SOC PSYCH Exam 1

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The belief that others are paying more attention to one’s appearance and behavior than they actually are is referred to as the _____ effect.

spotlight

Assuming that everyone else is staring at the pimple on your chin is an example of the

spotlight effect

A study by Gilovich, Medvec, and Savitsky (2000) had undergraduate students enter a room wearing Barry Manilow T-shirts. This study explored which concept mentioned in the text?

spotlight effect

A study by Gilovich, Medvec, and Savitsky (2000) had undergraduate students enter a room wearing Barry Manilow T-shirts. Those wearing the T-shirts

overestimated how many peers would notice them.

The illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others is referred to as the illusion of

transparency.

Assuming that everyone thinks you are a jerk because you forgot to show up at a dinner party with a gift for the host can be considered an example of the _____ effect.

spotlight

The fact that we usually attribute more responsibility to our partners than to ourselves when problems arise in a relationship is an example of how

self-interest colors our social judgment.

In Savitsky and Gilovich’s study, public speakers who were informed about the illusion-of-transparency phenomenon felt

better about their speech and appearance.

When you give a presentation in class and feel extremely nervous you will tend to
_____ what others think about your nervousness.

overestimate

According to the author of the text, no topic in psychology today is more researched than

the self

A person’s answer to the question "Who am I?" comprises his or her

self-concept

_______ is defined as the beliefs about the self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information.

Self-schema

____ are mental templates by which we organize our worlds.

Schemas

Images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future are called our

possible selves

After seeing a billboard for the lottery, you imagine a life of the rich and famous for yourself. This future self-schema you imagine is an example of a/an

possible self

The extent to which we evaluate our abilities and opinions by comparing ourselves to others is called

social comparison

High school students who finished near the top of their class are more likely to experience a threat to their academic self-esteem if they attend a

large, selective university

You prefer that professors post exam scores (by identification number), rather than returning them individually. It makes you feel better to see how you did in comparison to other students. This is an example of what social psychology phenomenon?

social comparison

According to Myers’ discussion on social comparison, people typically _______ the standards by which they evaluate their own attainments when they experience a(n) _______ in affluence, status, or achievement.

lower;increase

An example of how social comparisons can actually breed misery, rather than satisfaction, is when we

raise the standards by which we evaluate our own attainments.

When facing competition, we often protect our self-concept by perceiving

the competitor as advantaged in comparison to us.

Our self-concept is fed by our roles, our social identity, our comparisons, and by

everyday hassles

The habit of using how we imagine another person perceiving us, as a mirror for perceiving ourselves, is referred to as

the looking-glass self

Giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals, and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications is the definition of

individualism

Which of the following maxims best represents the concept of individualism?

To thine own self be true.

Giving priority to the goals of one’s group, such as one’s family or workplace, and defining one’s identity accordingly is called

collectivism

A person from a(n) _____ culture is more likely to say, "Went to the movie," and a person from a(n) _____ culture is more likely to say, "I went to the movie."

collectivistic; individualistic

In the U.S., those living in Hawaii and the deep South exhibit more _______ than those living in the Mountain West states.

collectivism

Political conservatives tend to be economic _______ and moral _______.

individualists; collectivists

Political liberals tend to be economic _______ and moral _______.

collectivists; individualists

You overhear a neighbor say that she believes gay marriage should be ILLEGAL and she FAVORS tax cuts for the wealthy. Knowing what you do about individualism and collectivism, you can conclude that your neighbor is likely to be a political

conservative

You overhear a neighbor say that she believes gay marriage should be LEGAL, and she OPPOSES tax cuts for the wealthy. Knowing what you do about individualism and collectivism, you can conclude that your neighbor is likely to be a political

liberal

Your self-esteem would correlate closely with what others think of you and your group if you were in a(n) ______ culture.

collectivistic

Self-esteem is more personal and less relational in what type of culture?

Individualistic

In what type of culture would a threat to our personal identity (such as having someone tell us we are dumb or weird) cause us to be more upset than a threat to our collective identity (such as having someone ridicule students)?

Individualistic

Kitayama and Markus (2000) found that, for American students, happiness comes from feeling

effective, superior, and proud

According to the text, self-esteem typically _____ in Japanese exchange students after they spend several months at a Canadian university. This suggests that self-concepts become more individualized after visiting Western countries.

increases

Since our self-concept seems to adjust to our situation, which is most correct?

with an interdepent self, one has a greater sense of belonging

Which statement about predicting your own behaviors or relationships is TRUE?

