psychology final

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B) Instincts are learned behavioral repsonses.

Which of the following statements about instincts is FALSE? A) An instinct is a pattern of behavior that is assumed to be universal throughout a species. B) Instincts are learned behavioral responses. C) Instincts are generally set in motion by a "sign stimulus." D) Instincts may explain a great deal of nonhuman animal behavior.

C) Homeostasis

According to drive-reduction theory, a drive is a created when the body’s balanced internal state is disturbed. This balanced state is called ______. A) hypothalamic equity B) internal consistency C) homeostasis D) symmetry

A) Yerkes-Dodson law

Darrin is a good piano player. When he is alone, his arousal is low and he often gets distracted and makes mistakes. When he is in a recital with strangers, he sometimes gets too nervous and aroused and also makes mistakes. His best performances are typically at home when family and friends are nearby, and his arousal level is moderate. The variations in Darrin’s performance can be best explained by the _____. A) Yerkes-Dodson law B) set-point theory C) James-Lange theory D) Cannon-Bard theory

D) All of these

Which of the following chemical substances plays an important role in hunger, eating, and satiety? A) Glucose B) Insulin C) Leptin D) All of these

A) Estrogens / Androgens

_____ are the class of sex hormones that are predominate in females. ______ are the class of sex hormones that are predominate in males. A) Estrogens / Androgens B) Androgens / Estrogens C) Estrogens / Endorphins D) Endorphins / Androgens

D) a combination of genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors

An individual’s sexual orientation is determined by ______. A) genetic factors B) environmental factors C) hormonal factors D) a combination of genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors

C) only after all other needs have been fulfilled

According to Maslow, self-actualization is possible ______. A) at any time B) only after love and belongingness needs are fulfilled C) only after all other needs have been fulfilled D) in childhood

C) Competence, autonomy, and relatedness

According to self-determination theory, people are most fulfilled when they satisfy which three fundamental needs? A) Hunger, thirst, and sex B) Hunger, security, and love C) Competence, autonomy, and relatedness D) Hunger, esteem, and achievement

B) James-Lange theory

Which of the following theories would suggest that you feel happy because you are laughing? A) Two-factor theory of emotion B) James-Lange theory C) Cannon-Bard theory D) Self-determination theory

B) the adaptiveness of positive emotion

The broaden-and-build model of emotion was proposed to describe _____. A) the adaptiveness of negative emotion B) the adaptiveness of positive emotion C) the difference between high and low arousal emotions D) the discrepancies between Plutchik’s and Tompkins’ models

B) psychodynamic theorists

The strongest proponents of the human unconscious mind’s role in personality are _____. A) humanists B) psychodynamic theorists C) behaviorists D) trait theorists

C) id / ego

According to Freud, the _____ operates according to the pleasure principle, whereas the _____ operates on the reality principle. A) superego / ego B) id / superego C) id / ego D) ego / id

A) Displacement

Which of the following defense mechanisms involves directing unacceptable impulses at a less threatening target? A) Displacement B) Sublimination C) Repression D) Fixation

B) sex / security

Whereas Freud believed that the prime motive in human existence is _____, Karen Horney believed that the prime motive in human existence is _____. A) security / sex B) sex / security C) self-actualization / unconditional positive regard D) sex / self-actualization

D) All of these are characteristics of self-actualizers

Heidi is a self-actualizer. Which of the following characteristics is she likely to possess? A) Spontaneous, creative, and a childlike capacity for awe B) Tolerant of others, gentle sense of humor, likely to pursue the greater good C) Strong capacity for "peak experiences" D) All of these are characteristics of self-actualizers

D) Defense mechanisms

Which of the following is NOT a method proposed by Rogers to develop a more positive self-concept? A) Unconditional positive regard B) Empathy C) Genuineness D) Defense mechanisms

A) show a positive but objective sense of self and others, and have a sense of humor, common sense, and a unifying philosophy of life

Gordon Allport believed that healthy, well-adjusted individuals _____. A) show a positive but objective sense of self and others, and have a sense of humor, common sense, and a unifying philosophy of life B) use their innate strengths to fulfill their conscious and unconscious instincts for pleasure, and focus primarily on subjective reality to determine their own sense of truth C) have achieved self-actualization, are truthful, work for the common good, and believe in social justice D) do not use defense mechanisms, are logical, independent, and financially successful

C) Neuroticism is related to feeling more negative emotion.

