Psyth CH 8

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1. Motivation is defined as:
A) forces that act on an organism to direct behavior.
B) an impulse that activates behavior to reduce a need and restore homeostasis.
C) full use and exploitation of talents, capacities, and potentialities.
D) a distinct psychological state that involves subjective experience, and a behavioral expression .

A) forces that act on an organism to direct behavior.

2. The three basic characteristics commonly associated with motivation are:
A) self-fulfillment, self-actualization, and self-efficacy.
B) activation, persistence, and intensity.
C) autonomy, competence, and relatedness.
D) drive, incentive, and arousal.

B) activation, persistence, and intensity.

3. The characteristic of motivation known as activation refers to the:
A) initiation or production of behavior.
B) increased vigor in behavior toward a goal.
C) efforts to achieve the desired goal.
D) mental activity to move toward the start of behavior.

A) initiation or production of behavior.

4. Persistence is a characteristic of motivation that is demonstrated by the:
A) initiation or production of behavior toward a goal.
B) continued efforts or determination to achieve a particular goal, often in the face of obstacles.
C) greater vigor in responding that usually accompanies motivated behavior.
D) subjective experience and physiological response that usually accompanies motivated behavior.

B) continued efforts or determination to achieve a particular goal, often in the face of obstacles.

5. Sarah is determined to play the role of Clara in the ballet, "The Nutcracker." She begins to work very hard in ballet classes with this goal in mind. Sarah is demonstrating which characteristic of motivation?
A) autonomy
B) persistence
C) intensity
D) activation

D) activation

6. Although Hunter keeps falling when he tries to learn to ice skate, he keeps working at being a better skater so he can play ice hockey. Hunter is demonstrating the motivation characteristic of:
A) competence.
B) intensity.
C) persistence.
D) initiation.

C) persistence.

7. The view that some human motives are innate and due to evolutionary programming is a description of:
A) instinct theories.
B) drive theories.
C) incentive theories.
D) humanistic theories.

A) instinct theories.

8. The view that behavior is motivated by the pull of external goals, such as rewards, is suggested by:
A) drive theories.
B) Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
C) self-determination theory.
D) incentive theories.

D) incentive theories.

9. Well-established learning principles, such as the different types of reinforcement, are most closely associated with which type of motivation theories?
A) instinct theories
B) incentive theories
C) drive theories
D) humanistic theories

B) incentive theories

10. Humanistic theories of motivation emphasize the idea that:
A) motivation is learned through the basic principles of reinforcement and punishment.
B) motivation is determined by unconscious thought processes.
C) motivation is affected by how we perceive the world, how we think about ourselves, and the degree to which the environment is supportive and encouraging.
D) an understanding of basic biological mechanisms, such as homeostasis, is the best way to understand human motivation.

C) motivation is affected by how we perceive the world, how we think about ourselves, and the degree to which the environment is supportive and encouraging.

11. _____ motivational theories emphasize the importance of psychological and cognitive achievement needs, including the motivation to strive for a positive self-concept.
A) Humanistic
B) Incentive
C) Drive
D) Instinct

A) Humanistic

12. Theories of motivation that claim behavior is motivated by the desire for internal balance and reduce internal tension caused by unmet biological needs are called,
A) Drive Theories
B) Incentive Theories
C) Humanistic Theories
D) Instinct Theories

A) Drive Theories

13. The term _____ refers to the notion that the body maintains internal states, such as body temperature and energy supplies, at relatively constant levels.
A) Self-actualization
B) The basal metabolic rate (BMR)
C) Incentive motivation
D) Homeostasis

D) Homeostasis

14. People who rank high on the need for varied, complex, and unique sensory experiences:
A) are high in achievement motivation but low in competence motivation.
B) have a high level of extrinsic motivation and a low level of intrinsic motivation.
C) are referred to as sensation seekers.
D) are referred to as self-actualized.

C) are referred to as sensation seekers.

