Psychology – Study Guide # 5

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1.Psychologists formally define learning as:

A)a process that produces a relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge as a result of past experience.
B)a process that produces a relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge due to natural or instinctive processes.
C)a relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of developmental factors or maturation.
D)replacing old habits with new habits.

A)a process that produces a relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge as a result of past experience.

2.In psychology, the term conditioning refers to:

A)a prior exposure to a stimulus.
B)learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses.
C)enhanced performance due to extensive practice and training in a particular skill or sport.
D)adaptation to specific environmental factors due to repeated exposure to those factors.

B)learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses.

3.The process of learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses is called:

A)stimulus discrimination.
B)stimulus generalization.
C)conditioning.
D)extinction.

C)conditioning.

4.Ivan Pavlov was a(n):

A)Russian physiologist.
C)American physiologist.
B)Russian psychologist.
D)German psychologist.

A)Russian physiologist.

5.Who discovered the basic process of classical conditioning?

A) Robert Rescorla
B) B. F. Skinner
C) John B. Watson
D) Ivan Pavlov

D) Ivan Pavlov

6.What discovery sparked Pavlov’s interest in the phenomenon that eventually became known as classical conditioning?

A)Dogs that were repeatedly restrained while shocked had displayed "learned helplessness."
B)Dogs displayed exploratory behavior when the experimenter was not in the room.
C)Dogs displayed a reflexive response before the stimulus was presented rather than after it was presented.
D)Dogs became hypersensitive to sounds, such as ringing bells and footsteps.

C)Dogs displayed a reflexive response before the stimulus was presented rather than after it was presented.

7.To produce a learned response in classical conditioning, what two elements are repeatedly paired?

A)a neutral stimulus and a stimulus that naturally elicits a response
B)a stimulus and a response
C)a behavioral response and a natural environmental consequence
D)an unconditioned stimulus and a voluntarily emitted behavioral response

A)a neutral stimulus and a stimulus that naturally elicits a response

8.Essentially, classical conditioning is a process of:

A)learning that consequences follow a voluntarily emitted behavior.
B)learning new responses by observing others’ behaviors.
C)learning the relationship between a behavior and a reinforcer.
D)learning an association between two stimuli.

D)learning an association between two stimuli.

9.When Rani was having problems at school, she often talked things over with her grandfather. Her grandfather, who always smoked a pipe, was warm, reassuring, and always supportive. Years later, Rani still finds the smell of pipe tobacco soothing. In classical conditioning terms, Rani’s fondness for the smell of pipe tobacco may be described as a(n):

A)conditioned response.
B)unconditioned response.
C)example of latent learning.
D)example of higher order conditioning.

A)conditioned response.

10.If you touch something hot, you will reflexively withdraw your hand. Using Pavlov’s terminology, reflexively withdrawing your hand would be termed a(n):

A)unconditioned stimulus (UCS).
B)unconditioned response (UCR).
C)conditioned stimulus (CS).
D)conditioned response (CR).

B)unconditioned response (UCR).

11.Pavlov found that a conditioned response would be stronger if:

A)the UCS was always presented before the CS.
B)the CR always occurred before the UCR.
C)there were many pairings of the CS and the UCS.
D)the interval between the CS and the UCS was an hour or longer.

C)there were many pairings of the CS and the UCS.

12.A young child has learned to associate the sight of a nurse’s white uniform with the fear and pain of getting an injection. If the young child begins reacting with fear to the sight of any white jacket, what has occurred?

A)stimulus generalization
B)spontaneous recovery
C)stimulus discrimination
D)higher order conditioning

A)stimulus generalization

13.When Micah was 2 years old, he was frightened by his Aunt Mabel’s little dog, which had nipped him on the leg. Because of the incident, Micah developed a strong fear of small dogs but not of large dogs. This best illustrates which of the following?

A)spontaneous recovery
B)stimulus discrimination
C)stimulus generalization
D)higher order conditioning

B)stimulus discrimination

14.Pavlov found that once he conditioned a dog to salivate in response to a tone, a tone that was slightly higher or lower in pitch would also make the dog salivate. This phenomenon is called:

A)spontaneous recovery.
B)stimulus discrimination.
C)backward conditioning.
D)stimulus generalization.

