
B.actions are guided by norms.
C.they tend to be heterogeneous.
D.convey competitive advantage.

B.actions are guided by norms.

In order to avoid the phenomenon of groupthink, the leader of a group should
A.form subgroups that discuss the problem separately.
B.state his or her opinions forcefully.
C.discourage the input of opinions from those outside the group.
D.encourage the importance of group cohesiveness.

A.form subgroups that discuss the problem separately.

Recall that one reason that deindividuation often leads to impulsive or destructive behaviors is that the presence of many other people can reduce self-awareness, thus making people
A.feel frightened and aroused.
B.forget their internal values or moral standards.
C.feel more frustrated, which increases the impulse to aggress.
D.less likely to contribute to group decisions.

B.forget their internal values or moral standards.

Jan is the leader of a cohesive "knowledge masters" group that is preparing to compete against teams from other colleges. To prevent groupthink and ensure that her group is successful, she should:
A.take a strong directive role as their leader
B.assess group members’ opinions frequently using show-of-hand voting
C.create a unified, cohesive membership to devise strategies together
D.invite experts who are not members of the group to attend practice sessions and provide critical feedback
E.take the group to a cabin in the mountains so that they are not distracted by other things

D.invite experts who are not members of the group to attend practice sessions and provide critical feedback

A(n) _____ leader is more concerned with getting the job done than with the feelings of and relationships between workers.
A.goal-oriented
B.task-oriented
C.control-oriented
D.autonomous

B.task-oriented

Deindividuation is defined as the feeling of anonymity that often results in
A.social loafing.
B.impulsive deviant acts.
C.prosocial behaviors.
D.contagion.

B.impulsive deviant acts.

In describing his experiences during decision-making that preceded the disastrous Bay of Pigs invasion, Kennedy’s adviser, Arthur Schlesinger, reported that although he was opposed to the invasion, he didn’t speak out because "others would regard it as presumptuous of him, a college professor, to take issue with august heads of government institutions." This example best reflects _____ as a symptom of groupthink.
A.groups members’ sense of invulnerability
B.decisive leaders’ refusal to solicit other points of view
C.self-censorship in the interest of avoiding criticism
D.the isolation of groups

C.self-censorship in the interest of avoiding criticism

Recall that Robert Zajonc and his colleagues (1969) employed the lowly cockroach in their studies of social facilitation. In the presence of other cockroaches, roaches would run faster down a straight-away to escape a bright light than they would alone, but took longer in the presence of a cockroach audience when the escape route was more complicated (i.e., when they had to run a maze). These findings support the idea that
A.members of even the most lowly species experience evaluation apprehension.
B.cockroaches differ from humans in their response to other members of their species.
C.the presence of other members of a species elicits the most dominant response.
D.the presence of other members of a species impedes the most dominant response.

C.the presence of other members of a species elicits the most dominant response.

Social facilitation in which performance is enhanced is most likely to occur when
A.the task is difficult and involving.
B.the presence of others relaxes you.
C.the task is simple and well-learned.
D.individual efforts cannot be assessed.

C.the task is simple and well-learned.

According to social psychological reasoning, a large "student body" is not a social group because
A.students seldom share a common goal.
B.there is not consensus on the norms for appropriate behavior.
C.students vary tremendously in age, beliefs, backgrounds, and opinions.
D.each student cannot possibly interact with all other students.

D.each student cannot possibly interact with all other students.

_____ is the key to social facilitation effects, whereas _____ is the key to social loafing effects.
A.Relaxation; evaluation apprehension
B.Arousal; relaxation
C.Evaluation; deindividuation
D.Relaxation; arousal

B.Arousal; relaxation

Early studies of group decision-making demonstrated that groups made riskier decisions than individuals do. The concept of "risky shift" was born. Later studies, however, revealed that group decisions are not necessarily more risky than individual decisions; instead, they are more extreme. The concept of _______ was born.
A.extremity shift
B.culture-value theory
C.group polarization
D.decisional instability

C.group polarization

The presence of others will enhance performance for
A.Tim, who is washing his car as his neighbors watch.
B.Jasmine, who gives a dress rehearsal of a long, complicated speech.
C.Arthur, who performs his first heart surgery with interns looking on.
D.Lola, who is learning a new gymnastics routine with her team.

