Psychology Final Exam

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C

1.) The two main approaches to student learning are direct instruction and A. deconstructivist. B. instrumental. C. constructivist approach. D. cooperative.

A

2.) In Mr. Durgan’s U.S. history class, students work in teams to explore, research, and present a topic to the class. They can choose from a list of topics or propose a topic to the teacher for approval. Mr. Durgan serves as their guide and mentor for the project. This is an example of A. the constructivist approach to learning. B. the jigsaw classroom. C. direct instruction. D. an open education approach.

C

3.) One of the criticisms of the direct instruction approach to learning is that it A. is boring for the learners. B. focuses too much on the development of critical thinking and not enough of the content of the discipline. C. turns children into passive learners. D. wastes valuable class time.

B

4.) The top-dog phenomenon occurs when A. older students bully younger students in the school setting. B. students go from being the most powerful in a school to the least powerful in a new, higher-level school. C. shy students compete with more assertive students for respect of their peers. D. teachers let students know that they are in control in the classroom.

C

5.) No Child Left Behind places responsibility for student learning primarily on A. the federal government. B. individual towns and communities. C. the states. D. teachers’ unions.

A

6.) In suggesting ways to improve schools, the National Research Council emphasized the importance of A. finding ways to get students more engaged in learning. B. expanding the high-school curriculum to include courses on life skills. C. getting back to basics and eliminating many elective courses. D. extending the school day to allow for more instructional time.

D

7.) Which of the following statements regarding school dropouts is NOT true? A. Students from low-income families are more likely to drop out than those from middle- income families. B. A positive trajectory towards academic success is related to good parent-adolescent relationships in early adolescence. C. Approximately one-third of the girls who drop out do so for personal reasons. D. Almost 50 percent of students drop out due to personal problems.

A

Mr. Delaney encourages his students to be independent thinkers and doers, but he still monitors them and provides clear rules and regulations for his classroom. He engages his students in considerable verbal exchanges about the subject matter and displays a caring attitude towards them. Mr. Delaney has which of the following classroom management strategies? A. authoritative B. authoritarian C. semi-permissive D. laissez-faire

C

9.) Students in permissive strategy classrooms have all of the following EXCEPT A. low self-control. B. considerable autonomy. C. support for developing learning skills. D. inadequate academic skills.

B

10.) Ross’s parents have routines for meals, chores, recreation, homework, and bedtimes. As a result, Ross is likely to A. be on the honor roll nearly every term. B. have few school problems. C. be involved in several extracurricular activities. D. rebel against his parents for forcing such a scheduled life.

A

11.) The most frequent type of bullying is A. being belittled about looks or speech. B. having false rumors and gossip spread. C. being hit or pushed. D. none of these.

C

12.) Oliver has been threatened and harassed on the Internet by another child. He has had rumors spread about him and has had direct threats made against him. Oliver is a victim of A. instrumental bullying. B. virtual harassment. C. cyberbullying. D. covert bullying.

A

13.) Troy, an African American student, works in cooperation with students from a variety of backgrounds who each contribute different parts of a classroom project in order for the group to reach a common goal. Troy is participating in a A. jigsaw classroom. B. patchwork classroom. C. crossword classroom. D. router classroom.

C

14.) The largest group of U.S. students to receive special education is children with A. mental retardation. B. emotional problems. C. learning disabilities. D. speech and language impairments.

A

15.) Ellen Winner’s three characteristics of adolescents who are gifted are precocity, a passion to master, and A. marching to their own drummer. B. becoming easily bored. C. external motivation. D. slow but methodical processing of information.

A

16.) ADHD is best treated with A. medication and behavior management. B. behavior management without medication. C. stimulant medications. D. antidepressant medications.

B

17.) Liam does not have as high an IQ as his twin brother, but Liam persists at his tasks and has confidence that he will be able to solve life’s problems. According to research, we can predict A. Liam will not be as successful as his intellectually brighter twin. B. Liam may be quite a high achiever because he has adaptive motivational patterns. C. Liam will probably give up easily and thus end up being a low achiever. D. None of these.