D)stimulus generalization.

15.Which of the following has the greatest impact on the strength of the conditioned response?

A)the magnitude of the reinforcer
B)the timing of stimulus presentations
C)the size of the unconditioned response
D)the degree of latent learning during conditioning trials

B)the timing of stimulus presentations

16.A conditioned stimulus from one learning trial is used in place of an unconditioned stimulus in a new conditioning trial, where it is paired with a second conditioned stimulus. The second conditioned stimulus then comes to elicit the conditioned response, even though it has never been directly paired with the unconditioned stimulus. This is a description of a procedure called:

A)stimulus generalization training.
B)higher order conditioning or second-order conditioning.
C)latent learning training.
D) the extinction procedure

B)higher order conditioning or second-order conditioning.

17.Fred’s dog was classically conditioned to salivate at the sound of a bell. Fred then repeatedly paired the bell with another stimulus, a whistle. Now whenever he blows the whistle, his dog salivates, even though the whistle has never been paired with food. This example illustrates:

A)higher order conditioning (second-order conditioning).
B)spontaneous recovery.
C)a placebo response.
D) biological preparedness

A)higher order conditioning (second-order conditioning).

18.Every Friday, Dr. Cruz would give a quiz in his psychology class. Students quickly learned to be nervous on Friday mornings, just before each quiz. Halfway through the semester, Dr. Cruz stopped giving quizzes on Fridays and the students’ anxiety began to diminish with each passing week in which there was no quiz. The decrease in the students’ anxiety may be attributed to the process of:

A)spontaneous recovery.
B)extinction.
C)stimulus generalization.
D)latent learning.

B)extinction.

19.After a dog had been conditioned to salivate to the sight of a triangle, the triangle alone was presented to the dog every three minutes. Over the course of several trials, the amount of saliva secreted by the dog in response to the triangle decreased to zero. At that point, the dog was put back in his cage for the night. What happened the next morning when the triangle was presented to the dog again?

A)Because of latent learning, the dog did not salivate.
B)Spontaneous recovery occurred and the dog salivated in response to the triangle.
C)Learned helplessness developed, and the dog did not respond in any way.
D)Because the triangle was no longer a discriminative stimulus, the dog did not salivate

B)Spontaneous recovery occurred and the dog salivated in response to the triangle.

20.Behaviorism was an early "school" or approach to psychology that was founded by:

A)Edward L. Thorndike.
B)John B. Watson.
C)B. F. Skinner.
D)Albert Bandura.

B)John B. Watson.

21.It was _____ who was the author of a landmark article entitled "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It." The opening sentences read, "Psychology as the behaviorist views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior."

A)John B. Watson
B)Albert Bandura
C)Ivan Pavlov
D)Edward L. Thorndike

A)John B. Watson

22.Professor Lake is a strong advocate of the behavioral perspective. He would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements?

A)Human behavior is shaped by experience and environmental events.
B)Human behavior can best be explained by genetics and heredity.
C)Most human behavior is the result of unconscious psychological conflicts.
D)The understanding of mental processes is the key to understanding human behavior.

A)Human behavior is shaped by experience and environmental events.

23.The famous "Little Albert" study conducted by John Watson and Rosalie Rayner demonstrated:

A)that even a baby can be conditioned to salivate to the sound of a bell.
B)that it was possible to classically condition an emotional reaction to a previously neutral stimulus.
C)that it was possible to operantly condition voluntary behavior in infants if the right reinforcer was presented immediately following the target behavior.
D)that all emotional reactions are inborn, naturally occurring reflexes.

B)that it was possible to classically condition an emotional reaction to a previously neutral stimulus.

24.What happened after "Little Albert" was classically conditioned to fear a tame white rat?

A)Stimulus generalization occurred; Albert responded with fear to other furry animals and fuzzy objects.
B)The sight of the hammer produced spontaneous recovery of the unconditioned response.
C)Stimulus discrimination occurred; Albert responded with fear to white rats but not to other furry animals or to fuzzy objects.
D)The conditioned fear response was quickly and easily extinguished.

