Psycology Final

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The term "cognition" includes
a. thinking, problem solving, reasoning, and daydreaming.
b. classical and instrumental conditioning.
c. eidetic imagery and processing.
d. an active process by which sensory input is selected, organized, and integrated.

a. thinking, problem solving, reasoning, and daydreaming.

Regarding aspects of cognition, which of the following statements is FALSE?
a.Daydreaming is a form of thinking.
b.Planning allows us to try out various options and avoid making many mistakes.
c.Thinking is limited to humans.
d.Unlike other species, the success of humans owes more to intelligence and thinking abilities than it does to physical strength or speed.

c.Thinking is limited to humans.

Thinking involves the manipulation of three basic forms of thought, which are
a.images, concepts, and language.
b.language, memory, and vestibular sensations.
c.scripts, schemes, and synesthesia.
d.pictures, sounds, and illusions.

a.images, concepts, and language.

Generalized ideas that represent categories of objects or events are called
a.morphemes.
b.images.
c.engrams.
d.concepts

d.concepts

Jeffrey often says that spiced chicken tastes "pointy," that pain is the color orange, and that hearing human voices unleashes a flood of colors and tastes. Jeffrey is experiencing a rare form of imagery known as
a.sensory overload.
b.sane hallucinations.
c.eidetic imagery.
d.synesthesia.

d.synesthesia.

In life-span developmental theories, adolescents struggle with conflicts involving ___.
a.the need to form a consistent identity
b.the ability to trust the primary caregivers in their lives
c.the development of intimate relationships
d.the ability to look back at life with a sense of integrity

a.the need to form a consistent identity

Steven Hawkings is a theoritical physicist who is confined to a wheelchair and must "speak" by manually controlling a speech synthesizer due to Lou Gehrig’s disease. Hawkings’s ability to continue to advance our understanding of the universe illustrates how our intelligence and thinking ability
a.is innate.
b.would not be realized without learning being a continual process.
c.is less important than our motivation to succeed.
d.makes us adaptable to situations.

d.makes us adaptable to situations.

An operational definition of intelligence is based on the
a.procedures used to measure intelligence.
b.standardization sample that was tested.
c.validity of the intelligence test.
d.reliability of the intelligence test.

a.procedures used to measure intelligence.

The capacity for learning certain abilities is called
a.divergent thinking.
b.intelligence.
c.aptitude.
d.scholastics.

c.aptitude.

When looking at human motives, the following theorist developed a hierarchy of five needs that range from basic physiological needs to growth or meta-needs:
a.Abraham Maslow
b.Sigmund Freud
c.Carl Jung
d.Alfred Adler

a.Abraham Maslow

The ability of a test to yield the same score, or nearly the same score, each time it is given to the same person is called
a. reliability.
b. validity.
c. objectivity.
d. standardization

a. reliability.

A valid test is one that
a.measures what it claims to measure.
b.yields almost the same score, each time it is given to the same person.
c.is administered using standard procedures.
d.gives the same score when different people correct it.

a.measures what it claims to measure.

The bulk of people’s dreams occurs during ___.
a.REM sleep
b.NREM sleep
c.stage 4, deep sleep
d.stage 2, light sleep

a.REM sleep

In Freud’s view of the structure of personality, the mental structure that acts as one’s conscience and judges thoughts and actions is known as the_____.
a.id
b.ego
c.superego
d.libido

c.superego

The field of psychology that uses behavioral principles to promote health and prevent illness is referred to as_____.
a.Psychoanalytic psychology
b.Health psychology
c.Gestalt psychology
d.Humanistic psychology

b.Health psychology

Motivation is defined as
a.an internal deficiency that energizes behavior.
b.the goals which reward our behavior and maintain behavior.
c.internal mechanisms which initiate, maintain, direct, and terminate behavior.
d.needs associated with impulses for self-actualization.

c.internal mechanisms which initiate, maintain, direct, and terminate behavior.

