Psychology – Study Guide # 3

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1.In psychology, the term sensation formally refers to:

A)a vague feeling of excitement or pleasure.
B)the process of detecting a physical stimulus such as light, sound, heat, or pressure.
C)the transfer of physical energy into chemical energy.
D)the interpretation and organization of sensory stimuli.

B)the process of detecting a physical stimulus such as light, sound, heat, or pressure.

2.In contrast to sensation, the term perception is formally defined as the:

A)active mental process of integrating, organizing, and interpreting sensory data.
B)the process of detecting a physical stimulus such as light, sound, heat, or pressure.
C)active mental process of understanding the meaning of a difficult new concept.
D)way in which different areas of the brain interact.

A)active mental process of integrating, organizing, and interpreting sensory data.

3.In order to Answer this test item, you must read the words on this page. Detecting the black marks on the page relies on the process of _____, and the ability to interpret these black lines and curves as letters and words involves the process of _____.

A)sensory adaptation; proprioception
B)sensation; perception
C)perception; sensation
D)proprioception; sensory adaptation

B)sensation; perception

4.Which of the following statements is TRUE?

A)Sensation and perception are two distinct processes with little or no overlap.
B)Perception involves the detection of stimulus energies, and sensation involves the process of integrating, organizing, and interpreting sensory data.
C)There is no clear boundary between the processes of sensation and perception as we experience them.
D)Because sensation and perception involve separate and distinct brain areas, most researchers can focus exclusively on one or the other for research purposes.

C)There is no clear boundary between the processes of sensation and perception as we experience them.

5.What makes sensation possible?

A)conceptually driven processes
C)Weber’s law
B)absolute thresholds
D)sensory receptors

D)sensory receptors

6.The process by which physical energy, such as light, is converted into a coded neural signal that can be transmitted to and interpreted by the brain is called:

A)transduction.
B)gate-control theory.
C)sensation.
D)the mere exposure effect.

A)transduction.

7.When sensory receptors convert different forms of energy into neural signals, the process is known as:

A)proprioception.
B)transduction.
C)sensory accommodation.
D)kinesthesis.

B)transduction.

8.You catch the whiff of freshly popped popcorn as you enter the movie theater. The process by which the odor of popcorn is converted into neural signals that your brain can interpret as the smell of popcorn is called:

A)sensory adaptation.
B)proprioception
C)transduction.
D)accommodation.

C)transduction.

9.Sensation results when sensory receptor cells are stimulated by:

A)some form of physical energy.
B)substance P.
C)messages transmitted from the brain.
D)monocular cues.

A)some form of physical energy.

10.The smallest possible stimulus that can be detected half the time, or the minimum level of stimuli that we can detect is called:

A)subliminal perception.
B)the absolute threshold.
C)the just noticeable difference, or difference threshold.
D)the perceptual threshold.

B)the absolute threshold.

11.The smallest possible difference between two stimuli that can be detected is called the:

A)difference threshold, or just noticeable difference.
B)transduction threshold.
C)the absolute threshold.
D)subliminal difference.

A)difference threshold, or just noticeable difference.

12.When Andrew had his hearing tested, some sounds were too soft for him to detect. These sounds were below his _____ for hearing.

A)difference threshold
B)absolute threshold
C)Weber’s threshold
D)transduction threshold

B)absolute threshold

13.A large group of students were tested for their ability to distinguish among different tones. Although tone A and tone B were slightly different, more than half of the group thought that they sounded exactly the same. The difference between tone A and tone B can be said to be less than the:

A)difference threshold, or just noticeable difference.
B)absolute threshold, or average absolute threshold.
C)subliminal threshold.
D)Weber’s threshold.

A)difference threshold, or just noticeable difference.

14.When you were younger, you probably had your hearing checked. Headphones were placed over your ears and you were to respond when you heard a sound. You were being tested for your hearing:

A)threshold.
B)sensory adaptation.
C)accommodation potential.
D)transduction.

A)threshold.

15.As you go to sleep at night, you realize that you can hear your roommate’s wristwatch ticking. Out of curiosity, you keep a record of when you hear the watch ticking and find out that you can hear it about half the time. Your ability to hear your roommate’s wristwatch about half the time is an example of:

A)a difference threshold.
B)an absolute threshold.
C)Weber’s law.
D)sensory adaptation.