A)Stimulus generalization occurred; Albert responded with fear to other furry animals and fuzzy objects.

25.In the famous study of "Little Albert," John Watson and Rosalie Rayner:

A)used changes in heartbeat, breathing, and blood pressure as their operational definition of fear in the infant.
B)did not extinguish the conditioned emotional reaction in the infant.
C)were criticized for their conclusions because the infant was fearful of many different objects before the study began.
D)successfully removed the infant’s conditioned fear of furry animals and fuzzy objects.

B)did not extinguish the conditioned emotional reaction in the infant.

26.A psychological and/or physiological response to what is actually a fake treatment or drug is called:

A)spontaneous recovery
B)an unconditioned response (UCR).
C)an operant response.
D)a placebo response or placebo effect.

D)a placebo response or placebo effect.

27.Modern research on advertising and marketing techniques has shown that:

A)most people are not affected by the use of classical conditioning methods in advertising.
B)attitudes toward a product or a particular brand can be influenced by the use of classical conditioning techniques in advertising campaigns.
C)modern advertising has abandoned the use of classical conditioning techniques, since they have been shown to be ineffective.
D)pairing products with stimuli that naturally elicit fear is the only way in which classical conditioning techniques affect brand preferences or product choices.

B)attitudes toward a product or a particular brand can be influenced by the use of classical conditioning techniques in advertising campaigns.

28.Your friend Madison became very ill a few hours after eating the fried chicken special in the college cafeteria. Now, Madison feels queasy whenever she smells fried chicken. Having read the learning chapter in your psychology class, you explain that:

A)since Madison only experienced one pairing of the fried chicken and illness, her queasy feelings cannot be a classically conditioned response.
B)Madison has experienced a learned taste aversion, which can occur after only one pairing of food and illness.
C)Madison has been negatively reinforced for eating fried chicken, because consuming it led to an aversive consequence.
D)latent learning has occurred and Madison can overcome the queasy feeling by forcing herself to eat the fried chicken.

B)Madison has experienced a learned taste aversion, which can occur after only one pairing of food and illness.

29.Psychologist John Garcia found that rats did not learn to associate a taste with flashing lights and noise. However, rats do learn to associate a taste with getting ill. Which of the following concepts best accounts for this observation?

A)latent learning
B)biological preparedness
C)spontaneous recovery
D)the partial reinforcement effect

B)biological preparedness

30. Conditioned taste aversions demonstrate:

A)the power of punishment to suppress behavior.
B)that certain stimuli are easier to associate than others.
C)that any neutral stimulus is capable of becoming a conditioned stimulus.
D)that the interval between the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus must be only a few seconds, or classical conditioning will not occur.

B)that certain stimuli are easier to associate than others.

31.The notion that an organism is innately predisposed to form associations between certain stimuli and responses is termed:

A)biological preparedness.
C)instinctive drift.
B)latent learning.
D)the law of effect.

A)biological preparedness.

32.Martin Seligman noted that phobias seem to be quite selective, involving only certain stimuli. To explain this, Seligman proposed that:

A)Humans are biologically prepared to develop fears of objects or situations that may once have posed a threat to humans’ evolutionary ancestors.
B)children learn from their parents at a very early age to fear these types of stimuli.
C)people rely primarily on vision, so visual stimuli lead to better fear conditioning.
D)most phobias are due to early childhood experience with painful or frightening stimuli.

A)Humans are biologically prepared to develop fears of objects or situations that may once have posed a threat to humans’ evolutionary ancestors.

33.Phobias of heights, storms, snakes, and spiders are much more common than phobias of cars, stairs, stoves, or sharp objects. According to psychologist Martin Seligman, the reason is that:

A)we are more likely to develop phobias for objects or situations that posed a threat to our evolutionary survival.
B)it is superstitious behavior due to accidental reinforcement.
C)we have become conditioned through films and television shows to fear certain stimuli, even though we have never been personally threatened by those stimuli.
D)instinctive drift is occurring.

A)we are more likely to develop phobias for objects or situations that posed a threat to our evolutionary survival.

34.The evolutionary perspective helps explain why the most common phobias are fears of:

A)wooden ducks, blocks, or curtains.
B)foods that have been paired with illness cues.
C)spiders, snakes, and heights.
D)mushrooms and flowers.