C

18.) Self-determination, curiosity, challenge, and effort are all _____ in adolescents’ motivation, whereas rewards and punishments are _____ in adolescents’ motivation. A. extrinsic factors; intrinsic B. cognitive factors; incentives C. intrinsic factors; extrinsic D. incentives; extrinsic

A

19.) Kayla, an honors student, received a C+ on her report on Pearl Harbor. She says that the teacher doesn’t like her because she is an atheist and her teacher is a very religious woman. She believes that she received a low grade because of this dislike. Kayla is making _____ about the cause of her low paper grade. A. an external attribution B. an internal attribution C. a fictional finalism D. a paranoid delusion

C

20.) Mrs. Hynes meets with Devon to discuss his low grade in her class. Educational psychologists recommend getting adolescents to attribute their poor performance to internal factors. Which of the following statements by Devon would indicate to Mrs. Hynes that he has this concept? A. "Your tests are almost impossible to pass." B. "When you walk up and down the aisles while I am taking a test, you make me nervous." C. "I am working too many hours at my job and I’ve not been putting in the time to study." D. "My house is too noisy; I share a room with my younger brother and he is a jerk!"

B

21. Which psychological approaches stress the importance of intrinsic motivation in achievement? A. behavioral approaches B. humanistic approaches C. psychoanalytical approaches D. existential approaches

B

22.) Research has shown that adolescents show two distinct responses to difficult or challenging circumstances. One is mastery orientation and the other is A. defensive orientation. B. helpless orientation. C. withdrawal. D. none of these.

B

23.) Andre focuses on winning the prize for the best essay on civil disobedience. He believes that he will be happy if he wins. Andre has a A. mastery motivation. B. performance motivation. C. competitive orientation. D. fixed mindset.

A

24.) Which of the following statements regarding social comparison is TRUE? A. Adolescents are more likely to engage in social comparison than children. B. Children are more likely to engage in social comparison than adolescents. C. Adolescents are most likely to compare themselves to people who are different from them. D. Adolescents freely admit that they engage in social comparison.

D

25.) Luz’s neighbor, Dr. Spire, is a professor of sociology at a community college. Dr. Spire takes Luz to class with her when Luz is on school vacation, and she encourages Luz to think about attending college. Luz has great respect for Dr. Spire, and Dr. Spire loves watching Luz grow more confident in her ability to go on to college. This is an example of A. formal mentoring. B. quasi-parental mentoring. C. upward-mobility mentoring. D. natural mentoring.

D

26.) Which of the following statements about self-efficacy is TRUE? A. Self-efficacy has much in common with mastery motivation. B. Self-efficacy influences a student’s choice of activities. C. High self-efficacy adolescents had higher academic aspirations. D. All of these are true.

C

27.) American children perform more poorly in _____ than students in some other countries. A. spelling B. social studies and geography C. math and science D. all of these

C

28.) Which of the following statements regarding adolescents’ work hours and types of jobs is NOT true? A. Most adolescents work between 16 and 20 hours per week. B. Many students work in restaurants. C. About 20 percent of students work in offices doing clerical work. D. About 10 percent of students work in unskilled labor.

A

29.) Which of the following statements regarding paid work and adolescents in other countries is TRUE? A. In many countries, boys often spend more time in paid work than girls. B. In many countries, girls often spend more time in paid work than boys. C. U.S. adolescents are more unlikely to participate in paid labor than are European adolescents. D. A and C are true.

A

30.) Which of the following statements regarding college students and work is TRUE? A. As the number of hours of work increases, so does likelihood of dropping out of school. B. Most colleges try to reserve some sections of classes for working students to make scheduling easier for these students. C. Most colleges restrict the number of hours that students can work and still remain in good standing. D. All of these are true.

D

31.) What is a cooperative (co-op) education program? A. It is unpaid work experience that may or may not be related to a student’s career of choice. B. It is for college juniors and seniors. C. It is a part-time job. D. A co-op is a paid apprenticeship in the student’s career of choice.

