Psychology – Study Guide # 9

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1.In psychology, the term personality refers to:

A)a person’s skill in making others feel good about himself or herself.
B)the socially desirable characteristics that a person typically displays.
C)the way people perceive a particular person.
D)an individual’s unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving.

D)an individual’s unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving.

2.Personality theories:

A)attempt to explain how and why people are similar and different.
B)focus on explaining the development of a specific personality characteristic, such as shyness.
C)focus on personality types rather than on personality traits and characteristics.
D)are impossible to test scientifically.

A)attempt to explain how and why people are similar and different.

3.The emphasis on unconscious mental processes is to _____ as the emphasis on learning and conscious cognitive processes is to _____.

A)the trait perspective; the humanistic perspective
B)the psychoanalytic perspective; the social cognitive perspective
C)the humanistic perspective; the psychoanalytic perspective
D)the social cognitive perspective; the trait perspective

B)the psychoanalytic perspective; the social cognitive perspective

4.Dr. Livingston maintains that unconscious mental processes and early childhood experiences are critical in the formation of personality. Dr. Livingston’s beliefs reflect the _____ perspective of personality.

A) trait
B) social cognitive
C) psychoanalytic
D) humanistic

C) psychoanalytic

5.Carter believes that people are basically good and that each person will naturally strive to fulfill his or her unique potential. Carter’s beliefs reflect the _____ perspective of personality.

A) trait
B) social cognitive
C) psychoanalytic
D) humanistic

D) humanistic

6.Freud’s famous technique of free association involved patients:

A)spontaneously reporting mental images, thoughts, and feelings as they came to mind.
B)looking at inkblots and interpreting what they saw.
C)making up a story about an ambiguous picture.
D)instantly responding to each of fifty words that Freud read to them.

A)spontaneously reporting mental images, thoughts, and feelings as they came to mind.

7.Even though Mary was not thinking about the events surrounding the day when she graduated from high school, she can easily bring memories about that day to conscious awareness. In terms of Freud’s theory of personality, Mary’s memories are stored at the _____ level of awareness.

A) preconscious
B) unconscious
C) conscious
D) latent

A) preconscious

8.Which of the following is NOT one of the three levels of awareness in Freud’s theory?

A)the preconscious
B)the collective unconscious
C)the conscious
D)the unconscious

B)the collective unconscious

9.The term Freudian slip refers to:

A)an undergarment that was worn by fashionable upper-class women in Vienna in the early 1900s.
B)thinking and behaving in a way that is the extreme opposite of unacceptable urges or impulses.
C)a freely expressed pent-up emotion that emerges spontaneously during psychotherapy.
D)an unintentional mistake, accident, or misstatement that Freud interpreted as revealing unconscious wishes or motives.

D)an unintentional mistake, accident, or misstatement that Freud interpreted as revealing unconscious wishes or motives.

10.In Freud’s theory, which component of personality is present at birth and is completely unconscious?

A) the superego
B) the ego
C) the archetype
D) the id

D) the id

11.Which definition reflects Freud’s view of the id?

A)the irrational component of personality that seeks immediate gratification
B)the rational, organized component of personality that is sensitive to the demands of the external world
C)the moralistic component of personality that evaluates the acceptability of behavior and thoughts
D)the inherited mental images of universal human themes and preoccupations

A)the irrational component of personality that seeks immediate gratification

12.The prologue to Chapter 10 described the story of the twins, Julian and Kenneth. Using Freud’s terminology, which component of personality was dominating Julian’s behavior when he tried to rob the drugstore?

A) the ego
B) the id
C) the superego
D) Eros

B) the id

13.Which definition reflects Freud’s view of the ego?
A)the moralistic component of personality that evaluates the acceptability of behavior and thoughts
B)the irrational component of personality that seeks immediate gratification
C)the inherited mental images of universal human themes and preoccupations
D)the rational, organized component of personality that is sensitive to the demands of the external world

D)the rational, organized component of personality that is sensitive to the demands of the external wor

14.At day care, 3-year-old Sara has learned that she has to wait her turn to ride on the tricycle rather than push another child off the tricycle. Using Freud’s terminology, Sara’s ability to postpone gratification in a socially acceptable way is a reflection of her:

A) id.
B) ego.
C) superego.
D) Thanatos instinct.

B) ego.

15.When 7-year-old Philip was caught pocketing a candy bar that he had not paid for, he felt ashamed and guilty. Using Freud’s terminology, the sense of shame and guilt that Philip felt was a product of his:

A) id.
B) ego.
C) superego.
D) libido.