B)an absolute threshold.

16.According to _____, whether we can detect a change in the strength of a stimulus depends upon the intensity of the original stimulus.

A)the principle of sensory adaptation
B)the principle of absolute threshold
C)Weber’s law
D)the principle of just noticeable difference

C)Weber’s law

17.Perception that is below the threshold of conscious perception is called:

A)absolute perception.
C)Weber’s perception.
B)ESP.
D)subliminal perception.

D)subliminal perception.

18.The mere exposure effect:

A)holds true for exposure to subliminal stimuli but not for exposure to nonsubliminal stimuli.
B)works when the particular stimulus presented is very familiar to the observer.
C)holds true for exposure to subliminal stimuli as well as exposure to nonsubliminal stimuli.
D)is another example of pseudoscience, much like subliminal perception.

C)holds true for exposure to subliminal stimuli as well as exposure to nonsubliminal stimuli.

19.The mere exposure effect refers to:

A)the view that the basilar membrane vibrates at the same frequency as the sound stimulus it is briefly exposed to.
B)the fact that when people are repeatedly exposed to a novel stimulus, their liking for that particular stimulus will decrease.
C)the point at which a stimulus is strong enough to be detected because it activates sensory receptors after a brief exposure.
D)the finding that repeated exposure to a particular stimulus leads to increased liking for that stimulus.

D)the finding that repeated exposure to a particular stimulus leads to increased liking for that stimulus.

20.The finding that repeated exposure to a particular stimulus leads to increased liking for that stimulus is called:

A)the mere exposure effect.
B)psychokinesis.
C)perceptual constancy.
D)sensory adaptation.

A)the mere exposure effect.

21.John puts one toe into the swimming pool and shivers because the water is so cold. He grits his teeth and dives in anyway. After about ten minutes, the temperature of the water seems quite comfortable to him. This example illustrates the principle of:

A)sensory difference.
B)just noticeable difference, or jnd
C)accommodation.
D)sensory adaptation.

D)sensory adaptation.

22.Jill runs a hot bath. She starts to get into the tub but the water feels extremely hot. She stands in the hot water for a few moments, then slowly sits down, easing the rest of her body into the water. After a few minutes, she feels quite comfortable; the water no longer feels too hot to her. This decline in sensitivity to a constant stimulus that Jill has experienced is called:

A)bottom-up processing.
B)sensory saturation.
C)sensory adaptation.
D)transduction.

C)sensory adaptation.

23.As you walk into an Indian restaurant, you immediately notice the delicious odors of curry, saffron, and other spices. After a few minutes, however, you no longer notice the smell. This experience is an example of:

A)the mere exposure effect.
B)sensory adaptation.
C)anosmia.
D)Weber’s law.

B)sensory adaptation.

24.The sensory receptor cells for vision are sensitive to what kind of stimulus?

A) light
B) heat
C) airborne molecules
D) chemical molecules

A) light

25.The clear membrane that covers the outside of the eye and helps gather and direct incoming light is called the:

A) pupil.
B) cornea.
C) iris.
D) retina.

B) cornea.

26.The muscle that controls the amount of light entering the pupil is the:

A) iris.
B) cornea.
C) retina.
D) fovea.

A) iris.

27.As you walk into a brightly lit room, the black structure in the center of your eye seems to shrink to a tiny black dot. This response is caused by the action of the eye structure called the:

A) cornea.
B) lens.
C) iris.
D) retina.

C) iris.

28.The _____ thickens or thins to focus incoming light. This process is called _____.

A)lens; accommodation
C)pupil; accommodation
B)iris; sensory adaptation
D)pupil; sensory adaptation

A)lens; accommodation

29.As light waves enter the eye, which three structures do they pass through first?

A)pupil, iris, lens
B)cornea, iris, pupil
C)cornea, pupil, lens
D)fovea, iris, pupil

C)cornea, pupil, lens

30.As you glance at the person sitting next to you in class, light reflected from the person’s shirt first passes through which three structures of your eye?