B

32.) A student who has not yet made a commitment to a career but is still exploring options is in A. identity diffusion. B. identity moratorium. C. identity foreclosure. D. identity achievement.

A

33.) The developmental psychopathology approach focuses on A. describing and exploring the developmental pathways of problems. B. looking at family patterns of pathology over three or more generations. C. looking at prenatal influences that might predispose an adolescent to psychopathology. D. looking at parental discipline techniques that might contribute to acting-out behaviors.

B

34.) Hannah, age 22, suffers from an anxiety disorder that requires her to take anti-anxiety medication in order to function at her job and in her personal life. Hannah has which of the following problems? A. an externalizing problem B. an internalizing problem C. a latent problem D. an acute problem

D

35.) Which approach emphasizes that biological, psychological, and social factors interact to produce the problems that adolescents, emerging adults, and people of other ages develop? A. the multimodal approach B. the multi-context approach C. the comprehensive approach D. the biopsychosocial approach

A

36.) The behavioral problems that most likely cause adolescents to be referred to a clinic for mental health treatment are A. feelings of sadness or depression. B. feelings of anxiety. C. eating disorders. D. self-injurious behaviors

B

37.) Research by Alan Sroufe and colleagues found that anxiety problems in adolescence are linked with A. secure attachment in infancy. B. insecure resistant attachment in infancy. C. avoidant attachment in infancy. D. disorganized attachment in infancy.

C

38.) Critics of the daily-hassles approach argue that knowing about a person’s daily irritations and problems tells us nothing about A. whether or not those are real hassles. B. the strength of those hassles. C. the person’s coping abilities. D. major life events that are going on at the same time.

D

39.) The four problems that affect the largest number of adolescents are sexual problems, juvenile delinquency, drug abuse, and A. eating disorders. B. self-injurious behaviors. C. depression. D. school-related problems.

C

40.) Researcher Ann Masten has found that all of these factors are linked to resilience EXCEPT A. individual factors. B. family factors. C. community factors. D. extra-familial factors.

B

41.) Shelley Taylor and her colleagues found which of the following gender differences related to stress? A. Males and females tend to deal with stress in similar ways. B. Females are less likely than males to deal with stress with a "fight or flight" response. C. Males deal with stress and threatening situations with a "tend and befriend" approach. D. Female aggression is linked to the limbic system.

C

42.) Kate is having problems understanding the concepts in her sociology class. She goes to see her professor during his office hours, and she studies with a group of students who can help her. Kate is using what Lazarus would call A. emotion-focused coping. B. reactive coping. C. problem-focused coping. D. supportive coping.

B

43.) Which of the following statements regarding coping strategies is NOT true? A. Many people use both problem-focused and emotion-focused coping. B. Emotion-focused coping works better than problem-focused coping. C. Problem-solving coping works better, in general, than emotion-focused coping. D. All of these are actually true.

C

44.) Which of the following is the BEST way to treat depression in adolescence? A. cognitive behavioral therapy B. antidepressant medication C. a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy and antidepressant medication D. psychoanalytic therapy

A

45.) Which of the following is an accurate description of the trend in U.S. teen drug use today? A. The proportions of eighth-, tenth-, and twelfth-grade U.S. students using illicit drugs declined in the late 1990’2 and the first years of the twenty-first century B. The use of drugs among U.S. secondary-school students began to decrease in the early 1990s. C. Cocaine is the most widely used illicit drug by U.S. adolescents in the twenty-first century. D. All of these are accurate

B

46.) Tyler, age 13, has brought alcohol to school on two occasions and has run away from home twice. Tyler’s acts are A. index offenses. B. status offenses. C. conduct offenses. D. none of these.

A

47.) Kathy’s parents use alcohol quite a bit. After they get home from work, they drink steadily all evening and, although she has never seen her parents drunk, they don’t spend much time interacting with each other or the children. According to research, Kathy is at risk for A. drinking heavily herself. B. depression. C. social isolation. D. becoming angry with her peers who drink.