15. "Oh, man, that was awesome! Let’s do it again!" Marcela said as she climbed out of the front roller coaster seat. Which category of motivational theories would best explain Marcela’s behavior?
A) arousal theories
B) incentive theories
C) drive theories
D) humanistic theories

A) arousal theories

16. The motivation to eat is influenced by:
A) psychological factors.
B) biological factors.
C) social and cultural factors.
D) All of these factors are correct.

D) All of these factors are correct.

17. Kai-Ling ate fried caterpillars, scorpions, and some grilled dog meat for dinner. It is very likely that Kai-Ling:
A) is very poor and malnourished.
B) is influenced in his eating habits by social and cultural factors.
C) is mentally ill.
D) eats regularly at the college cafeteria.

B) is influenced in his eating habits by social and cultural factors.

18. The idea that we are often motivated to eat because of the anticipated pleasure associated with consuming a particular food is termed:
A) sensory-specific satiety.
B) positive pleasure balance.
C) the classically conditioned eating response.
D) the operant conditioned positive incentive value.

D) the operant conditioned positive incentive value.

19. The rate at which your body uses energy for vital bodily functions when at rest is called the:
A) body mass index (BMI).
B) set-point rate.
C) basal metabolic rate (BMR).
D) settling point rate.

C) basal metabolic rate (BMR).

20. Adipose tissue is another name for:
A) leptin.
B) insulin.
C) muscle.
D) body fat.

D) body fat.

21. The term sexual orientation describes:
A) an individual’s level of sexual motivation and attitudes toward sexual behavior.
B) an individual’s biological sex.
C) the sex that is assigned at birth to people with ambiguous genitals.
D) whether an individual’s sexual and emotional attraction is directed toward members of the same sex, of the opposite sex, or both sexes.

D) whether an individual’s sexual and emotional attraction is directed toward members of the same sex, of the opposite sex, or both sexes.

22. Based on research that has been conducted so far, what can be concluded about the causes of sexual orientation?
A) Researchers cannot say with certainty why people become homosexual,bisexual, or heterosexual.
B) Most researchers are now convinced that sexual orientation is primarily the result of environmental influences.
C) Researchers are sure that homosexuality is caused by unpleasant early heterosexual experiences.
D) Most researchers are now convinced that sexual orientation is caused by genetic factors and that other factors have no influence.

A) Researchers cannot say with certainty why people become homosexual,bisexual, or heterosexual.

23. The Focus on Neuroscience box, "Romantic Love and the Brain," described a study in which love-struck young adults underwent an fMRI brain scan while they looked at a photo of their beloved or at one of a friend. The results of this study indicated:
A) that looking at a photo of their lover produced a marked reduction in activity in four brain areas associated with emotion—the anterior cingulate cortex, caudate nucleus, putamen, and insula.
B) that viewing a photo of a friend produced increased activity in four brain areas associated with emotion—the anterior cingulate cortex, caudate nucleus, putamen, and insula.
C) that when the participants viewed a photo of their lover, it activated some of the same brain areas that are activated by euphoria-producing drugs, such as opiates and cocaine.
D) no significant differences, as both photos activated the same four brain areas associated with emotion—the anterior cingulate cortex, caudate nucleus, putamen, and insula.

C) that when the participants viewed a photo of their lover, it activated some of the same brain areas that are activated by euphoria-producing drugs, such as opiates and cocaine.

24. Which important contribution to the study of motivation was made by Abraham Maslow?
A) Maslow was the first psychologist to study motivation and emotion in nonhuman animals.
B) Maslow’s distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation helped psychologists recognize the importance of drives, incentives, and arousal in motivation.
C) Self-actualization is recognized by most motivation researchers as one of the most basic of all human motives.
D) Because of Maslow’s influence, greater attention was paid to psychological needs and the motivation and development of people who were psychologically healthy.

D) Because of Maslow’s influence, greater attention was paid to psychological needs and the motivation and development of people who were psychologically healthy.