Which statement best describes the relationship between neuroticism and emotion? A) Neuroticism is a personality trait and therefore not related to emotional experience. B) Neuroticism is related to feeling more positive emotion. C) Neuroticism is related to feeling more negative emotion. D) Neuroticism is related to extreme emotions, both positive and negative.

D) Subjective well-being

_______ is a person’s assessment of his or her own level of positive affect relative to negative affect, and an evaluation of his or her life in general. A) Unconditional positive regard B) Self-efficacy C) An archetype D) Subjective well-being

C) projective measure

Dr. Crane is looking for a test that he can use to understand more about his clients’ unconscious motivations. He would be very likely to use a(n) _____. A) self-report measure B) objective measure C) projective measure D) observational measure

D) normative social influence

Joyce has the potential to be an honor student but frustrates her teachers because of her actions. Rather than work to succeed, she tends to "dummy down" to act more like the students that she hangs out with. She has at times answered questions incorrectly in class on purpose to be more like her friends. Joyce’s behavior is an example of _____. A) informational social influence B) ethnocentrism C) groupthink D) normative social influence

D) frontal lobes

Deficits in the functioning of the ______ are associated with aggression. A) hippocampus B) hypothalamus C) parietal lobes D) frontal lobes

A) the concept of reciprocity

Alex regularly gives donations of blood to the Red Cross because he received a life-saving transfusion when he was in a car accident two years ago. Robert’s helping behavior is best explained by _____. A) the concept of reciprocity B) reciprocal determinism C) social exchange theory D) self-perception theory

D) try to align their attitudes and behavior

Cognitive dissonance theory states that in order to reduce dissonance, individuals _____. A) change attitudes in order to be more popular B) change behavior in order to be more popular C) do not perceive a discrepancy between attitudes and behavior D) try to align their attitudes and behavior

A) the false consensus effect

Lily does not approve of abortion. She is shocked when she finds out how many people in her state hold pro-choice attitudes. This is an example of ______. A) the false consensus effect B) cognitive dissonance C) the self-fulfilling prophecy D) groupthink

A) he has an angry and volatile personality

You are watching golf and see Tiger Woods scowl. You would be making the fundamental attribution error if you assumed that _____. A) he has an angry and volatile personality B) he just missed a putt C) he was thrown off by the flash of a camera D) he was in a tough situation

D) A composite face of multiple faces that have been digitally blended to produce an "average" face.

Research suggests that which of the following faces would be rated as most attractive? A) A face in which the distinctive features of the face have been digitally enhanced. B) A face with an unusually small forehead and unusually large lips. C) A face with unusually small ears and unusually large eyes. D) A composite face of multiple faces that have been digitally blended to produce an "average" face.

D) deindividuation

The reduction in personal identity and erosion of the sense of personal responsibility when one is part of a group is known as _____. A) social contagion B) the self-serving bias C) the false consensus effect D) deindividuation

B) social loafing

Dr. McCall found that class projects were of poorer quality when students worked in groups compared to when each student did an individual project. This difference can be explained by the phenomenon of _____. A) cognitive dissonance B) social loafing C) the sleeper effect D) polarization

A) Romantic love

______ involves strong components of sexuality and infatuation, and is often predominant in the early part of a love relationship. A) Romantic love B) Affectionate love C) The mere exposure effect D) Companionate love

D) Borderline personality disorder

______ is characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotions, and of marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in various contexts. A) Schizophrenia B) Dissociative identity disorder C) Antisocial personality disorder D) Borderline personality disorder

A) hallucinations

In the film A Beautiful Mind, John Nash hears and sees people who are not actually there. These sensations are examples of _____. A) hallucinations B) delusions C) referential thinking D) catatonia

D) Schizophrenia

_____ is a severe psychological disorder that is characterized by highly disordered thought processes. A) Dysthymic disorder B) Bipolar disorder C) Generalized anxiety disorder D) Schizophrenia