C)spiders, snakes, and heights.

35.Classical conditioning involves _____, while operant conditioning involves _____.

A)reflexive behaviors; voluntary behaviors
B)responses emitted by organisms; responses elicited by unconditioned stimuli
C)responses acquired through observational learning; responses acquired through imitation.
D)voluntary behaviors; reflexive behaviors

A)reflexive behaviors; voluntary behaviors

36.What is the "law of effect"?

A)It was a notion suggested by Marion and Keller Breland that described how wild animals are affected by their instinctual behaviors when trying to learn new behaviors.
B)It was the theoretical model suggested by John B. Watson to describe the effect of fear on infants.
C)It was the basic rule that Albert Bandura used to explain how imitation occurs in a wide variety of social situations.
D)It was a principle formulated by Edward Thorndike that described how voluntary behaviors can be modified by their consequences.

D)It was a principle formulated by Edward Thorndike that described how voluntary behaviors can be modified by their consequences.

37.Caleb had a wonderful time on his first date with Shauna. Because of this, he asked Shauna to go out on a second date. What best explains Caleb’s behavior of asking Shauna for another date?

A)latent learning
C)spontaneous recovery
B)response generalization
D)the law of effect

D)the law of effect

38.Which of the following statements best captures the flavor of Thorndike’s law of effect?

A)New stimuli can be conditioned to produce reflexive behaviors.
B)Learning can only occur when the CS provides information about the probability of the UCS occurring.
C)Rewarded behaviors are more likely to be repeated, while unrewarded behaviors are less likely to be repeated.
D)By first observing the actions of others, success can occur the first time a task is attempted.

C)Rewarded behaviors are more likely to be repeated, while unrewarded behaviors are less likely to be repeated.

39.Skinner coined the term operant to describe:

A)active behaviors that operate on the environment to generate consequences.
B)the operational relationship between a conditioned stimulus as it relates to a reinforcer.
C)involuntary behaviors that were subject to the laws of learning but operated independently.
D)the relationship between behaviors and conditioned stimuli that elicited the behaviors.

A)active behaviors that operate on the environment to generate consequences.

40.An operant can be defined as:

A)someone whose actions you observe.
B)a voluntary action.
C)an automatic, reflexive behavior.
D)the mental image of an object or action.

B)a voluntary action.

41.In operant conditioning, reinforcement:

A)is defined as any stimulus that automatically elicits an unconditioned response (UCR).
B)is defined as any stimulus that automatically elicits a conditioned response (CR).
C)is defined by the effect that it produces—increasing or strengthening behavior.
D)is based upon behaviors that are elicited by discriminative stimuli.

C)is defined by the effect that it produces—increasing or strengthening behavior.

42.Which of the following statements best captures the basic idea of operant conditioning?

A)Behavior is shaped and maintained by its consequences.
B)By pairing a neutral stimulus with a response-producing stimulus, the neutral stimulus can come to produce the same response.
C)Mental processes play a critical role in the process of imitating the behavior of others.
D)Behavior can only be understood by considering underlying mental processes.

A)Behavior is shaped and maintained by its consequences.

43.Positive reinforcement _____ the likelihood of a behavior’s being repeated. Negative reinforcement _____ the likelihood of a behavior’s being repeated.

A)increases; increases
B)increases; decreases
C)decreases; increases
D)decreases; decreases

A)increases; increases

44.Positive reinforcement is to negative reinforcement as:

A)addition of a reinforcing stimulus is to removal of an aversive stimulus.
B)primary reinforcer is to conditioned reinforcer.
C)increase in behavior is to decrease in behavior.
D)addition of a reinforcing stimulus is to removal of a reinforcing stimulus.

A)addition of a reinforcing stimulus is to removal of an aversive stimulus.

45.A stimulus or event that is naturally or inherently reinforcing for a given species is called a ________, and a stimulus or event that has acquired reinforcing value by being associated with a primary reinforcer is called a __________ .