The people who know you can probably predict your behaviors better than you.

According to Wilson and Gilbert (2003), people have the greatest difficulty predicting _______ of their future emotions.

both the intensity and the duration

According to Woodzicka and LaFrance (2001), women reported that they would feel angry if asked sexually harassing questions during a job interview. When actually asked such questions, women more often experienced

fear

The planning fallacy is the tendency to

underestimate how long a task will take.

When it comes to predicting the intensity and duration of our future emotions, research indicates that most people

experience great difficulty

Studies of "affective forecasting" required participants to predict their future

emotions

You just broke up with someone you had been dating for a few months. You are surprised at how upset you are over the breakup, given that the relationship was not that serious. This is an example of how people have difficulty predicting the

intensity of their future emotions

Learning about immune neglect, which statement applies to how most people respond
to failing an exam?

They move on and try to do better.

According to Myers, we are prone to "impact bias," or _______ the impact of emotion-causing events (such as finding out the results after being tested for HIV).

overestimating

When we accommodate and adjust to personal injuries, romantic breakups, and exam failures, we cope more readily than we would expect. Wilson and Gilbert (2003) referred to this phenomenon as

immune neglect

The state of a "dual attitude system" exists when we have differing _______ and _______ attitudes.

explicit; implicit

Practice that forms new habits, albeit slowly, tends to change what type of attitudes?

implicit

Which statement is most accurate in relationship to our self-awareness?

We really don’t know ourselves as well as we think we do.

Our sense of self-worth is also called our

self-esteem.

The best way to improve your performance in class is to be _____ in the praise and _____ about your ability and performance.

specific; truthful

Baumeister (2003) reported that people who engaged in sexual activity at an early age, teen gang leaders, terrorists, and men in prison for committing violent crimes tend to possess

high self-esteem

Most people with high self-esteem value individual achievement and relationships with others. Narcissists value

individual achievement

People with low self-esteem are _____ to have clinical problems, including anxiety, loneliness, and eating disorders.

more likely

People with high self-esteem and narcissism are _____.

more aggressive

A sense that one is competent and effective refers to one’s

self-efficacy

Researchers reported a _______ correlation between persistence and self-efficacy.

positive

You notice that your niece is unusually persistent when working on her homework. She rarely claims that she is unable to complete an assignment and is academically successful. You would be correct in speculating that she likely has _______ feelings of self-efficacy.

strong

Researchers reported that both anxiety and depression are ______ correlated with self-efficacy.

negatively

The extent to which we perceive outcomes as a result of our own efforts or as a result of chance refers to

locus of control

Your best friend earned a grade of F on her latest physics exam, and believes it was because the professor wrote a very difficult exam. She therefore has a(n) _______ locus of control.

external

You attend a self-help discussion group, where the leader is encouraging people to think of themselves as the writers, directors, and actors of their own lives. The group leader is hoping people will adopt a(n) _______ locus of control.

internal

People who successfully stop smoking and do well in school tend to have a(n) _______ locus of control.

internal

After much contemplation, you decide to decline an invitation to a really great party, as you need to study for an exam. Doing well on this exam will help you meet your long-term goal of graduating with a strong grade point average, which will help you obtain a desirable job. You likely have a(n) _______ locus of control.

internal

The sense of hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over repeated negative events is called

learned helplessness

You have tried to study for an exam with flashcards, with a friend, and with your notes – all to no avail. You begin to feel that you should give up, as whatever you do does not seem to help your exam scores. According to Myers, the best term for this symptom is

learned helplessness

Research has found that when prisoners are given some control over their environments, such as being able to move chairs and operate the lights, they tend to

commit less vandalism

You are more likely to be satisfied with your selection of soda, purchased from the vending machine, if you are presented with _______ options rather than if you are presented with _______ options.

a few; many

According to Schwartz (2000; 2004), individualistic modern cultures have "an excess of freedom," which is positively correlated with

clinical depression

If your initial efforts to lose weight, stop smoking, or improve your grades are successful, it is likely that your self-efficacy will

increase

The tendency to perceive oneself favorably is referred to as

the self-serving bias

According to the self-serving bias, we tend to attribute our successes to _______ and our losses to _______.

skill; chance

Blaming the tree for getting in your way after you crashed the car is an example of

self-serving bias.

