SOC PSYCH Exam 3

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The evolutionary process by which nature selects traits that best enable organisms to survive and reproduce in particular environmental niches is called

natural selection

According to natural selection, those with genes best suited to an environment are likely to

survive and reproduce

______ is the study of the evolution of behavior using principles of natural selection.

evolutionary psychology

Evolutionary psychologists study

physical traits

The implications of evolutionary psychology suggest that human success is defined by

having grandchildren

One of the most important similarities in humans is our capacity

to learn and adpat

Compared to other species, humans are _______ restricted by their genetics.

less

The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next are called

cultures

Human kinship is to the _______ perspective as social diversity is to the _______ perspective.

evolutionary; cultural

Zoe has lived in the United States all of her life, yet her Greek grandmother made sure that Zoe was fluent in the Greek language so she would understand the Greek way of life. What has Zoe’s grandmother passed on to her?

a culture

As an exchange student, you notice that standards of beauty are much different in the country you are visiting. Billboards and advertisements display women that are not as thin as in the United States. You conclude that this difference in standards of beauty is the result of different

cultures

Rules for accepted and expected behavior are called

norms

Norms _____ behavior.

prescribe

Seven-year-old Mary says "Thank you" after opening each birthday present she receives because her family considers it to be proper behavior. This best illustrates the influence of a

norm

Which statement about social norms is FALSE?

Social norms are not affected by culture.

Punctuality is one of the _______ of North American businesspeople.

norms

The buffer space we like to maintain around our bodies is called our personal

space

Your family is anticipating the arrival of an exchange student from Latin America. Being a student of social psychology, you are aware that the student’s preference for personal space will likely

be less than your family’s

What cultural differences or similarities were found in the research on pedestrian interaction in the U.S. and Japan?

Both cultures tended to look back at someone who looked at them.

Although there are many unoccupied tables in the restaurant, Rudolph decides to sit at the same table in the chair right next to James. James feels uncomfortable because Rudolph has violated

his personal space

Brown (1987) reported that in many languages, forms of address, such as the distinction between formal and informal varieties of "you," communicate not only social distance, but also

social status

According to Brown (1987), in general, who is more likely to initiate intimacy?

the higher-status person

Some norms are culture-specific, while others are universal. The universality of some norms is accounted for by

genetic predispositions

Universal norms are to _______ as culture-specific norms are to _______.

nature; nurture

In psychology, the characteristics by which people define male and female, whether biologically or socially influenced, is referred to as

gender

Maccoby (2002) found that girls tend to _______ compared to boys.

talk more intimately

Pratto and her colleagues (1997) reported that _______ tend to gravitate toward jobs that reduce inequalities, such as a public defender.

women

Pratto and colleagues (1997) reported that _______ tend to gravitate toward jobs that enhance inequalities, such as a prosecuting attorney.

men

Being a student of social psychology, you can predict with reasonable accuracy that _______ are more likely to contribute to charitable organizations.

women

According to the text, _______ are more likely to describe themselves as having empathy.

women

Worldwide, women’s vocational interests, compared to men,

relate to people rather than things

The vicarious experience of another’s feelings or ability to put oneself in another’s shoes is

empathy

______ are more likely to favor conservative political candidates.

men

Women’s wages in industrial nations are ___ percent of men’s.

70-90%

During a conversation, men are more likely than women to do all of the following EXCEPT

smile more

Much of the style we attribute to men is

typical of people of both sexes of higher status and power

Evolutionary psychologists suggest that males are sexually assertive while females are more selective of sexual partners because

each strategy is likely to promote gene survival

Evolutionary psychology would explain the male tendency to be attracted to woman’s physical features of youth and health because of

reproductive fitness

As people mature to middle age and beyond,

gender differences in interpersonal behavior decrease

Evolutionary explanations of gender differences have been criticized because they

do not explain cultural changes in behavior that occur over relatively short periods of time.

A set of behavioral expectations for males and females defines gender

role

The term gender role refers to

a set of behavior expectations for males and females

In a 2010 survey, _____ believed that men have more rights to a job than women when jobs are scarce.

the majority of people from collectivist cultures

Which one of the following statements is TRUE?

gender roles vary by culture

In the mid 1960s, married women in the United States devoted seven times as many hours to housework as did their husbands, yet in the mid 1990s, this figure was down to two times as many hours. This pattern reflects how gender roles

vary over time

Your mother has commented on how little time your older sister, who recently married, spends on housework, as compared to what she herself used to spend when she was a newlywed. Your mother’s comment reflects how gender roles

vary over time

The Nurture Assumption refers to the belief that

the way parents bring up their children governs who their children become

Twin and adoption studies indicate that genetic influences explain approximately ___ percent of individual variations in personality traits.