A)positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer
B)primary reinforcer; conditioned reinforcer
C)negative reinforcer; positive reinforcer
D)conditioned reinforcer; secondary reinforce

B)primary reinforcer; conditioned reinforcer

46.Which of the following would be considered a conditioned reinforcer?

A) food
B) water
C) affection
D) money

D) money

47."I’ll make you a deal," Cody’s mother says. "If you clean up your room, then you can have a glazed donut." Using operant conditioning terms, Cody’s mother is using _____ to reward desired behavior.

A)punishment by avoidance
B)a conditioned reinforcer
C)a primary reinforcer
D)negative reinforcement

C)a primary reinforcer

48.Which of the following would be an example of a primary reinforcer?

A)getting an A+ in Introductory Psychology
B)a college diploma
C)a check for $10,000
D)a cold drink on a hot day

D)a cold drink on a hot day

49.After lightning caused an electrical power surge and damaged his computer, Damon no longer turns his computer on during thunderstorms. This change in Damon’s behavior is the result of:

A)positive reinforcement.
B)negative reinforcement.
C)punishment.
D)shaping.

C)punishment.

50.Negative reinforcement _____ the likelihood of a behavior being repeated and punishment _____ the likelihood of a behavior being repeated.

A)increases; increases
B)increases; decreases
C)decreases; increases
D)decreases; decreases

B)increases; decreases

51.Terry wants his young daughter, Lauren, to help him with the housework, so he tells her that she can play on his computer as soon as she finishes doing the dinner dishes and putting away the clean laundry. Terry is using a more preferred activity to reinforce a less preferred activity. According to the In Focus box "Changing the Behavior of Others," this behavioral strategy is called:

A)the Premack principle
B)time-out from positive reinforcement
C)reinforcing an incompatible behavior
D)the partial reinforcement effect.

A)the Premack principle

52.Whenever the phone rings young Daniel always runs over and answers it. In this situation the ringing phone is a _______ for Daniels’ response.

A)conditioned reinforcer
B)primary reinforcer
C)positive reinforcer
D)discriminative stimulus.

D)discriminative stimulus.

53.In operant conditioning, a discriminative stimulus is defined as a(n):

A)environmental stimulus or cue in the presence of which a particular response is more likely to be reinforced.
B)stimulus that evokes a wide variety of behaviors.
C)consequence that decreases the likelihood of a behavior being repeated.
D)reinforcer that is naturally reinforcing for a given species.

A)environmental stimulus or cue in the presence of which a particular response is more likely to be reinforced.

54.If you reinforce successively closer approximations of a behavior until the desired behavior is displayed, you are using the operant conditioning procedure called:

A)negative reinforcement.
B)stimulus discrimination.
C)shaping.
D)generalization training.

C)shaping.

55.In your philosophy class, you have found that your professor never calls on you when you raise your hand. As a result you no longer raise your hand to ask or answer questions. In learning theory, no longer raising your hand would be the result of:

A)partial reinforcement.
B)stimulus discrimination.
C)extinction.
D)negative reinforcement.

C)extinction.

56.Whose behavior is most likely to show the greatest resistance to extinction?

A)Carlos, who gets everything he asks for from his grandparents when they are out shopping
B)Lydia, who is always told "No, we cannot afford that" by her parents when they are out shopping
C)Kaitlyn, who does not ask for anything from her grandparents when they are out shopping
D)Rick, who sometimes gets what he asks for from his parents when they are out shopping

D)Rick, who sometimes gets what he asks for from his parents when they are out shopping

57.Unbeknownst to the rest of the world, Roger was wearing green underwear when he aced his calculus test at the beginning of the semester. Ever since, Roger always wears green underwear on test days in his college classes. In operant conditioning terms, Roger’s superstitious behavior is the result of:

A)accidental reinforcement.
B)a variable-interval schedule of reinforcement.
C)shaping.
D)behavior modification.

A)accidental reinforcement.

58."Okay, that was good! Now this time, don’t close your eyes. Keep your eye on the ball, so you know when to close your hands," Mark said in the process of teaching his 5-year-old to play catch. In operant conditioning terms, Mark is using _____ to teach his daughter how to catch a ball.