C

48.) Teens who use prescription narcotics to get high are most likely to obtain the drugs by A. buying them on the street from drug dealers. B. buying them at school from classmates who are selling their own medications. C. stealing them from the medicine cabinets of their parents and their friends’ parents. D. making up stories of being in pain to get prescriptions for the drugs from their doctors.

C

49.) What differences exist between bulimics and anorexics? A. Bulimics and anorexics have about a 70 percent recovery rate. B. Both anorexics and bulimics are preoccupied with food. C. Bulimics typically fall within a normal weight; anorexics are underweight. D. Bulimics are likely to be depressed and anxious; anorexics are more likely to be angry and hostile.

B

50.) The reason that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention does not have a category for obese children and adolescents is because A. it is not possible to determine which children and adolescents are obese. B. the stigma of the word obese is thought to be harmful. C. there are no obese children and adolescents in the United States. D. of all of these.

B

Sheena, a 15-year-old adolescent, decides to join the community band. Her mother asks why she joined since she won’t make any money, the band isn’t famous, and few people attend the concerts. Sheena responds, "I just like playing with the band." Sheena’s motivation is _____. A) achievement B) intrinsic C) extrinsic D) mastery

C

Amal studies hard because he does not want his parents to be upset if he does not get good grades. Amal demonstrates _____ motivation. A) achievement B) intrinsic C) extrinsic D) mastery

C

Which view of intrinsic motivation says that adolescents have control over what they are doing because of their own will, not because of external success or rewards? A) interest B) cognitive engagement and self-responsibility C) self-determination and personal choice D) mastery

A

_____ increases their internal motivation. A) Giving adolescents choices B) Relieving adolescents of personal responsibility C) Making decisions for adolescents to protect their interests D) Providing frequent rewards to adolescents for successes

B

Phyllis Blumenfeld proposes that students can be encouraged to become cognitively engaged and responsible for their learning when subject matter content and skills learning are A) repeated over and over again. B) embedded in real world situations that match with students’ interests. C) spelled out in simple terms that students can understand. D) incorporated into a wide range of subjects that they are studying.

B

Csikszentmihalyi’s concept of optimal life experiences, which he believes occur most often when people develop a sense of mastery and are engaged in challenges they find neither too difficult nor too easy is called A) mastery. B) flow. C) performance. D) zone of proximal development.

A

Sharika does poorly on her intro to psychology exam and tells herself that for next exam she clearly needs to study more and that the professor made the exam too hard. This assignment of causality is known as A) attribution B) self-efficacy C) mastery and mindset D) intrinsic motivation

A

Alexander complains to Ms. Walsh that her algebra test was too hard. Ms. Walsh tries to get Alexander to concentrate on learning the material rather than worrying about failing. She also goes back over the test with him to see where mistakes were made and to analyze the problems he encountered. Ms. Walsh is applying which cognitive process? A) attribution B) self-efficacy C) mastery and mindset D) goal setting, planning, and self-monitoring

A

_____ is most associated with high levels of achievement. A) Mastery orientation B) Helpless orientation C) Learning orientation D) Performance orientation

D

One key characteristic of adolescents with a helpless orientation is A) the belief that ability can be changed. B) being depressed but never being bored. C) remembering strategies that worked well in the past. D) a perception that they lack the ability to succeed.

C

An adolescent with _____ orientation is most likely to be very upset with placing second in a competitive contest. A) mastery B) helpless C) performance D) altruistic

B

Motivation experts feel that the No Child Left Behind Act A) helps student succeed by letting them know what’s expected of them. B) encourages a performance rather than a mastery motivation orientation. C) encourages a mastery motivation rather than a performance orientation. D) discourages students who don not perform well on written tests.

A

Phyllis believes that her qualities, like academic performance, are set in stone and cannot change. This mindset is similar to a helpless orientation and is known as A) a fixed mindset B) a growth mindset C) a static mindset D) a discontinuous mindset.