C) superego.

16.Your sense of conscience corresponds to which component of personality in Freud’s theory?

A) Thanatos
B) id
C) ego
D) superego

D) superego

17.Which of the following statements reflects Freud’s view of the superego?

A)It is the moralistic and self-evaluative component of personality.
B)It is "a cauldron of seething excitement" that wants immediate gratification of instinctual drives and urges.
C)It is the component of personality that operates on the reality principle.
D)It is the source of the life instinct and death instinct.

A)It is the moralistic and self-evaluative component of personality.

18.In Freud’s theory of personality, the _____ operates on the _____, which is the capacity to delay gratification until an appropriate time.
A)id; pleasure principle
B)superego; reality principle
C)ego; reality principle
D)superego; pleasure principle

C) ego; reality principle

19.According to Freud, the ego is guided by _____, whereas the id is guided by _____.

A)Thanatos; Eros
B)Eros; Thanatos
C)the reality principle; the pleasure principle
D)the pleasure principle; the reality principle

C)the reality principle; the pleasure principle

20.Eric was once seriously injured in a hang-gliding accident, yet he continues to engage in this dangerous activity. Freud would probably explain Eric’s dangerous hobby as a reflection of:

A) Thanatos.
B) Eros.
C) the reality principle.
D) the superego.

A) Thanatos.

21.According to Freud, _____ is reflected in behaviors that enhance our chances of survival, and _____ is reflected in aggressive, reckless, and dangerous behaviors that are life threatening.

A)rationalization; repression
B)Eros; Thanatos
C)the id; the ego
D)Thanatos; Eros

B)Eros; Thanatos

22.Ego defense mechanisms:

A)increase anxiety.
B)operate consciously.
C)distort thoughts or perceptions of reality.
D)provide a safe outlet for the libido.

C)distort thoughts or perceptions of reality.

23.When Carol was 8 years old, her mother died. As an adult, Carol has no memories of attending her mother’s funeral. Which ego defense mechanism in Freud’s theory would best account for the fact that Carol has no memories of this upsetting event?

A) undoing
B) projection
C) displacement
D) repression

D) repression

24.Which of the following statements about ego defense mechanisms is FALSE?

A)According to Freud, using ego defense mechanisms requires psychological energy.
B)Psychologically healthy people often use ego defense mechanisms to temporarily deal with stressful events.
C)Ego defense mechanisms can be a way of psychologically buying time while seeking a realistic solution to a problem.
D)Using ego defense mechanisms increases feelings of anxiety.

D)Using ego defense mechanisms increases feelings of anxiety.

25.Although he stayed calm during the conversation, Mark was angry as he left Professor McArthur’s office because he felt he had been treated unfairly. A short while later, Mark snapped at a fellow student who asked if she could borrow his notes. Which ego defense mechanism best accounts for Mark’s behavior toward the other student?

A) displacement
B) sublimation
C) denial
D) rationalization

A) displacement

26.Freud believed that a special form of displacement, called _____, is largely responsible for the productive and creative contributions of people and even whole societies.

A) regression
B) projection
C) sublimation
D) reaction formation

C) sublimation

27.While talking to another coworker, Doug makes many hateful comments about Brian behind his back. Later that morning when he sees Brian, Doug acts very friendly to Brian and offers to buy him lunch. Which ego defense mechanism best explains Doug’s behavior?

A) sublimation
B) undoing
C) repression
D) projection

B) undoing

28.After Jack’s loan application for the new car was rejected, he told a friend that he was glad he had not gotten the loan because his old car was still very reliable and he really didn’t want to make monthly car payments. Which ego defense mechanism best explains Jack’s behavior?

A) repression
B) undoing
C) rationalization
D) reaction formation

C) rationalization

29.Although Karen’s divorce was finalized several months ago, she still refers to Jonathan as her "husband" rather than her "ex-husband" when talking with friends. Which ego defense mechanism best explains Karen’s behavior?

A) displacement
B) undoing
C) rationalization
D) denial

D) denial

30.Troy and Carrie are a couple. Troy is unable to consciously admit he has strong feelings of sexual attraction to other women. However, he suspects and accuses Carrie of being sexually attracted to other men, even though Carrie has never done anything to arouse such suspicions. Which ego defense mechanism best explains Troy’s behavior?