A)the partial reinforcement effect
B)shaping
C)generalization training
D)negative reinforcement

B)shaping

59.Martina is an animal trainer at Sea World. To teach a new dolphin to jump through a hoop high above the water, Martina first reinforces the dolphin for approaching the hoop while it is under the water. Then, she reinforces the dolphin for swimming through the hoop under water. Gradually raising the hoop, Martina progressively reinforces each small step toward the goal behavior. Martina is using the process of _____ to train the dolphin.

A)punishment by application
B)partial reinforcement
C)shaping
D)observational learning

C)shaping

60.In an operant conditioning experiment a pigeon learned to peck at a blue disk to get a food pellet. The researcher then withheld reinforcement and eventually the bird stopped pecking the disk. This example illustrates:

A)extinction.
B)the partial reinforcement effect.
C)learned helplessness.
D)the effect of negative reinforcement.

A)extinction.

61.When competitive swimmers stayed focused on their practice techniques during swim team practice, they were rewarded by their coach playing popular music over the loudspeakers in the pool area. When they were inattentive or started "goofing off," the coach played recordings of gloomy, off-key organ music. In this example, the coach is using _____ to help his swimmers stay focused.

A)biological preparedness
B)latent learning
C)classical conditioning
D)behavior modification

D)behavior modification

62.Road construction prevents you from getting to the shopping mall using the route that you always travel. You think about the situation for a moment and then come up with a different route to take. To figure out this alternative route, you are using what Tolman referred to as:

A)biological preparedness.
B)stimulus generalization.
C)a cognitive map.
D)instinctive drift.

C)a cognitive map.

63.Edward C. Tolman’s concept of latent learning helps to demonstrate that:

A)only people can develop cognitive maps of their environments.
B)animals learn more by mental representation than by reinforcement.
C)learning will not occur unless behavior is "stamped in" by a rewarding consequence.
D)rewards affect performance of what has been learned rather than the process of learning itself.

D)rewards affect performance of what has been learned rather than the process of learning itself.

64.If exposure to inescapable and uncontrollable aversive events produces passive behavior, the response of passivity is termed:

A)learned helplessness.
B)biological preparedness.
C)avoidance due to negative reinforcement.
D)instinctive drift.

A)learned helplessness.

65.Roy is having trouble passing his calculus course. No matter how hard he studies, he cannot seem to pass a calculus test. Eventually, Roy gives up and stops studying or even coming to calculus class. Roy’s behavior can be explained as an example of:

A)the partial reinforcement effect.
B)classical conditioning.
C)biological preparedness.
D)learned helplessness.

D)learned helplessness.

66.The basic strategy for overcoming learned helplessness is to:

A)use punishment by application to suppress undesirable behaviors.
B)displace the frustration onto another object.
C)acquire a sense of control and mastery over challenging circumstances.
D)withdraw from the situation.

C)acquire a sense of control and mastery over challenging circumstances.

67.Animal trainers Keller and Marian Breland tried to train a raccoon to pick up two coins and deposit them in a metal box. However, instead of dropping the coins in the box, the raccoon would rub the coins together, much as raccoons do with their food in the wild.
This tendency of the raccoon to revert to its natural behavior patterns is termed:

A) extinction.
B) latent learning.
C) instinctive drift.
D) learned helplessness.

C) instinctive drift.

68.Which of the following statements best describes the phenomenon of instinctive drift?

A)As operant behaviors are learned, they override instinctive or reflexive behaviors.
B)Over time, reflexive behaviors change as a function of repeated exposure to classical conditioning.
C)The biological predisposition to perform natural behaviors can interfere with learning operant behaviors.
D)Misbehavior can be prevented by operantly conditioning instinctive behaviors that are incompatible with the misbehavior.

C)The biological predisposition to perform natural behaviors can interfere with learning operant behaviors.

69.According to Bandura, what four cognitive processes are necessary for imitation of behavior that has been only observed?
A)attention, reinforcement, motivation, cognitive maps
B)attention, memory, ability to perform the behavior, motivation
C)reinforcement, discriminative stimuli, motivation, ability to perform the behavior
D)reinforcement, discriminative stimuli, cognitive maps, and consequences for the behavior

B)attention, memory, ability to perform the behavior, motivation

70.Mindy is in nursing school and is learning how to measure a patient’s blood pressure. Her instructor first shows the class a video that demonstrates the proper procedures for measuring blood pressure and then demonstrates these same procedures using Mindy as a "patient." Mindy and her class are learning how to measure blood pressure in patients through the use of:

A)operant conditioning.
B)observational learning.
C)latent learning.
D)classical conditioning.