B

Maki has been described by her teachers as having high self-efficacy. When she faces challenging tasks she is likely to A) avoid them for as long as she can. B) work harder. C) give up quickly. D) show little enthusiasm for the task.

C

Adolescents benefit when their parents and teachers have A) low expectations because it protects the adolescents’ self-esteem. B) low expectations because that makes it easy for adolescents to succeed. C) high expectations because it encourages adolescents to live up to them. D) high expectations because failure will shame adolescents into achieving.

B

Rowan sets a goal of "I want get all of my homework done by Sunday at 4:00pm". This is best an example of a A) distal goal. B) proximal goal. C) challenging goal. D) regulation goal

D

In his research on purpose, William Damon found that A) a large majority of the 12-to-22-year-olds he interviewed had a clear vision of where they want to go in life. B) only about a third of the 12-to-22-year-olds he interviewed had engaged in programs such as service learning. C) about half of the time 12-to-22-year-olds he interviewed expressed no aspirations about future goals. D) most teachers and parents rarely discussion the purpose of having goals.

A

Who would be expected to have the highest achievement level? A) Alan, who has good social skills and is accepted by his peers. B) Billy, who is motivated to engage in social dominance over his peers. C) Craig, who feels rejected by his peers. D) Donald, who uses a performance orientation.

A

Students in Asian countries consistently outperform U.S. students. Which of these statement does NOT apply to this situation? A) Asian parents are more likely than U.S. parents to attribute their children’s high achievements to innate ability. B) The longer U.S. and Asian students are in school, the wider the gap between them becomes. C) Asian teachers spend more time teaching math than do U.S. teachers. D) The Asian school year is longer than the U.S. school year.

B

Which of the following is NOT a strategy suggested in the text for overcoming procrastination? A) acknowledging that it is a problem B) dreaming about your long-range goals C) identifying your values and goals D) dividing your tasks into smaller parts

C

All of the following are strategies for protecting self-worth EXCEPT which one? A) Nonperformance B) Procrastination C) Making eye contact D) Setting unreachable goals

B

Shamir has high standards for himself and works hard to achieve his goals. Some would argue that he is A) a procrastinator. B) a perfectionist. C) high in anxiety. D) decreasing risk of suicide.

B

Sydney stays out late drinking before her organic chemistry exam. When she fails she can then blame the hangover she has. This demonstrates A) a self-efficacy strategy. B) a self-handicapping strategy. C) failure syndrome. D) underachiever syndrome.

C

Which of the following is linked to use of self-handicapping strategies? A) self-regulation B) in-depth learning C) superficial learning strategies D) positive beliefs about one’s abilities

D

In the United States, which kind of job employs the most adolescents in part-time work? A) Unskilled B) Clerical C) Fast-food restaurant D) Retail

D

A number of problems, such as insufficient sleep, insufficient exercise, and drug use, are associated with adolescents’ working part time. At what level of work do such problems become pronounced? A) 1 to 5 hours per week B) 6 to 10 hours per week C) 15 to 20 hours per week D) More than 20 hours per week

D

About _____% of U.S. undergraduate college students work full time or part time. A) 25 B) 40 C) 55 D) 80

C

How have the work patterns of emerging adults changed over the last 100 years? A) Today’s emerging adults leave home sooner than in past generations. B) Today’s emerging adults begin their careers sooner than in past generations. C) Today’s emerging adults find the job market more competitive than in past generations. D) Today’s emerging adults find a decreased demand for skilled workers.

C

Which of the following is one of the findings of Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and Barbara Schneider with regard to how U.S. adolescents develop attitudes and acquire skills to achieve their career goals? A) Girls anticipate different lifestyles than boys. B) Lower income minority students are less positive about school than their affluent peers. C) Students who get the most out of school are more likely to perceive school as playlike than worklike. D) Clear vocational goals and good work experiences pretty much guarantee smooth transition to adult work.