25. The premise of _____ is that optimal human functioning and growth throughout the lifespan is possible only if psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness are met.
A) self-determination theory
B) self-efficacy theory
C) self-actualization theory
D) the James-Lange theory

A) self-determination theory

26. Behavior driven by rewards, rules, and responsibilities is to _____ as behavior motivated by enjoyment, satisfaction, or challenge is to _____.
A) extrinsic motivation; intrinsic motivation
B) basic needs; self-fulfillment needs
C) intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation
D) psychological needs; self-fulfillment needs

A) extrinsic motivation; intrinsic motivation

27. People with a high level of achievement motivation:
A) expend their greatest efforts when faced with very easy tasks.
B) tend to work best in groups, as they lack the ability to work independently.
C) tend to explain their success as being due to external factors or luck.
D) have the capacity to delay gratification in order to achieve their goals.

D) have the capacity to delay gratification in order to achieve their goals.

28. In individualistic cultures, achievement motivation tends to emphasize:
A) personal success, especially in competitive tasks.
B) social success, especially with members of high status groups.
C) making family members proud of you, especially your parents.
D) success that enhances the status or well-being of your social group.

A) personal success, especially in competitive tasks.

29. Which of the following is the BEST example of how achievement motivation might be expressed in a collectivistic culture?
A) You practice guitar every day because you want to become a rock star.
B) You strive to become your company’s top salesperson because you want to make a lot of money.
C) You study hard to gain admission to a top university because you want to enhance your family’s social standing.
D) You practice tennis every day so that you can make your school’s varsity team.

C) You study hard to gain admission to a top university because you want to enhance your family’s social standing.

30. Which of the following is the BEST example of how achievement motivation might be expressed in an individualistic culture?
A) You take child development classes because you want to be a better parent.
B) You work hard because you want to be the top-performing salesperson in your company.
C) You study hard to gain admission to a top university because you want to enhance your family’s social standing.
D) You help an elderly neighbor weed her garden in the summer.

B) You work hard because you want to be the top-performing salesperson in your company.

31. Psychologists define the term _____ as a complex psychological state that involves subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response.
A) motivation
B) emotion
C) self-efficacy
D) anthropomorphism

B) emotion

32. Cross-cultural researchers have found that different cultures arrange emotions:
A) in very similar ways.
B) in very dissimilar ways.
C) along four dimensions instead of two.
D) along six dimensions instead of two.

A) in very similar ways.

33. One-year-old Samuel was born blind and deaf. According to research presented in the text, Samuel:
A) will not be able to express the basic emotions because of his disabilities.
B) will display all the known emotions during his first year.
C) will express emotions such as joy, anger, and pleasure using the same facial expressions as other children.
D) will display only the social smile but will not be able to express any of the other basic emotions.

C) will express emotions such as joy, anger, and pleasure using the same facial expressions as other children.

34. The _____ states that emotions arise from the perception of a stimulus and resulting behavior.
A) James-Lange theory
B) two-factor theory
C) facial feedback hypothesis
D) cognitive-appraisal theory

A) James-Lange theory

35. When Spencer took his first ride on the big Ferris wheel, he looked down at the fairground one hundred feet below him and became aware of his high level of physiological arousal. Suddenly he felt frightened. The sequence of events in Spencer’s emotional experience reflects the:
A) facial feedback hypothesis of emotion.
B) James-Lange theory of emotion.
C) set-point theory of emotion.
D) cognitive-appraisal theory of emotion.

B) James-Lange theory of emotion.

36. Contemporary emotion researchers tend to agree that:
A) the James-Lange theory still offers the best explanation of emotion.
B) emotions can be triggered in multiple ways.
C) the two-factor theory of emotion, combined with the facial feedback hypothesis, offers the most accurate explanation of emotion.
D) cognitive interpretations play only a minor role in triggering emotions.

B) emotions can be triggered in multiple ways.

37. The chapter application suggested several strategies to increase feelings of self-efficacy. Which of the following is NOT one of the strategies that was suggested?
A) Visualize a positive outcome.
B) Observing and imitating the behavior of someone who is already competent at the task you want to master.
C) Create an action plan and focus on your capabilities.
D) Strive for perfection on your first attempt at a new task.

D) Strive for perfection on your first attempt at a new task.

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