Psychology Unit 13

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A therapist who uses a variety of psychological theories and therapeutic methods is said to be:
a. client‑centered.
b. eclectic.
c. humanistic.
d. psychoanalytic.
e. meta-analytic.

b

As a therapist, Dr. Quist often uses systematic desensitization. She also considers active listening to be an invaluable therapeutic tool, and she frequently makes use of free association. Dr. Quist’s therapeutic approach would best be described as:
a. psychoanalytic.
b. client‑centered.
c. behavioral.
d. eclectic.
e. meta-analytic.

d

Psychoanalytic techniques are designed primarily to help clients:
a. focus on their immediate conscious feelings.
b. feel more trusting toward others.
c. become aware of their repressed conflicts and impulses.
d. develop greater self‑esteem.

c

Which of the following therapists introduced the use of free association?
a. Carl Rogers
b. Sigmund Freud
c. Aaron Beck
d. Joseph Wolpe
e. Mary Carver Jones

b

Free association involves the:
a. expression toward a therapist of feelings linked with earlier relationships.
b. therapeutic interpretation of a client’s unconscious conflicts.
c. repeated association of a relaxed state with anxiety-arousing stimuli.
d. uncensored reporting of any thoughts that come to mind.

d

Sheena’s therapist tells her to relax, close her eyes, and state aloud whatever comes to mind no matter how trivial or absurd. The therapist is using a technique that is central to:
a. client‑centered therapy.
b. psychoanalysis.
c. cognitive therapy.
d. EMDR.
e. systematic desensitization.

b

According to Freud, a patient’s hesitation to free associate is most likely a sign of:
a. transference.
b. the placebo effect.
c. resistance.
d. spontaneous recovery.
e. meta-analysis.

c

Psychoanalysts would suggest that resistance during therapy supports and maintains the process of:
a. sublimation.
b. transference.
c. free association.
d. dream interpretation.
e. repression.

e

Just as Jerome began telling his therapist about a painful childhood experience, he complained of a headache and abruptly ended the session. A psychoanalyst would most likely suggest that Jerome’s behavior is an example of:
a. fixation.
b. resistance.
c. transference.
d. counterconditioning.
e. free association.

b

The interpretation of dreams is most closely associated with:
a. cognitive therapy.
b. virtual reality exposure therapy.
c. client‑centered therapy.
d. systematic desensitization.
e. psychoanalysis.

e

The expression toward a therapist of feelings linked with earlier relationships is known as:
a. free association.
b. transference.
c. fixation.
d. projection.
e. eclectic therapy.

b

Mr. Phillips has recently begun to express feelings of hostility and resentment toward his therapist, who is consistently friendly, caring, and helpful. A psychoanalyst would most likely consider Mr. Phillips’s hostility to be an example of:
a. transference.
b. flooding.
c. the placebo effect.
d. counterconditioning.
e. regression toward the mean.

a

Psychoanalysts are most likely to:
a. attend to patients’ positive and negative feelings toward their therapists.
b. associate a client’s undesirable behavior with unpleasant experiences.
c. repeat or rephrase what a client says during the course of therapy.
d. help clients identify a hierarchy of anxiety‑arousing experiences.
e. vigorously challenge clients’ illogical ways of thinking.

a

Which form of therapy is most likely to be criticized for being too lengthy and time‑consuming?
a. systematic desensitization
b. family therapy
c. client-centered therapy
d. psychoanalysis
e. cognitive therapy

d

Which of the following provides a brief alternative to psychodynamic therapy and is effective with depressed patients?
a. flooding
b. systematic desensitization
c. EMDR
d. therapeutic touch
e. interpersonal psychotherapy

e

Humanistic therapists are most likely to:
a. encourage clients to carefully observe the consequences of their maladaptive behaviors.
b. focus special attention on clients’ positive and negative feelings toward their therapists.
c. emphasize the importance of self‑awareness for psychological adjustment.
d. use a wide variety of psychological theories and therapeutic methods.
e. help clients identify a hierarchy of anxiety‑arousing experiences.

c

Carl Rogers is known for the development of:
a. therapeutic touch.
b. the token economy.
c. cognitive therapy.
d. client‑centered therapy.
e. systematic desensitization.