A) displacement
B) projection
C) sublimation
D) undoing

B) projection

31._____ is a form of _____ in which sexual urges are channeled into productive, socially acceptable, nonsexual activities.

A)Sublimation; displacement
C)Reaction formation; rationalization
B)Undoing; repression
D)Repression; projection

A)Sublimation; displacement

32.A religious leader in a small city led a crusade against the local X-rated movie theaters, topless dance bars, and strip clubs, often leading groups of angry citizens to storm the buildings and threaten to shut them down. After a great deal of publicity, however, the newspaper published photos of the same man frequenting strip clubs and patronizing prostitutes in a neighboring state. Sigmund Freud would explain this man’s behavior as an example of:

A) displacement.
B) regression.
C) reaction formation.
D) sublimation.

C) reaction formation.

33.Reaction formation is an ego defense mechanism that involves:

A)attributing one’s own unacceptable urges to others.
B)channeling sexual urges into productive, nonsexual activities.
C)behaving in a way that is the extreme opposite of unacceptable urges or impulses.
D)atoning for an unacceptable thought or action with a second action or thought.

C)behaving in a way that is the extreme opposite of unacceptable urges or impulses.

34.Unconscious repentance is to the ego defense mechanism of _____ as going to the opposite extreme is to the ego defense mechanism of _____.

A)displacement; sublimation
B)rationalization; repression
C)undoing; reaction formation
D)denial; projection

C)undoing; reaction formation

35.Because the beginnings of his own sexual attraction to some of the girls in his seventh-grade class were so anxiety-provoking to Jeff, he often found himself teasing the girls to whom he was most attracted. Jeff’s behavior is best explained by which of the following ego defense mechanisms?

A) rationalization
B) displacement
C) reaction formation
D) undoing

C) reaction formation

36.After Lauren broke up with him, Evan told his friends how happy he was that Lauren was out of his life. Nevertheless, Evan keeps thinking of things that he left at Lauren’s apartment and calls her or stops by her apartment several times a week. Each time he sees her, he is insulting and unpleasant and tells Lauren that he hopes he never sees her again. Evan’s behavior is best explained by which of the following ego defense mechanisms?

A) reaction formation
B) identification
C) displacement
D) undoing

A) reaction formation

37.Which of the following represents the correct order of Freud’s psychosexual stages of development?
A)oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
B)oral, anal, genital, latency, phallic
C)anal, oral, latency, phallic, genital
D)oral, genital, anal, latency, phallic

A)oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital

38.According to Freud, the successful resolution of the phallic stage of psychosexual development involves the child’s use of the defense mechanism of:

A) identification.
B) fixation.
C) reaction formation.
D) undoing.

A) identification.

39.Eight-year-old Alex plays almost exclusively with the other boys at his grade school. Alex’s behavior suggests that he is in the _____ stage of psychosexual development.

A) phallic
B) genital
C) latency
D) oral

C) latency

40.Gordon’s 5-year-old son has recently become very possessive of his mother, pushing Gordon away whenever he tries to hug his wife. Freud would probably suggest that the little boy’s behaviors reflect:

A)fixation at the oral stage of psychosexual development.
B)the latency stage of psychosexual development.
C)the Oedipus complex.
D)his attainment of the genital stage of psychosexual development.

C)the Oedipus complex.

41.Freud believed that the Oedipus complex produces _____ in little boys and _____ in little girls.

A)penis envy; womb envy
B)castration anxiety; womb envy
C)womb envy; penis envy
D)castration anxiety; penis envy

D)castration anxiety; penis envy

42.Womb envy is to _____ as penis envy is to _____.

A) Horney; Adler
B) Horney; Freud
C) Jung; Adler
D) Jung; Freud

B) Horney; Freud

43.Who were the Neo-Freudian?

A)A group of personality theorists who rejected almost all of the basic principles of Freudian psychoanalytic theory and went on to develop their own personality theories.
B)A group of psychoanalysts who accompanied Freud on his lecture tour of the United States and who stayed in the New World in order to promote Freudian theory and practice.
C)A group of personality theorists who recognized the importance of many of the basic principles of Freudian psychoanalytic theory but went on to develop their own personality theories.
D)A group of psychoanalysts who rejected Freud’s theory of personality development but nevertheless used his therapeutic techniques for treating their patients

C)A group of personality theorists who recognized the importance of many of the basic principles of Freudian psychoanalytic theory but went on to develop their own personality theories.