Which of the following is the correct sequence for the motivational process?
a.drive – need – response – goal attainment
b.need – drive – response – goal attainment
c.need – drive – goal attainment – response
d.drive – need – goal attainment – response

b.need – drive – response – goal attainment

When you feel hunger or thirst, each of these psychological states would be classified as which element of motivation?
a.need
b.drive
c.deprivation
d.incentive value

b.drive

If you have been fasting for two days, but do not feel hungry, we would say that you have
a.a drive for food but not a need for food.
b.a need for food but not a drive for food.
c.both a drive and a need for food.
d.neither a need nor a drive for food.

b.a need for food but not a drive for food.

Needs that must be met for one’s survival are referred to as __________ motives.
a.biological
b.incentive
c.extrinsic
d.stimulus

a.biological

The process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior is known as_____.
a.cognition
b.learning
c.imprinting
d.intelligence formation

b.learning

Which of the following describes the term sex (as opposed to term gender)?
a.gender identity
b.secondary sexual attitudes
c.biological sexual characteristics
d.roles of males and females in society

c.biological sexual characteristics

Four-year-old Maggie tells her grandmother that she knows that girls grow up to be "mommies," and they are very good at taking care of other people, while boys are brave and grow up to marry girls and get jobs and protect their families. Maggie is describing what she understands about
a.sex differences.
b.gender differences.
c.sexual scripts.
d.biological biasing effects.

b.gender differences.

Michelle experienced such a deep conflict between her biological sex of male and her preferred gender role as a female that she had a "sex change" operation to become female. Michelle
a.has a gender paraphilia.
b.has a heterophobia.
c.would be considered transsexual.
d.would be considered bisexual.

c.would be considered transsexual.

Sex as indicated by a preponderance of estrogens (female) or androgens (male) in the body refers to
a.genetic sex.
b.gonadal sex.
c.hormonal sex.
d.gender identity.

c.hormonal sex.

A child that is born with an XY pair of chromosomes is genetically considered to
a.have Turner’s syndrome.
b.have Klinefelter’s syndrome.
c.be male.
d.be female.

c.be male.

The stage during which sensory input and motor responses become coordinated is labeled as
Piaget’s ________stage of cognitive development.
a.Sensorimotor Stage
b.Preoperational Stage
c.Concrete Operational Stage
d.Formal Operations Stage

a.Sensorimotor Stage

In psychology, the term personality implies that individual patterns of behavior are both
a.universal and inherited.
b.desirable and undesirable.
c.unique and stable.
d.complimentary and diverse.

c.unique and stable.

When you describe your friend as being outgoing, funny, honest, dependable, and just an "all-around good guy," you are referring to attributes of
a.character.
b.temperament.
c.the superego.
d.the ideal self.

a.character.

Personality traits are inferred from past behavior and allow us to do which of the following regarding behavior in future situations?
a.explain
b.learn from
c.justify
d.predict

d.predict

The typical behaviors consistent with being male or female in a given culture are referred to as
a.social roles
b.sexual characteristics
c.identity traits
d.gender roles

d.gender roles

Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung proposed that people are either
a.Type A or Type B personalities.
b.ectomorphic, mesomorphic, or endomorphic.
c.introverts or extroverts.
d.congruent or incongruent.

c.introverts or extroverts.

A bold, outgoing person whose attention is directed outward is referred to as a(n)
a.introvert.
b.Type A personality.
c.perceptive type.
d.extrovert.

d.extrovert.

Operant conditioning operates on the principle that behaviors occur more often when they are_____.
a.reinforced
b.punished
c.modeled
d.ignored

a.reinforced

Classifying people as having either a Type A or Type B personality has been used to predict
a.competency as a parent.
b.chances of suffering a heart attack.
c.success in education.
d.chances of developing a serious mental illness.

b.chances of suffering a heart attack.