A)pupil, iris, lens
B)cornea, iris, pupil
C)cornea, pupil, lens
D)fovea, iris, pupil

C)cornea, pupil, lens

31.How do glasses correct visual problems?

A)Glasses correct vision by amplifying the frequencies of incoming light waves, which magnifies and enlarges the image that falls on the retina.
B)Glasses correct vision by intercepting and bending incoming light waves so that they are focused properly on the retina.
C)Looking through the corrective lenses exercises the muscles of the eye, aligning the eye structures properly.
D)The corrective lenses diffuse the incoming light, which causes the pupil to widen and let in more light waves, enhancing visual acuity.

B)Glasses correct vision by intercepting and bending incoming light waves so that they are focused properly on the retina.

32.The sensory receptors for vision are:

A)found in the pupil.
B)the rods and cones of the retina.
C)found in the lens and cornea.
D)distributed throughout the inner eye.

B)the rods and cones of the retina.

33.Each eye contains about _____ rods and about _____ cones.

A)7 million; 125 million
C)1 million; 3 million
B)25; 200
D)125 million; 7 million

D)125 million; 7 million

34.Rods are used for vision in _____ light, and cones are used for vision in _____ light.

A) bright; dim
B) black; white
C) dim; bright
D) colorful; black and white

C) dim; bright

35.The visual sensory receptor cells that transform light energy into a neural signal are the:

A)bipolar cells in the blind spot.
B)ganglion cells in the optic disc.
C)bipolar cells in the optic nerve.
D)rods and cones in the retina.

D)rods and cones in the retina.

36.Identify the sequence that correctly represents the path taken by light signals through the eye.
A)lens, pupil, optic nerve, retina
B)cornea, pupil, lens, retina
C)cornea, lens, iris, retina
D)lens, iris, retina, pupil

B)cornea, pupil, lens, retina

37.The thin, light-sensitive membrane that lies at the back of the eye and contains the sensory receptors for light is the _____.

A) fovea
B) optic disk
C) retina
D) optic nerve

C) retina

38.Rods and cones are:

A)the sensory receptor cells for vision, found in the retina.
B)the sensory receptor cells for hearing, found in the cochlea.
C)the tiny bones of the middle ear.
D)the sensory receptor cells for taste, embedded in the taste buds.

A)the sensory receptor cells for vision, found in the retina.

39.Which type of sensory receptor(s) are involved in color vision?

A)trichromatic cells
B)cones but not rods
C)rods but not cones
D)both rods and cones

B)cones but not rods

40.Rods are to cones as _____ is to _____.

A)slow adaptation; quick adaptation
B)vision in bright light; vision in dim light
C)less sensitive to light; more sensitive to light
D)color vision; visual acuity

A)slow adaptation; quick adaptation

41.Cones are most concentrated in the:

A) periphery of the eye.
B) optic disk.
C) optic chiasm.
D) fovea.

D) fovea.

42.What region of the eye has the largest concentration of cones?

A) the periphery
B) the iris
C) the optic nerve
D) the fovea

D) the fovea

43.The brain receives less detailed information from the _____ than from the _____.

A) lens; cones
B) cones; rods
C) rods; cones
D) cones; lens

C) rods; cones

44.The blind spot is caused by:

A)diabetes.
B)the absence of rods or cones at the point where the optic nerve leaves the eye.
C)malformation of the eyeball.
D)degeneration of the optic nerve.

B)the absence of rods or cones at the point where the optic nerve leaves the eye.

45.What is the optic disk?

A)a tiny spot in the center of the fovea where there is a high concentration of rods and cones
B)the portion of the lens that focuses incoming light
C)the point at which the optic nerve fibers leave the back of the eye
D)a transparent membrane that lies just behind the pupil of the eye and that helps funnel light waves to the lens and retina

C)the point at which the optic nerve fibers leave the back of the eye

46.What does the optic disk cause?

A)our color vision
B)our night vision
C)our blind spot
D)our light adaptation

C)our blind spot

47.Which of the following is(are) most involved with visual acuity?

A) rods
B) cones
C) bipolar cells
D) ganglion cells

B) cones

48.From the thalamus, visual signals are sent to the _____, where they are interpreted.