Saying "I earned an A on my psychology test" versus "My instructor gave me a C on my psychology test" exemplifies how we associate ourselves with

success and distance ourselves from failure.

When we compare ourselves with others, most of us tend to

see ourselves as better than the average person.

Most people perceive themselves as

much less prejudiced than others.

Which of the following is an example of unrealistic optimism?

I’m sure I’ll get a great job when I graduate.

Many people don’t quit smoking despite all the negative health information available.
This is an example of

unrealistic optimism

Barbara was really shocked when her candidate was not elected. She had assumed that everyone felt as she did and supported her candidate’s ideas. This is an example of the

false consensus effect

Which saying reflects the false consensus effect?

Everyone does it!

The false uniqueness effect is

the tendency to see our talents and moral behaviors as relatively unusual.

Which of the following is NOT one of the ways that the self-serving bias is adaptive?

It makes us feel less vulnerable to risks such as AIDS.

Assuming that other people are as prejudiced against a certain group as we are can easily be explained by

the false consensus effect.

John is nervous about his tennis match, but he still stays out late instead of getting a good night’s sleep the night before the match. This could be an example of

self-handicapping.

Self-monitoring is

adjusting one’s behavior in response to external situations to create the desired impression.

The truth concerning self-efficacy encourages us not to resign ourselves to bad situations. If we persist despite initial failures

Effort and fewer self-doubts will help us succeed

John is about to become a father. He wants to be the "cool dad" but fears that he will be a harsh disciplinarian like his father was. These two types of fathers represent John’s

possible selves

Which of the following is true?

Most psychology research has used middle-class White American respondents

Jill just began a new relationship with Pete. Her last relationship ended after 6 months and she is strongly motivated to make this relationship last longer. Who will make the best prediction of how long her new relationship will last?

Jill’s roommate

According to Bushman and colleagues (2011) college students are most likely to prefer

receiving a self-esteem boost

Greenberg (2008) argues that, to manage their fear of death and feel that their lives are not in vain, people seek to pursue self-esteem by meeting the standards of their society. This is known as

terror management theory

Which part of the brain seems to be involved in maintaining our sense of self?

the right hemisphere

When asked "Who are you?" Juanita answers, "I am friendly, a student, and very religious." Juanita’s answer describes her

self-concept

Persons from western cultures (e.g., America, England), relative to persons from eastern cultures (e.g., China, Korea), tend to

stress their individual accomplishments and uniqueness.

Cathy has forgotten to do her laundry this week. Since she is running late for class she throws on the only clean shirt she has, a "New Kids on the Block" T-shirt leftover from 1988. As she wanders around campus she is convinced that everyone is staring at her. Cathy is experiencing

the spotlight effect

Kevin is hanging out with some friends at the mall when he bumps into his ex-girlfriend and her new boyfriend. He is devastated. He feels like his heart has been torn open, and he is on the verge of tears. Although he has only said "hi" to her, he believes that his friends, his ex-girlfriend, and her new boyfriend can all see his heartache. This phenomenon is known as

the illusion of transparency.

Our sense of self is often influenced by how we imagine important people in our lives perceive us. This is referred to as our

looking-glass self

Joe was delighted when his favorite team won the Super Bowl. After the winning touchdown was scored he said "This has made my month and nothing is going to bring me down from this!" The next morning, however, his mood returned to normal. This is an example of

impact bias

Paul commutes to and from work each day. Although he drives by himself he often speeds along in the carpool lane on the highway. When confronted with his behavior he argues "Well, half the drivers in that lane are alone too." Paul’s response demonstrates

the false consensus effect

Jack is very nervous about meeting his future in-laws for the first time. On the day they arrive at his home to meet him, he greets them in ripped sweat pants and a stained T-shirt. Later, his fiancé tells him that her parents were unimpressed with him. Which of the following best describes Jack’s behavior?

he is self-handicapping

Benjamin is able to adopt his behaviors so that he can fit in with any group of people. Benjamin would likely receive a high score on a scale measuring

self-monitoring

Josh wishes to be passionately loved, rich, and muscular. He’s afraid of being unemployed and alone. Josh’s wishes and fears constitute his

possible selves

Who is MOST likely to have an independent sense of self?

Keith who lives in Oregon.

In comparison to young people in the 1960s and 1970s, how do young people in the United States today view themselves?

more positively

Which of the following is FALSE?

Collectivists are more likely to make downward social comparisons than individualists.