B

The channels of upward mobility open to low-SES youth are A) basically the same as for high-SES youth. B) largely educational in nature. C) genetically determined. D) of low quality.

A

The behavior, patterns, and beliefs, of a specific group of people that are passed on from one generation to the next is known as A) culture. B) minority. C) ethnicity. D) socioeconomic status.

D

A tendency to favor one’s own group over others is called A) ethnicity. B) socioeconomic status. C) culture. D) ethnocentrism.

C

_____ emphasizes values that serve the group by subordinating personal goals to preserve group integrity, interdependence of group members, and harmonious relationships. A) Individualism B) Group C) Collectivism D) Communism

D

Which of the following is a characteristic of collectivistic cultures? A) focus on the individual B) frequent cognitive dissonance C) many casual relationships D) the people who are most liked are self-effacing

C

Which of the following values reflects parents’ beliefs in individualistic cultures? A) connectedness to the family B) orientation to the large group C) intrinsic motivation D) obedience

C

If you meet someone that defines themselves by in-group terms, is modest, has few close relationships, values personalized relationships, security and in-group harmony, they are most likely from a _____ culture. A) individualist B) international C) collectivist D) communistic

B

When compared to adolescents in other developed countries, U.S. adolescents spend less time A) in paid work. B) doing homework. C) doing hobbies or sports. D) participating in discretionary activities.

A

Rites of passage for adolescents are most likely to be found in A) sub-Saharan Africa. B) rural areas of the United States. C) large cities in the United States. D) most Western industrialized countries.

C

Socioeconomic status, or SES, refers to a grouping of people with all of the following similar characteristics EXCEPT A) occupation. B) education. C) religion. D) economic resources.

B

Family income is a good measure of A) ethnicity. B) socioeconomic status. C) culture. D) ethnocentrism.

D

Which of the following is characteristic of the child rearing practices in lower-SES families? A) concern with children developing initiative and delay of gratification B) being more conversational with children C) children are more nearly equal participants in the family D) physical punishment is used more often to discipline children

C

Dr. Mehta’s research involves comparing several different cultures with each other to understand the role of culture in adolescent development. In terms of developmental research, Dr. Mehta’s research would be considered _____ studies. A) international B) transcultural C) cross-cultural D) cultural

B

Because Kwami’s family is poor, he is more likely than a child from a middle-SES family to experience all of the following environmental inequities EXCEPT A) conflict, violence, instability, and chaos in his home. B) less access to television. C) low levels of social support. D) heavily polluted air and water.

D

All of the following are common reasons for the high poverty rate of single mothers EXCEPT A) women’s low pay. B) infrequent awarding of alimony payments. C) poorly enforced child support. D) lack of desire to work.

A

The feminization of poverty refers to A) the fact that far more women than men live in poverty. B) the fact that women and men are equally represented in poverty. C) the fact that women are responsible for their poverty. D) the fact that the feminist movement is responsible for poverty.

A

El Puente is a social program in New York City for A) low-income Latino adolescents. B) Catholic adolescent girls. C) Protestant girls. D) English-speaking immigrants from Mexico.

B

Which of the following is accurate with regard to ethnic issues in the United States today? A) Ethnic diversity of adolescents and emerging adults is decreasing. B) When working with adolescents and immigrant families, counselors need to be culturally sensitive. C) Family obligations are endorsed more by adolescents than by their parents. D) The intergenerational value discrepancy decreases over time.

A

The "immigrant paradox" refers to research that suggests that A) despite cultural, language and SES obstacles, immigrant youth show a high level of well-being and fewer problems than native-born youth. B) despite cultural, language and SES obstacles, immigrant youth show a high level of academic success than native-born youth. C) youth of immigrants have a lower level of well-being and are at risk for more problems. D) the longer youth live in the U.S. the higher the risk for suicide.

C

The "immigrant risk model" was based on the belief that A) despite cultural, language and SES obstacles, immigrant youth show a high level of well-being and fewer problems than native-born youth. B) despite cultural, language and SES obstacles, immigrant youth show a high level of academic success than native-born youth. C) immigrant youth have a lower level of well-being and are at risk for more problems. D) the language barrier was insurmountable for immigrants.