44.The neo-Freudians agreed with Freud’s notion that:

A)sexual urges are the primary motivator of behavior.
B)early childhood experiences are the sole determinant of personality.
C)basic human nature is aggressive and destructive.
D)unconscious mental processes influence behavior.

D)unconscious mental processes influence behavior.

45.According to Carl Jung, the collective unconscious:

A)is analogous to Freud’s concept of the preconscious.
B)gives rise to two personality types, the introvert and the extravert.
C)is the part of the unconscious mind that reflects human evolutionary history and is common to all people.
D)is the source of sexual and aggressive instinctual drives.

C)is the part of the unconscious mind that reflects human evolutionary history and is common to all people.

46.The collective unconscious is to _____ as basic anxiety is to _____.

A) Jung; Adler
B) Jung; Horney
C) Freud; Adler
D) Adler; Horney

B) Jung; Horney

47.The collective unconscious is to _____ as the inferiority complex is to _____.

A)Carl Jung; Karen Horney
B)Carl Jung; Alfred Adler
C)Alfred Adler; Sigmund Freud
D)Karen Horney; Carl Jung

B)Carl Jung; Alfred Adler

48.Jung believed that feminine and masculine qualities are represented in which of the following pairs of archetypes?

A)introvert and extravert
B)the wise old man and the innocent child
C)anima and animus
D)the hero and the witch

C)anima and animus

49.Which of the following statements best describes Jung’s notion of archetypes?

A)Each person is motivated to overcome the weaknesses in his or her particular archetype.
B)Each person inherits mental images that reflect universal human themes.
C)Each person develops a strong sense of competence in a particular skill or area of knowledge, which becomes that person’s archetype.
D)A person’s personality or archetype is shaped by his or her upbringing.

B)Each person inherits mental images that reflect universal human themes.

50.In contrast to Freud, psychoanalyst Karen Horney emphasized the importance of _____ in personality development.

A)sexual conflicts during the adolescent years
B)human relationships
C)striving for superiority
D)unconditional love and acceptance

B)human relationships

51.Psychoanalyst Karen Horney described _____ as "the feeling that a child has of being isolated and helpless in a potentially hostile world."

A)the superiority complex
C)basic anxiety
B)the inferiority complex
D)Neuroticism

C)basic anxiety

52.In psychoanalyst Karen Horney’s view, people who move "against" others have a strong need for:

A)independence and self-sufficiency.
B)approval and affection.
C)creativity and spontaneity.
D)power and feelings of superiority.

D)power and feelings of superiority.

53.According to psychoanalyst Karen Horney, people who move "toward" other people may have an excessive need for:

A)power.
B)approval and affection.
C)independence and self-sufficiency.
D)feelings of superiority.

B)approval and affection.

54.According to psychoanalyst Karen Horney, people who move "away from" other people may have an excessive need for:

A)power.
B)approval and affection.
C)independence and self-sufficiency.
D)self-efficacy.

C)independence and self-sufficiency.

55.In contrast to Freud’s view of psychosexual development, psychoanalyst Karen Horney contended that:

A)females feel inferior because they lack a penis.
B)girls do not experience the Oedipus complex until adolescence.
C)girls resolve the Oedipus complex long before boys do.
D)males often envy the capacity of females to bear children.

D)males often envy the capacity of females to bear children.

56.According to psychoanalyst Karen Horney, males often envy the capacity of women to bear children, which she termed:

A) womb envy.
B) penis envy.
C) neuroticism.
D) psychoticism.

A) womb envy.

57.According to Alfred Adler:

A)the images and themes contained in the collective unconscious are trAnswermitted from one generation to the next.
B)the most fundamental human motive was the desire to improve oneself, master challenges, and move toward self-perfection.
C)men suffer from "womb envy" and resent women’s capacity to bear children.
D)the Oedipus complex persists and resurfaces throughout life.

B)the most fundamental human motive was the desire to improve oneself, master challenges, and move toward self-perfection.

58.Despite the fact that Jacob is actually incompetent at many of the tasks that his job entails, he is constantly bragging about his accomplishments, abilities, and skills. Alfred Adler would probably suggest that Jacob has developed _____ to cover up his weaknesses.

A)a high level of self-efficacy
B)a "possible self"
C)a superiority complex
D)an inferiority complex

C)a superiority complex

59.Wendy often avoids trying or learning new tasks because she sees herself as inadequate, weak, and helpless. Alfred Adler would probably suggest that Wendy has developed _____ that keeps her from striving for mastery and self-improvement.