Carmen was assigned a term paper at the start of her Social Psychology class. She figured it would only take two days to write the paper so she did not start it until two days before it was due. Halfway through the second day Carmen was devastated; she wasn’t even halfway done yet! Carmen’s underestimation of how long it would take her to complete her paper is an example of

planning fallacy

How can you change an implicit attitude?

practice

What differentiates a narcissist from someone high in self-esteem?

narcissists lack an interest in otherse.

Mark knows that he is an excellent liar but he doesn’t feel very good about himself in general. Mark is likely to score _____ on measures of self-esteem and _____ on measures of self-efficacy.

low; high

Andrew believes that he did well on his Social Psychology test because he studied a lot and is a good student. Andrew’s belief demonstrates

an internal locus of control

Kim was disappointed after she received a 50% on her first psychology exam but knew she hadn’t studied much. After studying for weeks for her second test, she was even more disappointed to receive another 50%. When asked if she would study even more for the next test she said, "Why bother? It doesn’t matter if I study or not; I still fail." Kim’s attitude demonstrates

learned helplessness

Doug explained his "A" in biology as being the result of hard work and intelligence. He explained his "D" in chemistry as being the result of "bad teaching." This is an example of

self-serving bias

Amelia is highly embarrassed because she passed gas in class today. She is convinced that everyone knows it was her. This is an example of

illusion of transparency

One’s _____ makes up his/her _____.

self-concept; self-schema self-schema; self-concept illusion of transparency; self-reference internal locus of control; self-concept

In a recent study, Gentile et al. (2010) found that U.S. college students’ most common score on a self-esteem measure was

the maximum value on the questionnaire.

Goel et al. (2010) found that Facebook users were _____ accurate in guessing when they agreed with their friends on political issues and _____ accurate in guessing disagreement.

90%; 41%

social psychology is defined as the scientific study of how people

think about, influence, and relate to one another.

The attributions a person makes for his or her spouse’s acid remark depends upon the happiness of the marriage. What concept does this portray?

Social behavior is a function of both the objective situation and how it is construed.

Imagine you are approached by a large dog. You assume the dog is unfriendly, so you start screaming at it to go away. The dog assumes you want to hurt it, so it defends itself by biting your ankle. This is an example of a

self-fulfilling belief

According to the text, social psychology is a(n) _____ science, and one that only began to emerge as a vibrant field after _____.

young; World War II

The best statement about objective reality is

that reality is filtered by our values and beliefs.

According to Myers’ discussion of intuition, which statement is TRUE?

Intuition is both powerful and perilous

Which of the following is an example of how our attitudes and behaviors are shaped by external social forces?

Our standards regarding promptness, beauty, and equality vary with our culture.

Which of the following is FALSE? (for Chapter 1)

Personality psychologists use experimentation more than social psychologists.

When explaining topics such as dating and mating, evolutionary psychologists consider how natural selection might

predispose our attitudes

Those who consider under-the-skin (i.e., biological) and between the skins (i.e., social) influences on topics such as love and hate are referred to as

social neuroscientists

Myers points out that our social behavior is shaped by

other people, our attitudes and personality, and our biology

What is NOT true about how values affect social psychology?

Social psychology research shows us what to value.

Social representations are

socially shared beliefs, including our assumptions and cultural ideologies.

Hastorf and Cantril (1954) found that Princeton students identified twice as many Dartmouth violations as Dartmouth students did when each watched the game. This emphasizes

that humans are objective when watching sports.

The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next is referred to as

culture

Socially shared beliefs are widely held ideas and values, which include our assumptions and cultural ideologies. This is a definition of

social representations

Myers discusses how Maslow’s description of "self-actualized" people was based on a sample he personally selected. Had he selected other people to describe, his ensuing list of self-actualization characterizations may have been different. This is an example of how values can influence

concepts

You ask your academic adviser what to major in, as you can’t seem to decide. She suggests psychology; however, it is important to remember that this answer likely reflects her

values

Whether we label a woman as "ambitious" or "aggressive" is a reflection of our

values

Your decision to call someone a "terrorist" rather than a "freedom fighter" depends on your view of the cause. This is an example of how values can influence not only social psychology, but also

everyday language

Another name for the "I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon" is the

hindsight bias

When asked who you think will win the next presidential election, you reply that you do not know. However, after the election results are reported, you claim that it was obvious all along. This is an example of the

hindsight bias

The difficult 2008 world financial crisis due to lack of regulations and safeguards seems obvious now. This is an example of

hindsight bias

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