D) major depressive disorder

The leading cause of disability in the United States is ______. A) obsessive-compulsive disorder B) panic disorder C) schizophrenia D) major depressive disorder

B) mood

Depression is classified as a(n) _____ disorder. A) anxiety B) mood C) personality D) dissociative

D) a social phobia

Individuals who suffer from ______ have an intense fear of being humiliated or embarrassed in social situations. A) generalized anxiety disorder B) obsessive-compulsive disorder C) post-traumatic stress disorder D) a social phobia

D) All of these

The most common compulsion exhibited by individuals who have obsessive-compulsive disorder is excessive ______. A) checking B) cleaning C) counting D) All of these

C) biological

Drug companies commonly fund research that focuses on the _______ approach to psychological disorders. A) sociocultural B) psychological C) biological D) cognitive

A) Sociocultural

What theoretical approach to psychological disorders would be most likely to consider a person’s gender and ethnicity when diagnosing a disorder? A) Sociocultural B) Behavioral C) Biological D) Cognitive

B) atypical in that it deviates from what is acceptable in a culture

When a behavior is _____, it is often considered abnormal. A) negative and more impulsive than is generally acceptable B) atypical in that it deviates from what is acceptable in a culture C) overly repetitive D) unique

A) the role of sociocultural influences on abnormality.

The deviance criterion is most associated with A) the role of sociocultural influences on abnormality. B) the role of biological influences on abnormality. C) the role anxiety plays in specific phobias. D) the role gender plays as a risk factor for psychological disorders

A) DSM-5.

Renee is a social worker in an urban community mental health center. She has just seen a crisis client who expressed suicidal ideation. After doing a thorough assessment to determine that he needed inpatient care, she sent him to the hospital and must now write her notes about the session. Although she knows that he is suffering with a severe depression, she still has to look up the exact diagnostic code in the A) DSM-5. B) ICD-10. C) MMPI-2. D) WAIS-III.

A) positive symptoms / negative symptoms

The _____ of schizophrenia are marked by a distortion or an excess of normal function, whereas _____ reflect social withdrawal, behavioral deficits, and the loss or decrease of normal functions. A) positive symptoms / negative symptoms B) negative symptoms / positive symptoms C) physical symptoms / psychological symptoms D) psychological symptoms / physical symptoms

D) In order to understand childhood depression, developmental psychopathologists apply knowledge about adult depression to children.

Which of the following statements about childhood depression is FALSE? A) Children who develop depression are at risk for a variety of problems, including substance abuse, academic problems, increased physical illness, and increased suicide risk. B) Parental psychopathology is a risk factor for childhood depression. C) An estimated 1-2 percent of prepubertal children and 3-8 percent of adolescents experience depression. D) In order to understand childhood depression, developmental psychopathologists apply knowledge about adult depression to children.

D) Serotonin and norepinephrine

Depressed people tend to have low levels of which neurotransmitters? A) Dopamine and GABA B) GABA and epinephrine C) Oxytocin and serotonin D) Serotonin and norepinephrine

D) Flashbacks and nightmares

Which of the following is NOT a symptom of a depressive disorder? A) Reduced interest or pleasure in all or most activities B) Significant weight gain or loss C) Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much D) Flashbacks and nightmares

B) post-traumatic stress disorder

Randy experienced a horrific childhood. She was physically and verbally abused by her mother and sexually abused by a stepfather. Years later, she began experiencing anxiety symptoms. A diagnosis of _____ would best apply to her situation. A) generalized anxiety disorder B) post-traumatic stress disorder C) phobic disorder D) panic disorder

C) a specific phobia

Former NFL coach John Madden had a famous fear of flying that led him to take a bus to all of the games he broadcasted. The fact that he would go to any length to avoid flying suggests that he suffered from ______. A) generalized anxiety disorder B) obsessive-compulsive disorder C) a specific phobia D) post-traumatic stress disorder

A) chronic anxiety / sudden anxiety

Individuals who are diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder experience _____. Individuals who are diagnosed with panic disorder experience _____. A) chronic anxiety / sudden anxiety B) sudden anxiety / chronic anxiety C) intermittent anxiety / steady anxiety D) severe anxiety / minor anxiety

A) Armand’s behavior deviates from the norm and is distressing for him.