A) midbrain
B) temporal lobe
C) visual cortex
D) optic chiasm

C) visual cortex

49.The primary function of the _____ is to catch sound waves and funnel them into the ear canal.

A) pinna
B) eardrum
C) middle ear
D) basilar membrane

A) pinna

50.The outer ear consists of the:

A)eardrum, the oval window, and the cochlea.
B)anvil, hammer, and stirrup.
C)cochlea and basilar membrane.
D)pinna, ear canal, and eardrum.

D)pinna, ear canal, and eardrum.

51.The primary function of the outer ear is to:

A)collect sound waves and funnel them into the ear canal.
B)protect the delicate inner structures of the ear from loud sounds.
C)provide a convenient place for wearing earrings.
D)transfer sounds to the cochlear membrane.

A)collect sound waves and funnel them into the ear canal.

52.What separates the outer ear from the middle ear?

A) the pinna
B) the basilar membrane
C) the oval window
D) the eardrum

D) the eardrum

53.The primary function served by the middle ear is to:

A)collect sound waves.
B)mute loud sounds.
C)amplify the vibration of sound waves.
D)help pinpoint the location of sounds

C)amplify the vibration of sound waves.

54.The hammer, anvil, and stirrup are:

A)three large bones in the outer ear.
B)three tiny bones in the middle ear.
C)bones that encase the ear canal, protecting it from damage.
D)three tiny bones in the cochlea.

B)three tiny bones in the middle ear.

55.The purpose of the hammer, anvil, and stirrup is to:

A)increase the amplification of sound and transmit the vibration to the eardrum.
B)diminish the amplification of sound and transmit the vibration to the oval window.
C)increase the amplification of sound and transmit the amplified vibration to the oval window.
D)separate high frequency and low frequency sounds

C)increase the amplification of sound and transmit the amplified vibration to the oval window.

56.If your hammer, anvil, and stirrup become brittle or damaged:

A)you will probably develop nerve deafness.
B)the oval window will vibrate with greater intensity.
C)you may develop conduction deafness.
D)the hair cells in the cochlea will degenerate.

C)you may develop conduction deafness.

57.The inner ear includes which of the following structures?

A)the pinna, cochlea, and eardrum
B)the cochlea, basilar membrane, and hair cells
C)the anvil, hammer, and stirrup
D)the eardrum, oval window, and basilar membrane

B)the cochlea, basilar membrane, and hair cells

58.Which of the following represents the correct sequence of parts of the ear that sound travels in hearing?

A)inner ear, middle ear, outer ear
B)pinna, ear canal, eardrum, hammer, anvil, stirrup, oval window, cochlea, basilar membrane, hair cells, auditory nerve
C)pinna, ear canal, oval window, stirrup, anvil, hammer, cochlea, hair cells, basilar membrane
D)pinna, ear canal, basilar membrane, eardrum, cochlea, oval window, anvil, hammer, stirrup, hair cells, auditory nerve

B)pinna, ear canal, eardrum, hammer, anvil, stirrup, oval window, cochlea, basilar membrane, hair cells, auditory nerve

59.Nerve deafness is caused by damage to the:

A)hair cells or auditory nerve.
B)eardrum or oval window.
C)delicate nerve endings in the pinna.
D)anvil, hammer, and stirrup.

A)hair cells or auditory nerve.

60.After many years of playing extremely loud rock music, Pete Townshend of the famous rock group The Who has suffered a significant hearing loss, which cannot be corrected with a hearing aid. Townshend is suffering from:

A)nerve deafness.
B)conduction deafness.
C)a perforated eardrum.
D)damage to the auditory cortex in the brain.

A)nerve deafness.

61.How are auditory stimuli transmitted to the brain?

A)The bending of hair cells stimulates the auditory nerve.
B)Sound waves travel directly from the vibrations in the anvil, hammer, and stirrup to the auditory cortex.
C)The vibration of the oval window directly stimulates the auditory nerve.
D)The basilar membrane uncoils, stimulating the auditory nerve.

A)The bending of hair cells stimulates the auditory nerve.