d

Which of the following is considered to be the most nondirective form of therapy?
a. client‑centered therapy
b. cognitive therapy
c. psychoanalysis
d. systematic desensitization
e. light-exposure therapy

a

Dr. Buist does not analyze people’s motives or diagnose the nature of their difficulties because he believes that they are in the best position to diagnose and solve their own problems. Dr. Buist’s position is most characteristic of ________ therapy.
a. cognitive
b. psychoanalytic
c. operant conditioning
d. client‑centered
e. biomedical

d

Client‑centered therapists are most likely to:
a. encourage clients to stop blaming themselves for their failures.
b. help clients associate anxiety‑arousing stimuli with a pleasant state of relaxation.
c. encourage clients to carefully observe the consequences of their maladaptive behaviors.
d. restate and seek further clarification of what clients say during the course of therapy.
e. vigorously challenge clients’ self‑defeating thoughts.

d

Which approach emphasizes the importance of providing patients with feelings of unconditional acceptance?
a. cognitive therapy
b. psychoanalysis
c. biomedical therapy
d. client‑centered therapy
e. systematic desensitization

d

Freud is to ________ as Rogers is to ________.
a. psychoanalysis; counterconditioning
b. free association; active listening
c. dream analysis; systematic desensitization
d. active listening; empathy

b

Which of the following therapies is more concerned with removing specific troubling symptoms than with providing special insights into the personality of the client?
a. eclectic therapy
b. psychoanalysis
c. behavior therapy
d. client‑centered therapy
e. cognitive therapy

c

Geraldine suggested that her nail biting might be a symptom of unconscious resentment toward her parents. Her therapist chuckled and said, "No, Geraldine, your problem isn’t unconscious hostility; your problem is nail biting." Geraldine’s therapist sounds most like a ________ therapist.
a. behavior
b. humanistic
c. cognitive
d. psychoanalytic
e. biomedical

a

Counterconditioning techniques were derived from principles first developed by:
a. Aaron Beck.
b. Ivan Pavlov.
c. Carl Rogers.
d. B. F. Skinner.
e. Sigmund Freud.

b

In an effort to reduce his daughter’s fear of the dark, Mr. Chew would hug and gently rock her immediately after turning off the lights at bedtime. Mr. Chew’s strategy best illustrates the technique of:
a. relaxation training.
b. transference.
c. unconditioned positive regard.
d. aversive conditioning.
e. counterconditioning.

e

Mowrer trained children to discontinue bed-wetting by arranging for an alarm to sound each time they wet their beds. This technique best illustrates a therapeutic application of:
a. systematic desensitization.
b. observational learning.
c. cognitive-behavior therapy.
d. the placebo effect.
e. classical conditioning.

e

Which of the following techniques is derived from classical conditioning principles?
a. the token economy
b. light-exposure therapy
c. systematic desensitization
d. stress inoculation training
e. transference

c

The technique of systematic desensitization was refined by:
a. Sigmund Freud.
b. Joseph Wolpe.
c. Aaron Beck.
d. Egas Moniz.
e. Carl Rogers

b

The repeated association of pleasant relaxing states with stimuli that arouse fear is a central feature of:
a. humanistic therapy.
b. systematic desensitization.
c. cognitive therapy.
d. aversive conditioning.
e. stress inoculation training.

b

The construction of an anxiety hierarchy and training in relaxation are important aspects of:
a. biomedical therapy.
b. aversive conditioning.
c. systematic desensitization.
d. client-centered therapy.
e. stress inoculation training.

c

To help Michael overcome his fear of taking tests, his therapist instructs him to relax and then to imagine taking a quiz. The therapist is using:
a. psychoanalysis.
b. client‑centered therapy.
c. cognitive therapy.
d. systematic desensitization.
e. aversive conditioning.

d

Mr. Vogt is terribly fearful of being alone in his own house at night. In order to reduce this fear, a behavior therapist would most likely use:
a. the double‑blind technique.
b. systematic desensitization.
c. a token economy.
d. aversive conditioning.
e. ECT.

b

With aversive conditioning, the therapist replaces a positive response with a negative response. With ________, the therapist replaces a negative response with a positive response.
a. systematic desensitization
b. free association
c. client‑centered therapy
d. transference
e. meta-analysis

a

When people are forced to face situations that make them extremely fearful, their fear often begins to extinguish. This fact underlies the use of a procedure known as:
a. aversive conditioning.
b. transference.
c. the double-blind technique.
d. flooding.
e. ECT.

d

Virtual reality exposure therapy is most likely to prove effective in the treatment of:
a. personality disorders.
b. hallucinations.
c. obsessions.
d. depression.
e. phobias.