C

Suki has moved to the U.S. with her parents from Japan. She finds herself adopting the style of dress of other teen girls at her school. This illustrates the process of A) accommodation B) ethnocentrism C) acculturation D) assimilation

A

A problem for researchers studying the effects of ethnicity on development is that ethnicity can interact with _____ in ways that exaggerate the influence of ethnicity. A) SES B) culture C) race D) politics

B

Of the different ethnic groups living in the United States, _____ are considered to be a "model minority" because of their strong achievement orientation and family cohesiveness. A) African Americans B) Japanese Americans C) Latinos D) non-Latino Whites

A

For most of the 20th century, the differences between ethnic minority groups and non-Latino Whites were conceptualized as A) deficits. B) diversity. C) advantages. D) hardships.

D

Professor Gupta is studying problems of ethnic minorities in the United States. What is she likely to find? A) Due to the great number of immigrants who have come to the United States, discrimination has largely disappeared. B) Most schools have incorporated curricula that are sensitive to ethnic minority adolescents’ learning styles. C) Teachers are increasingly appreciating the unique abilities of ethnic minority students. D) Discrimination and prejudice continue to be present in the media, interpersonal interactions, and daily conversations.

B

When does total media exposure like television and video game playing typically peak? A) in the preadolescent years B) in early adolescence C) in late adolescence D) in emerging adulthood

D

Which of these statements about children and adolescents and TV watching is NOT true? A) Violence on TV has been linked to aggressive behavior in young adults. B) The more children and adolescents watch TV the lower their school achievement is. C) Watching TV sex influences adolescents’ sexual attitudes and behavior. D) The amount of time that adolescents watch TV has no effect on their academic achievement.

B

Jeff is a typical adolescent who spends much of his time playing violent vide games. We would expect to see all of the following as a result of his video game activities EXCEPT A) he experiences an altered state of consciousness while playing. B) he will develop greater sensitivity to real-life violence. C) his grades will be lower than his peers who spend less time playing the games. D) his visuospatial skills will improve.

D

Television has been criticized for all of the following reasons EXCEPT A) being linked to a greater incidence of obesity. B) lower achievement in school. C) creating passive learners. D) improving the leisure activities of adolescents.

C

A specific concern that has recently emerged about children and adolescents using the Internet is that A) they will start self-diagnosing on Web MD. B) the Internet can cause vulnerable adolescents to become antisocial. C) they can access inappropriate information. D) information is too hard to find.

C

When an adolescent has a negative attitude about a person because he or she belongs to a particular group, the adolescent is exhibiting A) values. B) an opinion. C) prejudice. D) SES.

B

Scientists who think adolescent problems are primarily due to distorted thoughts, emotional turmoil, inappropriate learning, and troubled relationships are stressing _____ factors. A) biological B) psychological C) social D) anthropological

D

A researcher studies the problems that develop through the interaction of social, psychological and biological processes. They are taking a _____ approach. A) biological B) psychological C) social D) biopshcyosocial

A

An approach that emphasizes connections across domains over time to influence pathways and outcomes is A) developmental cascades. B) internalizing problems. C) externalizing problems. D) developmental psychopathology approach.

C

Raul is getting into a lot of fights at school and showing an increase in truancy. This would indicate an increase in A) developmental cascades. B) internalizing problems. C) externalizing problems. D) developmental psychopathology approach.

C

What do anxiety and depression have in common? A) They occur much more often in adolescent boys than girls. B) They are very rare in adolescents. C) They are internalizing problems. D) They are externalizing problems

B

Which of the following behaviors decrease(s) during emerging adulthood? A) well-being B) theft and property damage C) alcohol use D) sex with multiple partners

A

Predictors of adolescent problems are referred to as A) risk factors. B) SES indicators. C) pathogens. D) psychogens.