Thirty-year-old Armand feels compelled to save objects that others might throw away. He is afraid that he will discard something he will need later, so his home is filled with old junk. Armand’s neighbors have complained and he feels embarrassed. Which criteria that define abnormality are applicable in this case? A) Armand’s behavior deviates from the norm and is distressing for him. B) Armand’s behavior has drawn the attention of other people. C) Hoarding behavior is normal through adolescence but should disappear by the time the person is in his early- to mid-twenties. D) Saving junk suggests that Armand is paranoid.

B) empowerment

Community mental health programs seek to help people who are disenfranchised from society to lead happier, more productive lives through the concept of _____. A) unconditional positive regard B) empowerment C) transference D) cognitive-restructuring

A) To improve the communication between the partners

Which of the following is a goal of couples therapy? A) To improve the communication between the partners B) To facilitate better sexual relations C) To decrease the number of rules set for each of the partners D) To increase the amount of warmth between the partners

A) Family therapy

A researcher has found that in families with high levels of emotional expression, schizophrenics are more likely to relapse after returning home from the hospital. An observation such as this would warrant the use of which of the following therapies? A) Family therapy B) Aversive therapy C) Psychoactive medications D) Interpersonal therapy

C) biopsychosocial

Integrative therapy is most compatible with the ______ model of abnormal behavior. A) psychodynamic B) humanistic C) biopsychosocial D) cognitive

B) aversive conditioning

If a therapist gives an alcoholic a drink laced with a nausea-inducing drug so that she or he will become ill after drinking the alcohol, the therapist is using ______. A) systematic desensitization B) aversive conditioning C) social skills training D) an unethical procedure

C) reduce or eliminate maladaptive behavior

The primary goal of behavior therapy is to _______. A) uncover unconscious conflicts B) gain self-awareness C) reduce or eliminate maladaptive behavior D) be sensitive to the cultural and contextual needs of the client

A) individuals possess the capacity to heal themselves

You are a humanistic therapist. A potential client is unfamiliar with your school of therapy and asks you to sum it up. You tell him the primary premise of humanistic therapy is that ______. A) individuals possess the capacity to heal themselves B) irrational thought results in negative consequences C) the unconscious mind can affect conscious behavior D) abnormal behavior can be manipulated in therapy

A) Psychodynamic therapy

Which of the following perspectives views abnormal behavior as the result of unresolved unconscious conflicts? A) Psychodynamic therapy B) Humanistic therapy C) Social learning therapy D) Biological therapy

C) Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

Prozac, Paxil, and Zoloft are what type of antidepressant drugs? A) Tricylics B) Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors C) Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) D) Benzodiazepines

B) anxiety disorders

Xanax, Valium, and Librium are benzodiazepines that are commonly used drug therapies for treating _____. A) mood disorders B) anxiety disorders C) schizophrenia D) dissociative disorders

D) Benzodiazepines

Which of the following classes of drugs are NOT considered antidepressants? A) Tricylics B) Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors C) Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) D) Benzodiazepines

D) mood-stabilizing

Lithium is an effective ____________ drug. A) antipsychotic B) antianxiety C) barbituate D) mood-stabilizing

B) depression

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a treatment sometimes used for _____, A) dissociative identity disorder B) depression C) schizophrenia D) obsessive-compulsive disorder

C) Psychosurgery

Which of the following forms of treatment would be used only as a last resort to help patients with severely debilitating conditions? A) Drug therapy B) Cognitive therapy C) Psychosurgery D) Psychoanalysis

B) the phenomenon in which the patient comes to relate to the therapist in ways that resemble her or his other relationships

In psychoanalytic theory, the term transference is used to describe ______. A) the gradual shifting of erogenous desires from the mouth to the genitals B) the phenomenon in which the patient comes to relate to the therapist in ways that resemble her or his other relationships C) efforts to redirect anxiety-provoking desires into socially acceptable actions D) the repression of painful memories from conscious awareness