A.Tim, who is washing his car as his neighbors watch.

_____ refers to the loosening of normal behavioral constraints when people are in a crowd, leading to increases in impulsive and deviant acts.
A.Social loafing
B.Collective contagion
C.Deindividuation
D.Collective anonymity

C.Deindividuation

Compared to individuals deciding alone, members of groups tend to make decisions that are
A.riskier.
B.more conservative.
C.more extreme.
D.less stable.

C.more extreme.

According to a social comparison interpretation, group polarization tends to occur because individuals can present themselves in a more _____ light by taking slightly more _____ positions than the norm of the group.
A.positive; extreme
B.positive; cautious
C.negative; risky
D.positive; conservative

A.positive; extreme

Consider the following destructive acts: Soccer fans bludgeoning one another, fans at rock concerts trampling one another to death to secure good seats, Klansmen lynching African-Americans. All of these are examples of the dangerous effects of
A.hysterical contagion.
B.anti-social contagion.
C.anti-social anonymity.
D.deindividuation.

D.deindividuation.

Social loafing is most likely to occur when
A.an improvisational comedy troupe performs.
B.a team of computer scientists works to locate and correct errors in a program.
C.candidates for city council engage in a public debate.
D.a team of volunteers stuffs envelopes for a large mailing.

D.a team of volunteers stuffs envelopes for a large mailing.

A(n) _____ leader is primarily concerned with workers’ feelings and relationships with one another.
A.collectivistic
B.contingency
C.emotion-oriented
D.relationship-oriented

D.relationship-oriented

Members of the military may need to engage in behaviors, such as killing or wounding the enemy, that may go against personal moral standards such as "Thou shalt not kill." To get people to adhere to group rather than individual standards, the military acts to increase soldiers’ sense of ____________ when they are on the battlefield.
A.cognitive dissonance
B.self-awareness
C.emotional arousal
D.deindividuation

D.deindividuation

The evaluation apprehension explanation for the source of arousal that produces social facilitation posits that ______ leads to increased arousal, and thus enhanced performance on simple tasks.
A.the mere presence of others
B.a social distraction such as a loud party
C.the presence of others who might judge us
D.vigilance and divided attention

C.the presence of others who might judge us

Assume that you are playing pool at the student union when several of your buddies surround the table to watch you play. If you are _____ player, you would ____ because of the arousing effects of their presence.
A.an excellent; make most of your shots
B.an excellent; perform worse than usual
C.mediocre; play better than before
D.poor; better than you have in the past

A.an excellent; make most of your shots

Both social facilitation and social loafing are manifestations of the influence that the presence of others have on our behaviors. These phenomena differ, however, in that presence of others ______ in social facilitation situations and _______ in social loafing situations.
A.increases evaluation apprehension; decreases evaluation apprehension
B.impairs performance on simple tasks; impairs performance on complex tasks
C.decreases arousal; increases arousal
D.enhances performance on simple tasks; impairs performance on complex tasks.

A.increases evaluation apprehension; decreases evaluation apprehension

_____ refers to the tendency of people to perform better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks when others are present.
A.Social loafing
B.Deindividuation
C.Contingent performance
D.Social facilitation

D.Social facilitation

Little Neil is frustrated and is threatening to throttle his baby sister. His mother intervenes, and suggests that Neil "get over it" by taking a dozen eggs and smashing them against the tree in the front yard. Neil’s mother appears to be a proponent of _____ as a means of reducing aggression.
A.displacement
B.-catharsis
C.projection
D.frustration-aggression theory

B.-catharsis

______ reflects the idea that if people can "aggress" in harmless ways, built up aggressive energies will diminish, reducing the odds of further aggressive behavior.
A.Social learning
B.Displacement
C.-Catharsis
D.Fantasy inhibition

C.-Catharsis

Which of the following is the best example of instrumental aggression?
A.Scott has a quick temper and gets into fights at parties.
B.An assassin kills a leader to ensure the success of a coup.
C.Angry at her boyfriend, Liz destroys his stereo.
D.Karin runs over her neighbor’s cat.