50

Harris (1996) argued that 40 to 50 percent of the personality differences between siblings can be explained by

peer influence

Harris (1996) suggested that if children were left with their same schools, neighborhoods, and peers, but their parents were switched, the children would develop into the same sort of adults. This conclusion reflects the power of

peers

A relationship in which the effect of one factor (such as biology) depends on another factor (such as environment) is the definition of

interaction

As women’s employment in formerly male occupations has increased, the gender difference in self-reported masculinity/femininity has

decreased

As men and women perform more similar roles, their psychological differences

shrink

What can we conclude about the relationship between persons and situations?

All of the above

Which of the following is NOT one of the ways in which social situations and individuals interact?

people are unaffected by their social situations

If we expect our significant other to be cheerful when we next see her, this may encourage her to be cheerful. This phenomenon is an example of how

social situations affects different people differently

If we expect someone to be hostile, our actions toward that person may induce hostility. This is an example of how

people create their social situations

____ implies that those genes that predispose traits that increase the odds of an individual surviving long enough to reproduce and nurture descendants will become more abundant in the population.

Natural Selection

Differences in how people greet one another, select and eat their foods, pick out their clothing, and speak with one another reflects differences in

culture

The amount of personal space we require is based on all the following factors EXCEPT

weight

The incest taboo is an example of

a universal norm

A set of behavior expectations for males and females is called

gender role

Dr. Smith is interested in how the principles of natural selection impact humans’ cognitions and behavior. Dr. Smith is most likely a(n)

evolutionary psychologist

_____ refer(s) to enduring behaviors, ideas, traditions, and attitudes that are shared by large groups of people and transferred generation to generation.

cultur

According to Baumeister, culture is linked to all of the following EXCEPT

why Africans have darker skin than Scandinavians

Standards for accepted and expected behaviors are called

norms

All of the following are universal friendship norms EXCEPT

making eye contact while talking

Which of the following is not a norm of war?

Treat prisoners humanely

Compared to girls, boys

play in larger groups

Which of the following is false?

Women buy more greeting cards than men.

Dr. Clark studies how diet, drugs, and stress can impact genetic expression. Dr. Clark studies

evolutionary psychology

A change in behavior or belief to accord with others is called

conformity

Even though you really dislike wearing a dress, you decide to wear one to your cousin’s wedding. This is an example of

compliance

In Western individualistic societies, the word "conformity" carries

a negative value judgment

Conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with an implied or explicit request, while privately disagreeing, is called

compliance

When our behavior is a result of our boss telling us to do something, it is a form of

obedience

If you clean your room only because your parents order you to, your behavior is a form of

obedience

Acting in accord with a direct order is called

compliance

Conformity that involves both acting and believing in accord with social pressure is called

compliance

After hearing so much about the dangers of smoking cigarettes from the media and seeing numbers of people who quit the habit, Jacob finally realizes that smoking is dangerous and therefore he quits. His behavior is an example of

acceptance

A classmate across the room yawns and then several other students yawn. This is an example of

the chameleon effect

The Werther effect is most likely to occur

in places where the suicide story is publicized.

The spread of bodily complaints within a school or workplace with no organic basis for the symptoms is called

mass hysteria

How did Asch’s studies of conformity differ from those of Sherif?

Asch’s participants could clearly see the correct judgment

While control participants were correct about line-length judgments more than 99 percent of the time in Asch’s conformity study, his naive participants conformed to the incorrect judgments of others ___ percent of the time.

37

Milgram’s studies explored _______; Asch’s studies explored _______.

obedience; conformity

The experimenter in Milgram’s study used all EXCEPT which of the following verbal prods to encourage participants to continue?

"You will be penalized if you refuse to go on."

When participants in Milgram’s experiments wanted to quit, they were given

up to four verbal prods to keep them going.