62.Taste is to _____ as smell is to _____.

A)olfaction; audition
B)gustation; kinesthesia
C)kinesthesia; proprioception.
D)gustation; olfaction

D)gustation; olfaction

63.Smell and taste receptors respond to what type of stimuli?

A)vibrating air molecules
B)electromagnetic waves
C)chemical molecules
D)airborne nociceptors

C)chemical molecules

64.The stimuli that produce the sensation of an odor are:

A)molecules in the air.
B)vibrating airwaves
C)proprioceptors.
D)olfactory nociceptors.

A)molecules in the air.

65.Unlike the sensory receptor cells for hearing and vision, olfactory neurons:

A)are replaced every 30 to 60 days.
B)do not regenerate.
C)are responsive to more than one kind of sensory stimulus.
D)are linked directly to the thalamus.

A)are replaced every 30 to 60 days.

66.The word anosmia refers to:

A)a temporary or permanent loss of sensation in the arms or legs.
B)loss of the olfactory sense.
C)loss of the ability to distinguish among different colors.
D)a rare type of deafness, a condition in which people cannot distinguish between low-frequency and high-frequency sounds.

B)loss of the olfactory sense.

67.To identify a particular odor, the brain:

A)interprets the pattern of odor receptor cells that are stimulated.
B)determines the source of the odor.
C)responds to the location and size of the particular receptor cell that has been stimulated.
D)transfers neural messages to the thalamus for processing.

A)interprets the pattern of odor receptor cells that are stimulated.

68.Gustation is to olfaction as _____ is to _____.

A) taste; smell
B) seeing; hearing
C) smell; taste
D) hearing; smell

A) taste; smell

69.The olfactory nerve transmits messages to the:

A) thalamus.
B) cochlea.
C) olfactory bulb.
D) ganglion cells.

C) olfactory bulb.

70.Axons from the olfactory nerve project directly to the:

A) thalamus.
B) olfactory cortex.
C) somatosensory cortex.
D) parietal lobe.

B) olfactory cortex.

71.The olfactory bulb is:

A)the enlarged ending of the olfactory cortex.
B)located at the opening of the nasal cavity.
C)made up of the receptors for smell.
D)a tiny structure found on the tips of olfactory neuron fibers.

A)the enlarged ending of the olfactory cortex.

72.Which part of the brain is thought to regulate the emotional response to odors?

A)the thalamus
B)the olfactory cortex
C)the limbic system
D)the occipital cortex

C)the limbic system

73.The _____ is thought to be involved in our conscious recognition of smells.

A) parietal lobe
B) limbic system
C) visual cortex
D) temporal lobe

D) temporal lobe

74.The olfactory neurons in your nose are unique in that they:

A)do not demonstrate sensory adaptation to persistent stimuli.
B)respond to multiple stimuli, including light waves and sound waves.
C)regenerate approximately once every twelve months.
D)form a direct connection to areas of the cortex and limbic system and are the only neurons that directly link the brain to the outside world.

D)form a direct connection to areas of the cortex and limbic system and are the only neurons that directly link the brain to the outside world.

75.At first, you can barely concentrate in your psychology class because the guy sitting behind you is wolfing down a hamburger smothered in onions for his lunch. After a minute, you no longer notice the smell of his sandwich because:

A)the airborne molecules released by the onions have temporarily blocked your odor receptor cells.
B)your thalamus is no longer processing olfactory signals.
C)your odor receptor cells have increased in sensitivity.
D)sensory adaptation has taken place.

D)sensory adaptation has taken place.

76 The sensation of taste results from the activation of receptor cells by what kind of stimuli?

A)chemical substances dissolved in saliva
B)electromagnetic energy
C)airborne proprioceptors
D)airborne nociceptors

A)chemical substances dissolved in saliva

77.The specialized receptor cells for taste are found in the:

A) nasal cavity.
B) taste buds.
C) cortex.
D) thalamus.

B) taste buds.

78.The primary tastes include:

A)sweet, sour, vinegar, and citrus.
B)sweet, sour, alkaline, acid, and salty.
C)sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami
D)bland, sharp, sweet, salty, and umami

C)sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami

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