C) humanistic

Mary has been working with a therapist because she has felt very confused and unsure about herself for the past few years. Mary’s therapist tends to be very non-directive and devotes a great deal of the session to allowing Mary to explore her identity, wants, and dreams for the future. The therapist rarely gives direct advice and instead is primarily interested in helping Mary clarify her own ideas and feelings. Mary’s therapist is most likely associated with the ____________ perspective of psychotherapy. A) cognitive B) behavioral C) humanistic D) psychoanalytic

D) behavioral

Two key assumptions of the ____________ approach to therapy are that psychological disorders are learned in exactly the same way as normal behaviors are and that they can be treated by applying the basic principles of learning. A) biological B) interpersonal C) humanistic D) behavioral

C) Applied behavior analysis

Which of the following therapies represents the application of operant principles to psychological disorders? A) Systematic desensitization B) Flooding C) Applied behavior analysis D) Aversion therapy

A) illogical thoughts

Beck’s cognitive therapy focuses on ______. A) illogical thoughts B) resistance C) positive reinforcement D) the relationship between therapist and client

B) clients have better treatment outcomes

Researchers have found that when there is an ethnic match between the therapist and the client and when ethnic-specific services are provided, ________. A) clients are more likely to drop out of therapy early B) clients have better treatment outcomes C) treatment outcomes are the same as when there is no ethnic match D) both the client and therapist typically show evidence of bias or prejudice against other groups

D) All of these

Health psychology attempts to explain the role of psychology in _____. A) establishing and maintaining health B) treating illness C) preventing illness D) All of these

D) Reading

Which of the following is NOT considered a health behavior? A) Brushing your teeth B) Practicing safe sex C) Exercising D) Reading

D) precontemplation

Your roommate has been engaging in risky sexual behavior all semester, yet she denies that anything is wrong. She is likely in the ____ stage of the stages of change model. A) preparation / determination B) contemplation C) termination D) precontemplation

D) Acknowledging, enjoying, and celebrating

_____ our accomplishments can motivate consistent behavior. A) Bragging about B) Forgetting C) Downplaying D) Acknowledging, enjoying, and celebrating

B) Intrinsic motivation

_______ is the strongest predictor of making successful life changes. A) Extrinsic motivation B) Intrinsic motivation C) Heritability D) Extraversion

B) Social isolation

Which of the following is the strongest predictor of mortality rates? A) Cigarette smoking B) Social isolation C) Optimism D) Intelligence

C) is associated with physical and psychological health benefits

In the long run, writing about traumatic life events ______. A) is harmful because one relives the trauma over and over again B) increases distress among men but not among women C) is associated with physical and psychological health benefits D) has no impact on reducing stress

C) self-efficacy

The belief that we can effectively perform the behaviors necessary to deal with a demanding situation is called _____. A) problem-solving skill B) placebo effect C) self-efficacy D) self-esteem

C) psychoneuroimmunology

Rosemary is interested in studying the relationships between emotion, the nervous system, and the immune system. Given these interests, she will probably want to pursue future study in the field of ______. A) cognitive psychology B) psychopharmacology C) psychoneuroimmunology D) anatomy and physiology

B) teen pregnancy rates are two times to four times higher than in other countries

Research has found that compared to other developed countries, in the U.S. ______. A) twice as many teenagers are sexually active as in other countries B) teen pregnancy rates are two times to four times higher than in other countries C) sex education programs are more comprehensive than in other countries D) condoms are more available to teenagers than they are in other countries

B) lifestyle choices, behaviors, and psychological characteristics can play important roles in health

Health psychology reflects the belief that ______. A) health is predetermined by genetics and biology B) lifestyle choices, behaviors, and psychological characteristics can play important roles in health C) the body has a tremendous impact on the mind, but the mind has very little impact on the body D) health has very little to do with psychology, so research should focus more on an exclusively physiologic al model of health

B) a person’s perception of control over the outcome of the situation

The theory of planned behavior includes the basic ideas of the theory of reasoned action but adds another important variable to the model. This variable is ______. A) genetic health history B) a person’s perception of control over the outcome of the situation C) level of introversion D) intelligence

B) Contemplation

Suzanne wants to lose 20 pounds before her honeymoon to Hawaii. Although she realizes that being thinner will make her feel stronger and healthier, she has a weakness for ice cream. She’s not sure that she will be able to give up the short-term pleasure of indulging in an ice cream cone for dessert today in exchange for the long-term benefits of weight loss. Suzanne appears to be in which of the following stages of change? A) Maintenance B) Contemplation C) Preparation/determination D) Action/willpower