When Milgram asked 100 psychiatrists, college students, and middle-class adults to predict the results of his experiment, the respondents said that they thought _______ would _______.

they themselves; disobey by about 135 volts

When Milgram conducted his first series of experiments with a sample of 20- to 50-year-old men, he found that over 60 percent of them

went all the way to 450 volts

In follow-up experiments to his initial study, Milgram made the learner’s protests more compelling by having him complain of a heart condition, then scream and plead for release, and finally refuse to answer. With this added condition,

the majority of participants still fully obeyed the experimenter’s demands

In light of the Milgram studies, which of the following is NOT one of the factors that determined obedience?

the victim’s similarity to the teacher

Several restaurant managers complied with orders from a telephone caller, posing as a police officer, to strip search a customer or employee. This is an example of the power of _______ on compliance.

the legitimacy of authority

We tend to feel more sadness when we learn about one person’s death on the news than we feel when we hear of thousands killed in a natural disaster. This is

because of personalization of the victim

Research on group size and conformity has shown that there is more conformity with

3-5 people than 1-2

Research on group size and conformity has shown that there is more conformity with

4 people as a group than 2 people in 2 groups

According to conformity research, a group’s social power is deflated when it loses its

unanimity

According to conformity research, a group’s social power is deflated when

just one other person also differs from the majority

The extent to which members of a group are bound together, such as by attraction to one another, is called

cohesion

Group members who feel attracted to the group are more responsive to its influence. This fact illustrates the impact of _______ on conformity.

cohesiveness

Mullen and her colleagues (1990) found that the average baseline jaywalking rate decreases in the presence of a non-jaywalking confederate, especially if the non-jaywalker is well dressed. This is an example of the power of _______ on conformity.

status

After President Bush announced his position regarding a possible war with Iraq, he was unlikely to change his mind. This most likely reflects the

fact that public commitment reduces susceptibility to social influence.

Conformity based on a person’s desire to fulfill others’ expectations, often to gain their acceptance, is called

normative influence

Conformity that occurs when people accept evidence about reality that is provided by other people is called

informational influence

When we go along with the crowd and act counter to our own beliefs and values, we are conforming because of

normative influence

Conformity is greater when people respond publicly before a group. This pattern reflects

normative influence

Normative influence leads to compliance, especially for those

who are seeking to climb a status ladder

A concern for _______ produces normative influence, while a concern for _______ produces informational influence.

social image; being correct

Conformity is greater when people feel incompetent. This pattern reflects

informational influence

According to the text, personality predicts behavior when social influences are

strong

When the influence of the situation is _______, the consequent behavior is more likely to be a result of _______.

weak; individual personalities

Cultural values influence conformity. It is more responsive to others’ influences

in collectivist countries than individualistic countries

Which of the following statements is TRUE of conformity and obedience?

They are universal phenomena that vary by culture.

Compared to people in individualistic countries, those in collectivist countries are

more responsive to others’ influence.

In conformity research, Stephens (2007) found _____ people tend to prefer being similar to others, while _____ people strongly prefer to see themselves as unique.

working-class; middle-class

A social role is

a cluster of norms

Ahmed generally likes to go home to visit his family during vacation. However, after his father tells him that he must be home during spring vacation, Ahmed decides to remain at college. Ahmed’s behavior is best understood in terms of

psychological reactant

The motive to protect or restore one’s sense of freedom is known as

reactance

The names we choose for our children often express our

desire for uniqueness

A study conducted by Snyder and Fromkin (1980) revealed that people feel better when they see themselves as

moderately unique

When William McGuire and his Yale University colleagues invited children to "tell us about yourself," they found that the children were most likely to mention their

distinctive attributes

In our American culture we want to be _____ a group and _____ everyone else

different from; the same as

According to Myers, an unchallenged assumption in individualistic Western nations is that _______ is good and _______ is bad.

individualism; conformity

David still thinks that the group is making a big mistake, but he decides to give into the pressure and go along with what they decide. This change is best described as

obedience

Asch’s studies of conformity show that

most people are independent, free thinkers

Milgram found that

approximately 65% of his subjects were highly obedient

A person who both acts and believes in accord with social pressure is demonstrating

acceptance

Johnny is talking to his new roommate, Ken, when Ken starts scratching his nose. Within a few seconds, Johnny starts scratching his nose too. This is an example of

the chameleon effect

Milgram’s experiment seems to have made use of which technique?

foot-in-the-door

People are LEAST likely to conform when

they have made prior public commitment

A motive to protect or restore one’s sense of freedom is called

reactance

Although Lenny thinks the speed limit of the highway should be 80 instead of 70 miles per hour, when the policeman tells him to slow down to 70 he does. This is an example of

obedience

At what point in the study does the "learner" in Milgram’s study refuse to answer any additional questions?

300 volts

Which of the following is NOT one of the verbal prods used in Milgram’s studies to keep participants going?

If you do not continue, you will need to take the "learner’s" place

At what point does adding additional group members yield diminishing returns in conformity research?

4 group members

Which statement related to roles and conformity is NOT true?

Social roles vary with culture, but the process of influencing behavior varies less.

Which of the following is the most accurate conclusion regarding the relationship between social control and personal control?

social situations influence individuals

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