A)a "possible self"
B)an actualizing tendency
C)a superiority complex
D)an inferiority complex

D)an inferiority complex

60.According to Alfred Adler, feelings of inferiority:

A)are more prominent in women than in men.
B)are the most fundamental archetype of the collective unconscious.
C)motivate people to compensate for real or imagined weaknesses.
D)are resolved during the latency stage of psychosexual development.

C)motivate people to compensate for real or imagined weaknesses.

61. Which of the following is referred to as the "third force" in psychology?

A)humanistic psychology
B)the social cognitive perspective on personality
C)the Neo-Freudian approach
D)the trait perspective on personality

A)humanistic psychology

62.Humanistic psychologist Carl Rogers contended that the most basic human motive is:
A)aggression.
B)the pleasure principle.
C)the actualizing tendency.
D)striving for superiority over others.

C)the actualizing tendency.

63.According to Carl Rogers’s theory of personality, a person is highly motivated to act in a way that is consistent with:

A)his or her sense of self-efficacy in a particular situation.
B)the behavior of others.
C)his or her source traits.
D)his or her self-concept.

D)his or her self-concept.

64.Spencer has always considered himself to be an honest person. So when he walked into the empty classroom and found a wallet that contained a hundred dollars in cash, he took it to the campus security office. According to Carl Rogers’s theory of personality, Spencer’s behavior when he found the purse was motivated by:
A)the unconscious fear of getting caught.
B)his desire to act in a way that was consistent with his self-concept.
C)money.
D)his attempt to reduce his basic anxiety.

B)his desire to act in a way that was consistent with his self-concept.

65.According to Carl Rogers, when a child senses that he is loved and valued only when he behaves in a way that is acceptable to his parents, the parents are displaying _____ toward the child.

A)congruence
C)conditional positive regard
B)self-efficacy
D)unconditional positive regard

C)conditional positive regard

66.In Carl Rogers’s personality theory, the term _____ refers to a condition in which a person’s emotions and experiences are consistent with his sense of self.

A)displacement
C)congruence
B)conditional positive regard
D)unconditional positive regard

B)conditional positive regard

67.According to reciprocal determinism:

A)human behavior and personality are caused by the interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors.
B)unconscious and conscious forces operate together to determine the nature of personality.
C)genes interact with the environment to determine human personality.
D)human behavior is determined by the unconscious personality dynamics that give rise to self-efficacy.

A) human behavior and personality are caused by the interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors.

68.According to Albert Bandura, what is the best way to strengthen your sense of self-efficacy in a particular realm of behavior?

A)through unconditional positive regard and a congruent self-concept
B)through observational learning and mastery experiences
C)by adopting the ego defense mechanisms of sublimation and displacement
D)by developing a more positive "possible self" in that

B)through observational learning and mastery experiences

69.The Focus on Neuroscience box, "Personality Traits and Patterns of Brain Activity," described an fMRI study that investigated how people with different personality traits responded to positive and negative images. What was the major conclusion of this study?

A)Specific personality traits are associated with individual differences in the brain’s response to emotional stimuli.
B)There were no major differences in brain activity between people who differ in personality traits.
C)Although there might be differences in brain activity patterns in people with different personality traits, these differences are too subtle to be measured with current neuroscience techniques.
D)Extraversion is associated with left hemisphere brain activity, while neuroticism is associated with right hemisphere brain activity.

A)Specific personality traits are associated with individual differences in the brain’s response to emotional stimuli.

70.The two basic types of personality tests are:

A)aptitude and achievement tests.
B)personality type tests and self-report inventories.
C)personality trait inventories and personality type inventories.
D)projective tests and self-report inventories.

D)projective tests and self-report inventories.

71."Possible selves" refers to:

A)ego defense mechanisms that involve fantasy.
B)aspects of the self-concept that reflect images that people hope, fear, or expect to become in the future.
C)those aspects of the self-concept that are congruent with a person’s emotions and experiences.
D)the unconscious aspects of the self-concept that are repressed because they are felt to be unacceptable.

B)aspects of the self-concept that reflect images that people hope, fear, or expect to become in the future.

72.Jose is a ninth-grader who dreams of becoming a major-league baseball player. Because of his _____, Jose will probably practice longer and harder than the other players on his high school softball team.

A)trait of conscientiousness
C)superiority complex
B)extraversion
D)possible self

D)possible self

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