A

Peter Benson has prescribed 40 developmental assets that adolescents need in order to achieve positive outcomes in their lives. Of the following, which is one he describes as an external asset? A) boundaries and expectations B) commitment to learning C) positive values D) social competencies

A

Females are more likely than males to respond to stress with A) tend and befriend. B) cry and sigh. C) fight or flight. D) shove or love.

C

What condition did Bruce Compas call "the single most important social problem facing young people in the United States"? A) Discrimination B) Lack of health care C) Poverty D) Stress

B

According to Richard Lazarus, over the long term, which form of coping works best for dealing with stress? A) emotion-focused B) problem-focused C) cognitive-focused D) acculturation-focused

A

All of the following are effective coping strategies that can benefit adolescents and emerging adults EXCEPT A) not thinking about the problem. B) thinking positively and optimistically. C) increasing self-control. D) seeking social support

C

Anne Masten and her colleagues concluded that A) resilience is an innate trait. B) individuals who are not resilient in adolescence will not be resilient in emerging adulthood C) being resilient in adolescence is linked to continuing to be resilient in emerging adolescence. D) a romantic relationship or the birth of a child may be harmful to a person’s resilience.

B

Recent research has found that use of illicit drugs by secondary school students has from the late 1990s into the 21st century. A) increased B) decreased C) stayed the same D) declined for some drugs and increased for others

D

Among adolescents the most widely used drug is A) marijuana. B) cocaine. C) barbiturates. D) alcohol.

C

Which of the following is NOT a risk factor for abuse of alcohol by adolescents and emerging adults? A) heredity B) family influences C) involvement in sports D) personality factors

C

Marijuana is a(n) A) stimulant. B) depressant. C) hallucinogen. D) anabolic steroid.

D

Valium and Xanax are A) stimulants. B) hallucinogens. C) opiates. D) depressants.

C

Cocaine is a A) hallucinogen. B) depressant. C) stimulant. D) narcotic.

C

Which of these factors is most important in predicting the lung damage of cigarette smoking? A) How heavily a person smokes B) The brand of cigarettes smoked C) Early age of onset D) Gender

A

_____ is associated with lower drug use by adolescents. A) Parental control and monitoring B) Witnessing a sibling with a substance abuse problem C) Witnessing friends’ problems with drugs D) All of these

B

A longitudinal study by Kenneth Dodge found all of the following to be related to drug use by age 12 EXCEPT A) an increase in harsh punishment in childhood. B) parental use of an authoritative parenting style. C) low parental monitoring. D) hanging out with deviant peers.

D

If committed by a minor, which of the following would be considered a status offense? A) robbery B) rape C) homicide D) sexual promiscuity

B

Between February and September, Harry, a 14-year-old, ran away from home and got involved in a series of breaking-and-entering offenses. His parents say he is "out of control." The court psychiatrist will likely diagnose him as A) being a delinquent. B) having a conduct disorder. C) a problem child. D) having poor parents.

B

What is a major cause of adolescent violence? A) Poor grades B) Powerlessness and rage C) Having no friends D) Access to the Internet

B

James Garbarino suggests that the reason why a small minority of youth kills might be A) bad genes. B) spiritual or emotional emptiness. C) poor parenting. D) because they were bullied by others.

D

_____ has been linked to an increase in suicidal thoughts. A) Listening to alternative music B) A friend’s question about suicidal thoughts C) Receiving psychotherapy D) Taking antidepressant medication

C

Which of the following is NOT a recommended way to help a suicidal adolescent? A) Find out if the adolescent has a plan for killing himself. B) Ask direct, straightforward questions in a calm manner. C) Assure the adolescent that everything is under control. D) Help the adolescent find appropriate counseling.

B

Which of the following is a risk factor for adolescents to be overweight? A) having parents who constantly talk about nutrition B) watching four or more hours of television a day C) participating in team activities D) having low blood pressure

B

The eating disorder characterized by binge-and-purge eating patterns is called A) anorexia nervosa. B) bulimia nervosa. C) obesity. D) dieting

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