Many diseases and half of all deaths in North America can be traced to
a.accidents.
b.unhealthy behaviors.
c.infectious diseases.
d.poor prenatal care.

b.unhealthy behaviors.

The branch of psychology that studies how behavioral principles can be used to prevent illness and promote health is known as __________ psychology.
a.developmental
b.health
c.behavioral
d.stress

b.health

Dr. Jade is involved with how behavioral factors in medicine, physical illness, and medical treatment influence patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Her specialty is __________ medicine.
a.forensic
b.longitudinal
c.psychiatric
d.behavioral

d.behavioral

Freud’s psychodynamic theory of dreaming emphasizes_____.
a.dreams as sensations, motor commands, and memories that are synthesized by the cortex of the brain
b.dreams as internal psychic abilities that provide insight into the future
c.dreams as internal conflicts and unconscious forces that are based on wish fulfillment
d.dreams as a form of hypnosis

c.dreams as internal conflicts and unconscious forces that are based on wish fulfillment

According to your textbook, which of the following are actions that increase the chances of disease, injury, or early death?
a.health refusal factors
b.neuroimmune risk factors
c.behavioral risk factors
d.Type B personality traits

c.behavioral risk factors

Regarding lifestyle diseases and behavioral risk factors, which of the following statements is FALSE?
a.Almost half of all deaths in the North America can be traced to unhealthful behaviors.
b.Obesity is currently the main cause of preventable deaths in the United States.
c.A person who is overweight at age 20 can expect to lose five to 20 years of life expectancy.
d.Roughly 65 percent of all American adults are overweight.

b.Obesity is currently the main cause of preventable deaths in the United States.

Currently, the main cause of preventable deaths in the United States is
a.smoking.
b.unsafe sexual behavior.
c.alcohol abuse.
d.obesity.

a.smoking.

What percentage of American adults suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder in any given year?
a.five percent
b.10 percent
c.25 percent
d.40 percent

c.25 percent

Of the 33,300 Americans who committed suicide in 2006, what percent had a diagnosable mental disorder?
a.20 percent
b.45 percent
c.65 percent
d.90 percent

d.90 percent

The correct order for the three stages of memory is_____.
a.short-term memory, long-term memory, retrieval
b.working memory, sensory register memory, long-term memory
c.sensory register memory, short-term memory, long-term memory
d.short-term memory, sensory register memory, long-term memory

c.sensory register memory, short-term memory, long-term memory

46. The term psychopathology includes which of the following?
a.the scientific study of psychological disorders
b.behavior patterns that make people unhappy and impair personal growth
c.mental disorders such as depression and schizophrenia
d.all of these

d.all of these

On which of the following do most people score near the middle of the score range with very few having extremely high or low scores?
a.normal or bell-shaped curve
b.skewed deviation curve
c.U-shaped curve
d.scatter plot

a.normal or bell-shaped curve

Almost any behavior can be judged to be normal or abnormal depending on the specific circumstances present. This qualification for judging whether or not a behavior is abnormal is referred to as
a.situational context.
b.subjective judgment.
c.environmental selectivity.
d.personal relativity.

a.situational context.

Psychology is_____.
a.common-sense reasoning
b.the scientific study of mental processes and behavior
c.the investigation of diverse people
d.the study of the human mind

b.the scientific study of mental processes and behavior

The scientific study of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders is known as ________.
a.biopsychology
b.sociology
c.psychopathology
d.anthropology

c.psychopathology

In the United States and Canada, psychological problems are classified by using the___.
a.Physician’s Desk Reference
b.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)
c.Psychiatrist’s Desk Reference
d.Manual of Abnormal Behavior

b.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)

Psychology’s history as a science began_____.
a.in Austria, when Sigmund Freud published his studies on psychoanalysis in 1895.
b.in America, when William James published the book, Principles of Psychology in 1890.
c.in Germany, when Wilhelm Wundt set up the first psychological laboratory in 1879.
d.in Russia, when Ivan Pavlov published his research on conditioning in 1906.

c.in Germany, when Wilhelm Wundt set up the first psychological laboratory in 1879.

