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Sampling and Research Design

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Problem Statement and Research Question

Problem Statement

One of the best-explored areas surrounding bedsores is vulnerabilities, where old age, incontinence, neurosensory deficiency, circulation challenges, immobility, malnutrition, medical devices, and multiple health problems have been confirmed as risks factors. Despite the robustness of evidence that ought to have informed evidence-based approaches, the incidences of HAPU remains persistently high, with experts expressing their concern that the epidemiological shift and the changing demographic profile will contribute to an endemic scenario (Pierluissi, Francis & Covinsky, 2014). While it is a well-acknowledged concept that the susceptibility can be minimized through preventive approaches, continuous mapping, monitoring, and timely responses, gaps in the current body of knowledge have limited transitioning of research knowledge to practice. Such is the case of offsetting the attributive risk associated with mattresses. While anecdotal evidence link mattress designs to pressure redistribution and better air flow, the current stock of literature exhibit conflicting views and consistencies on the role of air mattresses, which call for more studies to promote the robustness of evidence as well as managerial decisions to reduce the risk of pressure ulcers.

Research Question

What are the attributive benefits of air mattresses in offsetting the risk of bedsores among immobilized patients aged 50 years and above and living in long-term care facilities?

 Sampling plan

The study will utilize nested case-control sampling. The choice is informed by the strength of the approach in recruiting participants in both the experimental and control group concurrently and thus saving on time. Similarly, the technique promotes randomness and representability, enhancing trustworthiness and generalizability of the findings (Fujii, Cologne, & Izumi, 2007). The counter-matching technique will allow recruiting four persons in the control group for every single case (Langholz, 2005). The sampling will be based on systematic sampling among the controls while simple random technique will be employed among the individuals who have been using an air mattress and have developed bedsores (Richardson, 2014). The sample size of cases will be 30, a number that will be matched by 120 controls per the nested case-control sampling approach. The number of participants is large enough to allow any statistical test, including measures of association.

Research design

The study design will be nested case-control, a strategy that has been informed by the ethical issues surrounding studies touching on bedsores. Unlike experimental approaches that evoke ethical debates by assigning the control group standard mattress and the research group the interventional air mattress, the case-control method is observation, where the effectiveness will be ascertained in a retrospective approach. The data collection will only consider cases that have developed within the last four months. Besides providing data for comparative analysis, the approach is resource and time conscious, and effective in testing hypothetical claims (Biesheuvel et al., 2008).

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