e

Aversive conditioning involves:
a. replacing a negative response to a harmless stimulus with a positive response.
b. identifying a hierarchy of anxiety‑arousing experiences.
c. depriving a client of access to an addictive drug.
d. associating unwanted behaviors with unpleasant experiences.
e. systematically controlling the consequences of patients’ maladaptive behaviors.

d

A lobotomy is to psychosurgery as aversive conditioning is to:
a. systematic desensitization.
b. flooding.
c. behavior therapy.
d. EMDR.
e. electroconvulsive therapy.

c

A therapeutic technique in which child molesters receive electric shocks as they view photos of nude children best illustrates the use of:
a. systematic desensitization.
b. EMDR.
c. stress inoculation training.
d. aversive conditioning.
e. electroconvulsive therapy.

d

Whenever 2‑year‑old Calista runs into the street in front of her house, her mother immediately spanks her. The mother’s technique most closely resembles the procedure known as:
a. systematic desensitization.
b. electroconvulsive therapy.
c. aversive conditioning.
d. stress inoculation training.
e. transference.

c

Mrs. Laiti is a compulsive gambler. In order to reduce her attraction to this self‑defeating activity, a behavior therapist would most likely use:
a. EMDR
b. systematic desensitization.
c. a token economy.
d. the double‑blind technique.
e. aversive conditioning.

e

Influencing psychotherapeutic clients by controlling the consequences of their actions illustrates an application of:
a. humanistic therapy.
b. classical conditioning.
c. systematic desensitization.
d. operant conditioning.

d

What would be most helpful for encouraging mentally retarded adults to make their beds every morning?
a. cognitive therapy
b. aversive conditioning
c. client‑centered therapy
d. a token economy
e. systematic desensitization

d

In which operant conditioning procedure are positive reinforcers given for desired behaviors?
a. flooding
b. a token economy
c. systematic desensitization
d. aversive conditioning
e. free association

b

Mr. Thompson, a fifth‑grade teacher, gives five blue stars to each student who achieves a perfect score on a math or spelling test. At the end of the semester, students can exchange their stars for prizes. Mr. Thompson’s classroom strategy illustrates an application of:
a. the placebo effect.
b. transference.
c. operant conditioning.
d. systematic desensitization.
e. counterconditioning.

c

Which of the following is most often criticized for violating clients’ rights to personal freedom and self‑determination?
a. psychoanalysis
b. cognitive therapy
c. client-centered therapy
d. behavior modification
e. EMDR

d

Cognitive therapists are most likely to emphasize that emotional disturbances result from:
a. irrational beliefs.
b. chemical abnormalities within the brain.
c. overly permissive child‑rearing practices.
d. poverty, unemployment, racism, and sexism.

a

Natasha claimed that her failure to get straight "A’s" in college meant she was incompetent. Her therapist calmly challenged this assertion, commenting, "By your strange calculations, well over 90 percent of all college students are incompetent!" The therapist’s response was most typical of a(n) ________ therapist.
a. cognitive
b. behavior
c. eclectic
d. client‑centered
e. psychoanalytic

a

Training people to stop blaming themselves for failures and negative circumstances beyond their control is of most direct concern to ________ therapists.
a. psychoanalytic
b. cognitive
c. eclectic
d. client‑centered
e. behavior

b

Cognitive therapists are most likely to encourage depressed clients to accept ________ personal responsibility for their failures and ________ personal responsibility for their successes.
a. more; more
b. less; less
c. more; less
d. less; more

d

Mark, who suffers from chronic depression, is particularly upset about the low grade he received on his chemistry midterm exam. A cognitive therapist would be most likely to encourage Mark to attribute his failure to his:
a. lack of adequate study time.
b. lack of effective study skills.
c. chronic test anxiety.
d. lack of ability.

a

Although Mel is actually doing very well in college, he continues to feel academically incompetent. His therapist has instructed him to explain in writing how his own hard work and personal abilities contributed to each of the good grades he received during the previous semester. This therapeutic procedure is most characteristic of ________ therapy.
a. behavior
b. cognitive
c. psychoanalytic
d. humanistic
e. biomedical

b

Cynthia is afraid of speaking to a large audience. Her therapist suggests that prior to a speaking she should reassure herself with comments like, "Cheer up, Cynthia. You know what you’re talking about and your topic is really interesting!" This approach to reducing Cynthia’s fear most clearly illustrates:
a. aversion conditioning.
b. client-centered therapy.
c. systematic desensitization.
d. stress inoculation training.
e. psychoanalysis.