B)observational learning.

71.Studies found that adolescents who watched a great number of television programs with a high level of sexual content:

A)were twice as likely to become sexually active in the next year than adolescents who watched the least amount of sexually oriented television programming.
B)were more aggressive than adolescents who did not watch television programs with sexual content.
C)were more likely to drop out of school than adolescents who watched the least amount of sexually oriented television programming.
D)were more likely to be arrested as adults for domestic violence.

A)were twice as likely to become sexually active in the next year than adolescents who watched the least amount of sexually oriented television programming.

72.According to Bandura’s model of observational learning, which of the following characteristics of television depictions of violent behavior makes the violent behavior more likely to be imitated?

A)Violent behavior is performed by the hero or another attractive, high-status individual.
B)The aggressive person is punished for his or her violent behavior.
C)The violent programs show the long-term negative consequences of violence, such as the months of painful rehabilitation following a gunshot wound.
D)The victim of the aggressive behavior is the main character of the program.

A)Violent behavior is performed by the hero or another attractive, high-status individual.

73.Based on a review of more than 30 years of research, the American Psychological Association and other public health organizations stated that viewing entertainment violence:

A)has little or no effect on children’s or adults’ behavior.
B)can lead to an increase in aggressive attitudes, values, and behaviors.
C)was associated with lower cognitive performance and negative social behavior in African American males but not in white males.
D)can lead to a decrease in aggressive attitudes, values, and behaviors.

B)can lead to an increase in aggressive attitudes, values, and behaviors.

74.In a 15-year longitudinal study, psychologists recorded children’s television viewing habits and then tracked them down as adults 15 years later. What difference did they find between the men who had watched the most violent television as children as compared to men who had watched lesser amounts of violent television?

A)The men who had watched the least amount of violent television were more likely to be employed in one of the helping professions.
B)The men who had watched the most violent television as children were in prison or dead.
C)The men who had watched the least amount of violent television were twice as likely to have earned a college degree.
D)The men who had watched the most violent television as children were three times more likely to have been convicted of a crime.

D)The men who had watched the most violent television as children were three times more likely to have been convicted of a crime.

75.Blake is determined to graduate from college with honors. But as he was studying for his final exam the next day, a friend called and invited him to a party. Blake really wanted to go to the party and decided that he would get up early and study for his final exam the next morning before class. Based on what you read in the Enhancing Well-Being with Psychology section, why did Blake decide to go to the party?

A)Social interaction was more important to Blake than getting good grades.
B)The value of the short-term reinforcer (going to the party) momentarily outweighed the value of the long-term reinforcer (graduating with honors).
C)Blake understands that self-reinforcement is more effective when applied before the operant.
D)Blake knows that he can rely on latent learning to ace the final exam

B)The value of the short-term reinforcer (going to the party) momentarily outweighed the value of the long-term reinforcer (graduating with honors).

76.Anthony is studying for his final exam the
next day, but a friend calls and invites him to a party. Anthony really wants to go to the party, but he also needs a good grade on his final in order to maintain his standing on the Dean’s Honor Roll and increase his chances of getting into medical school. Instead of thinking about how much fun the party will be, Anthony instead visualizes himself as a doctor, treating patients and performing surgery. What self-control strategy is Anthony using?

A)self-reinforcement
B)precommitment
C)focusing on the delayed reinforcer
D)stimulus control

C)focusing on the delayed reinforcer

77.Jake is a recovering alcoholic. He has not had a drink of alcohol in over 6 months. One of the strategies that Jake has used to remain abstinent has been to stay away from bars, avoid parties in which alcohol is served, and even find new friends who do not drink alcohol. Jake is overcoming the short-term reinforcement he associated with alcohol use by using which strategy?

A)reinforcement delay
B)negative reinforcement
C)motivational commitment
D)stimulus control

D)stimulus control

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