B.An assassin kills a leader to ensure the success of a coup.

A country called Asukistan has just entered a war with a neighboring nation. Based on cross-cultural research by Dane Archer and Rosemary Gartner (1976, 1984), how will the citizens of Asukistan be affected?
A.They will sympathize with the civilians of the neighboring country, but wish death on their armies.
B.Their own homicide rates will increase.
C.They will become more sensitive to the violence among their own citizenry as a result of viewing the war from TV news coverage.
D.Crime rates as a whole will decrease in Asukistan.

B.Their own homicide rates will increase.

_____ refers to the perception that you (or your group) have less than you were led to expect, or less that similar others have.
A.Frustration
B.Absolute deprivation
C.Relative deprivation
D.Aspirational deprivation

C.Relative deprivation

In explaining the race riots of 1967 and 1968, Reverend Jesse Jackson noted that the riots occurred "in the middle of rising expectations and the increased, though inadequate, social spending." His analysis best reflects ______ as a source of aggression.
A.thwarted expectations
B.discrimination and direct provocation
C.-catharsis
D.the discomfort caused by the "long, hot summer"

A.thwarted expectations

Research on the effects of aggressive stimuli shows that
A.The mere presence of guns is enough to trigger aggressive behavior.
B.The presence of guns increases the probability of aggressive behavior in the presence of a frustration or provocation.
C.People only aggress in the presence of an aggressive stimulus.
D.Aggressive behavior triggers an aversion to aggressive stimuli.

B.The presence of guns increases the probability of aggressive behavior in the presence of a frustration or provocation.

According to most social psychologists, aggression is defined as

A.behavior intended to cause harm to or pain in another.
B.any infliction of harm or pain on another.
C.the intention to relieve frustration by harming another.
D.any action that results in physical or psychological pain in or harm to another.

A.behavior intended to cause harm to or pain in another.

Which of the following is the best example of an aggressive stimulus?
A.a gun rack in the rear window of a pick-up truck
B.extreme heat
C.loud, unpredictable noise
D.an insult

A.a gun rack in the rear window of a pick-up truck

John and Sam get into a fistfight in the middle of a gun shop. The presence of the guns would be an example of
A.aggressive stimuli.
B.modeling.
C.agitating stimuli.
D.provocative objects.

A.aggressive stimuli.

_____ aggression is an act that stems from feelings of anger, and that is aimed at inflicting pain.
A.Misplaced
B.Hostile
C.Instrumental
D.Malicious

B.Hostile

Social-psychological research has revealed that viewers of a great deal of television come to view the world as a dangerous and hostile place. If Terry is one such person, what is he likely to think when he watches a violent cops and robbers show?
A."If they can do it, so can I."
B."So that’s how it’s done."
C."I guess it’s the urge to aggress that I’m feeling."
D."I had better get him before he gets me!"

D."I had better get him before he gets me!"

Which statement best reflects most social psychologists’ beliefs about the nature of aggression? Aggression
A.is based on normal inborn instincts.
B.occurs when unexpressed emotions build up inside and must be expressed to relieve pressure.
C.is entirely determined by situational factors.
D.is the result of both inborn propensities and a particular situational context.

D.is the result of both inborn propensities and a particular situational context.