D) precontemplation / preparation/determination

Dan has a problem with smoking. If Dan were in the ______ stage of change, the best stage-matched intervention would be to inform him about the dangers of continuing this unhealthy behavior. However, if he were in the ______ stage, you would do well to provide him with training in specific skills that can help him to actually stop smoking. A) contemplation / precontemplation B) precontemplation / contemplation C) preparation/determination / contemplation D) precontemplation / preparation/determination

D) All of these

Research shows that creating a context in which people feel more ______ is associated with enhanced outcomes for a broad array of health behaviors. A) in control B) autonomous C) competent D) All of these

C) Coping motives (to deal with stress)

Which of the following motives for drinking alcohol is most typically associated with negative outcomes such as social and work problems or potential substance abuse? A) Social motives (to be sociable and fit in with friends) B) Enhancement motives (to have fun and feel good) C) Coping motives (to deal with stress) D) Cognitive motives (to see oneself as an adult)

B) a longer life

A number of studies have linked religious participation to _____. A) increased loneliness and isolation B) a longer life C) greater self-esteem D) hardiness

B) An internal locus of control

_____ is associated with high levels of emotional well-being, successful coping, and good health. A) An external locus of control B) An internal locus of control C) Strong extrinsic motivation D) Type-A behavior

D) Alarm, resistance, and exhaustion

Which of the following accurately describes the sequence of the general adaptation syndrome? A) Alarm, resistance, and challenge B) Primary appraisal, alarm, secondary appraisal C) Challenge, frustration, and exhaustion D) Alarm, resistance, and exhaustion

D) U.S. teens have had less comprehensive sex education and less availability and use of condoms.

How do researchers explain the fact that the teen pregnancy rate is two to four times higher in the U.S. than in other countries? A) U.S. teens are more sexually active than teens in other countries. B) U.S. teens aren’t as worried about pregnancy as teens in other countries are. C) There are more birth control options available in other countries than there are in the U.S. D) U.S. teens have had less comprehensive sex education and less availability and use of condoms.

A) the enduring patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving of individuals

Psychologists who study personality investigate _____. A) the enduring patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving of individuals B) relatively permanent changes in behavior due to experience C) the organization of sensation into a meaningful interpretation D) the pleasantness or sociability of an individual

B) the unconscious

Freud considered ____ to be the primary motivating force of human behavior. A) the conscious B) the unconscious C) rewards and punishments D) self-actualization

C) Repression

______ is a defense mechanism that involves pushing threatening impulses out of conscious awareness. A) Thanatos B) Sublimination C) Repression D) Fixation

D) examine personal characteristics that are stable across situations

Trait theories of personality ______. A) state that situational factors override personal characteristics B) focus on the role of the unconscious C) take a more optimistic view of human nature than humanistic psychologists do D) examine personal characteristics that are stable across situations

B) Extraversion

Alex is shy and keeps to himself most of the time. Alex would score low on what trait? A) Openness B) Extraversion C) Agreeableness D) Neuroticism

B) Traits / States

______ are enduring characteristics of our personality. _____ are briefer or more temporary experiences. A) States / Traits B) Traits / States C) Conditions of worth / Archetypes D) Archetypes / Conditions of worth

B) The study of the whole person

What does "personology" refer to? A) An old, outdated term for personality psychology B) The study of the whole person C) The study of how individuals operate within groups D) Positive psychology

D) social-cognitive

The _____ approach to personality places emphasis on conscious awareness, beliefs, expectations, and goals. A) psychodynamic B) humanistic C) trait D) social-cognitive

D) directly ask the test-taker to respond to statements about himself or herself.

Self-report personality measures _____. A) rely on a professional’s diagnosis or opinion B) ask the test taker to interpret ambiguous stimuli C) are based on behavioral observation D) directly ask the test-taker to respond to statements about himself or herself.

C) projective

Sam’s therapist administered the Rorschach inkblot test during their last session. Sam completed a(n) _____ test of personality. A) self-report B) observational C) projective D) empirically keyed

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