You have just moved into a neighborhood and hear that the woman who lives next door almost never leaves her house. Having had general psychology, you think that she might have agoraphobia until you find out that her religion encourages women to stay at home. From this illustration, it is clear that which of the following can affect the diagnosis of psychological disorders?
a.statistical abnormality
b.subjective discomfort
c.cultural relativity
d.social nonconformity

c.cultural relativity

According to the text, social psychology is the study of how people
a.form organized social groups.
b.behave in the presence of others.
c.resolve their psychosocial conflicts.
d.through an interaction with others develop a balance between their real and ideal selves.

b.behave in the presence of others.

An ongoing pattern of life that characterizes a society at a given point in history is called
a.conformity.
b.standard norms.
c.group cohesion.
d.culture.

d.culture.

The position one occupies within the structure of a group defines one’s
a.competence.
b.personal control.
c.social role.
d.degree of affiliation.

c.social role.

When roles are NOT under the individual’s control, such as being an only child, these roles are considered to be __________ roles.
a.achieved
b.ascribed
c.random
d.stereotyped

b.ascribed

Those roles which one attains voluntarily are called
a.ascribed roles.
b.achieved roles.
c.positions.
d.social selves.

b.achieved roles.

Which of the following conducted a simulated prison experiment that showed dramatically how social settings influence our behavior, particularly the powerful effects of social roles?
a.Philip Zimbardo
b.Robert Cialdini
c.Harold Kelley
d.Duncan Watts

a.Philip Zimbardo

Empirical evidence is collected by______.
a.making inferences
b.gathering qualitative and quantitative data through direct observation
c.interviewing experts in the field
d.conducting controlled laboratory experiments

b.gathering qualitative and quantitative data through direct observation

The scientific study of how individuals behave, think and feel in social situations is known as_____.
a.social psychology
b.cultural psychology
c.behavioral psychology
d.group psychology

a.social psychology

Behaviors, such as love, attraction, friendship, and empathy would be regarded as __________ behaviors.
a.prosocial
b.companionate
c.mutual interdependent
d.ethnocentric

a.prosocial

A harmful attitude based on inaccurate generalizations about a group of people is known as _____.
a.discrimination
b.sexism
c.prejudice
d.ethnocentrism

c.prejudice

Psychologists who study human thinking and information processing abilities are referred to as ______.
a.clinical psychologists
b.educational psychologists
c.cognitive psychologists
d.developmental psychologists

c.cognitive psychologists

Oversimplified images of traits of individuals who belong to a particular social group are
a.unifying traits
b.false perception
c.roles
d.social stereotypes

d.social stereotypes

Behaviors, such as aggression, prejudice, and discrimination would be considered __________ behaviors.
a.social exchange
b.antisocial
c.ethnocentric
d.emotionally apathetic

b.antisocial

The desire to associate with others describes our need to
a.affiliate.
b.dominate others.
c.be acknowledged.
d.conform.

a.affiliate.

Married couples in lasting relationships are likely to be the most similar in which of the following characteristics?
a.age and education
b.attitudes and opinions
c.status and income level
d.height and weight

a.age and education

According to your textbook, the most important factor influencing the development of friendships is
a.reciprocity.
b.similarity.
c.proximity.
d.physical attractiveness.

a.reciprocity.

True or False: Experimental work has shown that mental images appear flat like photographs

False

True or False: Tests required to enter graduate schools of law, medicine, business, and dentistry are considered to be multiple aptitude tests.

True

True or False: Gender differences refer to biological characteristics, while sex differences refer to psychological and social factors.

False

True or False: The personality types of introversion and extroversion were first proposed by Abraham Maslow.

False

True or False: Social nonconformity may indicate a psychological disorder or a harmless eccentricity.

True

True or False: Self-assertion involves standing up for one’s rights by speaking out in one’s own behalf.

True

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