Which of the following is not a viable explanation for why watching violence on television is correlated with aggressive behavior, according to social psychological research?
A.television makes the world seem a more dangerous and hostile place
B.television encourages the catharsis of aggressive impulses
C.television teaches new ways to aggress and inspires imitation
D.television desensitizes people to violence

B.television encourages the catharsis of aggressive impulses

Recall an experiment in which participants were insulted, then half of them learned that the offender was upset due to a low grade (Johnson & Rule, 1986). Those participants responded with less aggression when given the opportunity to, compared with those who were not informed of the low grade. These results support the idea that provocation is less likely to result in an aggressive response when
A.we can empathize with those who provoke us.
B.those who provoke us apologize before we are provoked.
C.those who provoke us have an excuse for their behavior.
D.we learn of mitigating circumstance ahead of time.

D.we learn of mitigating circumstance ahead of time.

Which of the following is the best example of hostile aggression?
A.Bernie is angry at his mother and screams at her, "I hate you!"
B.Angela threatens her younger brother to force him to give up a toy which belongs to her.
C.A lineman sacks a quarterback to put him out of the game.
D.An angry driver loses control and runs his car into a ditch.

A.Bernie is angry at his mother and screams at her, "I hate you!"

According to Bandura’s comments during the videos we viewed in class, _______ are the key determinants of whether or not we react with aggression.
A.cognitive processes such as construals and attributions
B.previous experience with the use of aggression
C.biological factors, such as amygdalic activation and testosterone levels
D.emotional factors, such as neuroticism, sensivitivity to threat, and self-esteem

A.cognitive processes such as construals and attributions

During the seventeenth century, when European fur traders arrived, the Iroquois changed from a peace-loving tribe to fierce enemies of their neighbors, the Hurons. This suggests that
A.there are consistent cultural norms driving the expression of aggression.
B.tribal inbreeding selected for aggressive behaviors.
C.economic and social competition can elicit aggression.
D.aggression is affected by innate propensities and learned inhibitory responses.

C.economic and social competition can elicit aggression.

One determinant of whether we will respond aggressively when provoked is whether
A.we perceive the provocation as intentional.
B.there are mitigating circumstances known at the time of the aggression but not at the time of the frustration.
C.provocation was accompanied by forewarning.
D.provocation takes the form of a threat.

A.we perceive the provocation as intentional.

Social-psychological research has revealed that exposure to televised violence might weaken viewers’ inhibitions about using violence in their own lives. If Peter is one such person, what is he likely to think when he watches a violent cops and robbers show?
A."If they can get away with it, so can I."
B."So that’s how it’s done."
C."I guess it’s the urge to aggress that I’m feeling."
D."Big deal. What’s on PBS?"

A."If they can get away with it, so can I."

Hostile aggression differs from instrumental aggression in that instrumental aggression
A.often follows from anger or frustration.
B.is more destructive than hostile aggression.
C.is more likely to result in retaliation.
D.involves inflicting pain as a means to an end.

D.involves inflicting pain as a means to an end.

_____ theory posits that we learn to aggress by observing and imitating others.
A.Frustration-aggression
B.Direct reinforcement
C.Social learning
D.Aggression spillover

C.Social learning

_____ theory can be used to explain why participants will derogate victims after they have done those victims physical (Glass, 1964) or psychological harm (Davis & Jones, 1960).
A.Cognitive dissonance
B.Self-affirmation
C.Social learning
D.Psychoanalytic

A.Cognitive dissonance

According to the social-psychological definition of "aggression," which of the behaviors below is the best example of aggression?
A.David is not paying attention and runs over the neighbor’s cat as he backs out of the driveway.
B.Amanda asserts herself with her boss and makes a spirited argument for a raise.
C.A child throws a temper tantrum and tries to hit his father.
D.One basketball player fouls another when he is trying to shoot.

C.A child throws a temper tantrum and tries to hit his father.

__________ support the contention that watching media violence is associated with increased aggression in children.
A.Correlational studies
B.Laboratory experiments
C.Field studies
D.Research on violent video games
E.all of the above

E.all of the above

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