d

A useful feature of group therapy is that it:
a. ensures that therapists will become more emotionally involved in clients’ real‑life problems.
b. eliminates the possibility that clients will experience anxiety during therapy.
c. encourages clients to develop active listening skills.
d. enables severely disturbed individuals to quickly regain normal social functioning.

c

The belief that no person is an island is the fundamental assumption of:
a. psychoanalysis.
b. family therapy.
c. client-centered therapy.
d. cognitive therapy.
e. systematic desensitization.

b

In order to help Mrs. Otsuki lose weight, Dr. Watson first attempted to assess whether her weight loss might be personally threatening to her husband. The therapist’s concern is most characteristic of a:
a. eclectic therapist.
b. biomedical therapist.
c. client‑centered therapist.
d. family therapist.
e. psychoanalyst.

d

Research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy indicates that:
a. clients are generally satisfied with the effectiveness of therapy.
b. clients’ perceptions are the best evidence available for the effectiveness of therapy.
c. clients tend to underestimate how much they have improved as a result of therapy.
d. it is no more effective than having a friend to talk to.

a

Therapists’ perceptions of the effectiveness of psychotherapy are likely to be misleading because:
a. therapists typically minimize the seriousness of their clients’ symptoms when therapy begins.
b. clients typically emphasize their problems at the start of therapy and their well‑being at the end of therapy.
c. therapists typically blame their own therapeutic ineffectiveness on clients’ resistance.
d. clients tend to focus on their observable behavioral problems rather than on their mental and emotional difficulties.
e. therapists typically overestimate their clients’ potential levels of adjustment.

b

Which phenomenon refers to the tendency for extraordinary or unusual events to be followed by more ordinary events?
a. the placebo effect
b. systematic desensitization
c. regression toward the mean
d. free association
e. flooding

c

Which of the following is most likely to contribute to inflated perceptions of the effectiveness of psychotherapy?
a. meta-analysis
b. flooding
c. free association
d. regression toward the mean
e. the double-blind technique

d

Students who receive unusually low scores on their first psychology test can reasonably anticipate ________ scores on their second psychology test.
a. even lower
b. equally low
c. somewhat higher
d. very high

c

Unusual ESP subjects who defy chance when first tested nearly always lose their "psychic powers" when retested. This best illustrates:
a. regression toward the mean.
b. stress inoculation training.
c. systematic desensitization.
d. the double-blind technique.
e. the placebo effect.

a

Although Shien once scored 37 points during a single high school basketball game, he was subsequently unable to beat or match this record no matter how hard he tried. His experience may be at least partially explained in terms of:
a. the placebo effect.
b. regression toward the mean.
c. flooding.
d. systematic desensitization.
e. stress inoculation training.

b

Which of the following is a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different studies?
a. factor analysis
b. correlational analysis
c. regression toward the mean
d. meta‑analysis
e. rTMS

d

Klaus is a psychology graduate student who wants to determine whether electroconvulsive therapy is an effective treatment for schizophrenia. In assessing the results of numerous published studies on this issue, Klaus should use a technique called:
a. eclectic therapy.
b. the double‑blind procedure.
c. factor analysis.
d. counterconditioning.
e. meta‑analysis.

e

The most convincing evidence for the effectiveness of psychotherapy comes from:
a. studies of client satisfaction with the treatment received.
b. reports from therapists concerning their perceptions of client improvement.
c. meta‑analyses of psychotherapeutic outcome studies.
d. the reactions of family and friends to those who had recently undergone psychotherapeutic treatment.

c

Psychotherapy is most likely to be effective in freeing:
a. Sharon from the feeling that her life is meaningless and worthless.
b. Portia from her delusions of persecution and auditory hallucinations.
c. Jim from an excessive fear of giving speeches in public.
d. Luther from his antisocial personality disorder.

c

On the basis of a statistical analysis of some 475 psychotherapy outcome studies, Smith and her colleagues noted that:
a. psychotherapy is no more effective than talking to a friend.
b. no single form of therapy proves consistently superior to the others.
c. psychotherapy actually harms just as many people as it helps.
d. it is impossible to measure the effectiveness of psychotherapy.

b

Gretchen compulsively avoids shaking people’s hands or touching doorknobs, because she is afraid of contracting infectious diseases. Research suggests that an especially effective treatment for her difficulty would involve:
a. client‑centered therapy.
b. psychoanalysis.
c. interpersonal therapy.
d. counterconditioning.
e. electroconvulsive therapy.

d

In which procedure do practitioners claim to detect and manipulate human energy fields?
a. electroconvulsive therapy
b. eye movement desensitization and reprocessing
c. light-exposure therapy
d. therapeutic touch

e

Which of the following has not been shown to be a beneficial treatment?
a. stress inoculation training
b. exposure therapy
c. electroconvulsive therapy
d. therapeutic touch

d

EMDR was originally developed for the treatment of:
a. alcoholism.
b. bulimia.
c. depression.
d. anxiety.
e. schizophrenia.

d

Which of the following is most likely to contribute to inflated estimates of the value of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing?
a. meta-analysis
b. stress inoculation training
c. therapeutic touch
d. the double-blind technique
e. the placebo effect

e

EMDR is most similar to a technique known as:
a. stress inoculation training.
b. therapeutic touch.
c. systematic desensitization
d. electroconvulsive therapy

c

Which of the following has been demonstrated to provide relief for those who suffer from SAD?
a. flooding
b. EMDR
c. systematic desensitization
d. light-exposure therapy
e. therapeutic touch

d

The value of light-exposure therapy appears to result from its influence on people’s:
a. unconscious conflicts.
b. circadian rhythm.
c. self-blaming explanations for failure.
d. social relationships.
e. visual acuity.

b

The beneficial consequence of a person’s expecting that a treatment will be therapeutic is known as:
a. systematic desensitization.
b. the placebo effect.
c. meta-analysis.
d. transference.
e. behavior modification.

b

Because she mistakenly thought that completing a diagnostic test was a therapeutic treatment for her anxiety disorder, Mrs. Shyam felt considerable relief for several weeks following the test. Mrs. Shyam’s reaction best illustrates:
a. transference.
b. the double‑blind technique.
c. the placebo effect.
d. meta-analysis.
e. systematic desensitization.

c

The psychotherapeutic value of hope is best illustrated by:
a. meta-analysis.
b. the placebo effect.
c. systematic desensitization.
d. transference.
e. active listening.

b

The most effective psychotherapists are those who:
a. employ personality tests to accurately diagnose their clients’ difficulties.
b. utilize a wide variety of therapeutic techniques.
c. have had many years of experience practicing psychotherapy.
d. establish an empathic, caring relationship with their clients.
e. discourage clients from using antianxiety or antidepressant drugs.

d

Which therapeutic specialists are most likely to have received a Ph.D. degree in psychology?
a. clinical psychologists
b. clinical social workers
c. psychiatrists
d. pastoral counselors

a

A physician who specializes in the treatment of psychological disorders is called a:
a. psychoanalyst.
b. clinical psychologist.
c. behavioral neuroscientist.
d. cognitive therapist.
e. psychiatrist.

e

Although Dr. Anderson utilizes systematic desensitization for the treatment of phobias, he prescribes antianxiety drugs as well. It is most likely that Dr. Anderson is a:
a. psychoanalyst.
b. client‑centered therapist.
c. cognitive therapist.
d. psychiatrist.

d

mmigrants from Asia would most likely experience difficulty as clients of American psychotherapists who emphasized the value of:
a. marital fidelity.
b. individualism.
c. forgiveness.
d. humility.

b

The biomedical treatment most widely used today is:
a. psychoanalysis.
b. electroconvulsive therapy.
c. psychosurgery.
d. systematic desensitization.
e. drug therapy.

e

The study of the effect of drugs on mind and behavior is called:
a. psychosurgery.
b. psychobiology.
c. ECT.
d. psychopharmacology.

d

The double‑blind technique involves:
a. the avoidance of eye contact between patient and therapist during free association.
b. a procedure in which neither patients nor health care staff know whether a given patient is receiving a drug or a placebo.
c. blocking anxiety‑arousing material from consciousness during therapy.
d. the simultaneous use of two or more therapeutic treatments in the hope that at least one will be effective.
e. replacing a positive response to a harmful stimulus with a negative response.

b

Dr. Abdul is a researcher who wants to distinguish between the direct effects of a new antianxiety medication and effects arising simply from expectations of the drug’s effectiveness. Dr. Abdul is most likely to use a procedure known as:
a. the double‑blind technique.
b. meta-analysis.
c. transference.
d. counterconditioning.
e. systematic desensitization.

a

Antipsychotic drugs have proved helpful in the treatment of:
a. dissociative disorders.
b. schizophrenia.
c. depression.
d. anxiety disorders.
e. all the above.

b

Thorazine and Clozaril are ________ drugs.
a. antidepressant
b. antipsychotic
c. antimanic
d. antianxiety

b

Of the following individuals, who is most likely to benefit from therapeutic drugs that block receptor sites for dopamine?
a. Amr, who complains about feeling tense and fearful most of the time but doesn’t know why
b. Matthew, who has lost his sense of identity and wandered from his home to a distant city
c. Betsy, who hears imaginary voices telling her she will soon be killed
d. Marcella, who is so obsessed with fear of a heart attack that she frequently counts her heartbeats aloud

c

Which of the following drugs is most likely to produce extremely unpleasant physical side effects?
a. Thorazine
b. Prozac
c. Valium
d. Librium

a

Prozac is to depression as ________ is to anxiety.
a. Thorazine
b. lithium
c. Valium
d. Clozaril

c

In order to help an adult client overcome fears of venturing out of his own home, Dr. Jansen plans to use behavior therapy in combination with drug therapy. Which of the following drugs would Dr. Jansen be most likely to prescribe?
a. lithium
b. Clozaril
c. Valium
d. Thorazine

c

An increase in the availability of neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and serotonin is most likely to result from the administration of ________ drugs.
a. antipsychotic
b. antidepressant
c. antianxiety
d. antimanic

b

Most antidepressants ________ the availability of norepinephrine and ________ the availability of serotonin.
a. increase; decrease
b. decrease; increase
c. increase; increase
d. decrease; decrease

c

Alex feels so hopeless and depressed that he has recently thought about taking his own life. The drug most likely to prove beneficial to him is:
a. Valium.
b. Prozac.
c. Librium.
d. Thorazine.

b

Inflated estimates of the value of antidepressant drugs are in large part due to:
a. therapeutic touch.
b. the double-blind technique.
c. the placebo effect.
d. meta-analysis.
e. stress inoculation training.

c

Lithium has been found to be especially effective in the treatment of:
a. anxiety disorders.
b. schizophrenia.
c. dissociative disorders.
d. bipolar disorder.

d

Mr. Thorndyke’s excessive feelings of helplessness and despondency are periodically interrupted by episodes in which he experiences extreme feelings of personal power and a grandiose optimism about his future. Which drug would most likely be prescribed to alleviate his symptoms?
a. Valium
b. Thorazine
c. Librium
d. lithium

d

Which of the following procedures is used only when drug therapy is ineffective?
a. aversive conditioning
b. electroconvulsive therapy
c. systematic desensitization
d. flooding
e. stress inoculation training

b

Which of the following treatments is most likely to be used only with severely depressed patients?
a. flooding
b. drug therapy
c. systematic desensitization
d. electroconvulsive therapy
e. stress inoculation training

d

Which of the following individuals is most likely to benefit from electroconvulsive therapy?
a. Mark, who feels so dejected and discouraged that he contemplates killing himself
b. Mary, who suffers from amnesia and has lost her sense of identity
c. Jim, who experiences visual hallucinations and suffers from a delusion that communist spies are following him
d. Luke, who suffers from a compulsion to wash his hands at least once every 15 minutes

a

Depressed moods are most likely to improve in response to:
a. therapeutic touch.
b. eye movement desensitizational and reprocessing.
c. repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
d. virtual reality exposure therapy.

c

Surgically cutting the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion‑controlling centers of the inner brain is called:
a. psychopharmacology.
b. a split‑brain operation.
c. rTMS.
d. a lobotomy.
e. ECT.

d

Which psychosurgical procedure was designed to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients?
a. electroconvulsive therapy
b. aversive conditioning
c. the double‑blind technique
d. lobotomy
e. systematic desensitization

d

Aversive conditioning is to behavior therapy as a lobotomy is to:
a. systematic desensitization.
b. electroconvulsive therapy.
c. psychosurgery.
d. the placebo effect.
e. drug therapy.

c

Preventive mental health is based on the assumption that psychological disorders result from:
a. repressed impulses and conflicts.
b. stressful social situations.
c. abnormal personality traits.
d. regression toward the mean.

b

Which approach would attempt to minimize psychological disorders by working to reduce the incidence of child abuse and illiteracy in society?
a. biomedical therapy
b. counterconditioning
c. psychoanalysis
d. preventive mental health
e. token economy

d

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