Psychology Exam 3

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Learning

Relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience

Experience (nurture)

The key to learning

Associative Learning

Learning that two events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)

Classical Conditioning

Organism comes to associate two stimuli; conditioning that pairs a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that evokes a reflex

Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)

Effective stimulus that unconditionally, automatically, and naturally triggers a response

Unconditioned Response (UCR)

Unlearned, naturally occuring automatic response to the unconditioned stimulus

Conditioned Stimulus (CS)

Previously neutral stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimmulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response.

Conditioned Response (CR)

Learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus.

Acquisition

Initial stage of learning, during which a response is established and gradually strengthened. In classical conditioning, the phase in which a stimulus comes to evoke a conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.

Extinction

Diminishing of a CR. In classical conditioning, when a UCS does not follow a CS. In operant conditioning, when a response is no longer reinforced.

Spontaneous Recovery

Reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR.

Generalization

Tendency for a stimuli similar to CS to evoke similar responses.

Discrimination

In classical conditioning, the ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a UCS. In operant conditioning, responding differently to stimuli that signal a behavior will be reinforced or will not be reinforced.

Operant Conditioning

Type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcemenrcement and diminished if followed by punishment

Law of Effect

Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and bahaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.

Operant Behavior

Complex or voluntary behaviors; operates (acts) on the environment; produces consequences.

Respondent Behavior

Occurs as an automatic response to stimulus; behavior learned through classical conditioning.

Skinner Box

B.F. Skinner’s soundproof chamber with a bar or key that an animal presses or pecks to release a food or water reward; contains a device to record responses.

Reinforcer

Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.

Shaping

Conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of a desired goal.

Successive Approximations

Reward behaviors that increasingly resemble desired behavior.

Primary Reinforcer

Innately reinforcing stimulus that satisfies a biological need.

Secondary Reinforcer

Conditioned reinforcer learned through association with the other reinforcer.

Continuous Reinforcement

Reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs; learning and extinction occurs rapidly.

Partial Reinforcement

Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition and greater resistance to extinction.

Punishment

Aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows; powerful controller of unwanted behavior

Problems with Punishment

Punished behavior is not forgotten. Increased aggression. Creates fear. Does not necessarily guide toward desired behavior. Punishment teaches how to avoid it.

Cognitive Map

Mental representation of the layout of one’s enviornment

Latent Learning

Learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

Overjustification Effect

Effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do; the person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task.

Observational Learning

Learning by observing and imitating others (modeling)

Modeling

Process of observing and imitating behavior

Prosocial Behavior

Positive, constructive, helpful behavior; opposite of antisocial behavior

Consciousness

Our awareness of ourselves and our enviornments

Biological Rhythms

Periodic physiological fluctuations

Circadian Rhythm

The biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occus on a 24 hour cycle, such as wakefulness and body temperature

REM Sleep

Recurring sleep stage; vivid dreams; "paradoxial sleep" where muscles are generally relaxed, but other body systems are active. (Rapid Eye Movement)

Sleep

Periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness

Alpha Waves

Slow waves of a relaxed, awake brain

Delta Waves

Large, slow waves of deep sleep.

Hallucinations

False sensory experiences.

Effects of Sleep Loss

Fatigue, impaired concentration, depressed immune system, greater vulnerability to accidents

Insomnia

Persistent problems in falling or staying asleep

Narcolepsy

Uncontrollable sleep attacks

Sleep Apnea

Temporary cessation of breathing during sleep; momentary reawakenings.

Dreams

Sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping mind; hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, incongruities, delusional acceptance of content, difficulties remembering.

Sigmund Freud

Wrote the Interpretation of Dreams (1900)

Manifest Content

Remembered story line

Latent Content

Underlying meaning

Hypnosis

Social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will sponaneously occur.

Posthypnotic Amnesia

Supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis; induced by a hypnotist’s suggestion.

REM Rebound

REM sleep increases following REM sleep deprivation

Night terrors

Occur within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, usually stage 4; high arrousal, appearance of being terrified

Enuresis

Bed wetting

Sonombulance

Sleep walking

NS: Tone, UCS: Meat, UCR: Salivate, CS: Tone, CR: Salivate

Identify the NS, UCS, UCR, CS, & CR for the following: A researcher sounds a tone, then places a piece of meat into a dog’s mouth, causing it to salivate. Eventually, the sound of the tone alone causes the dog to salivate.

NS: Red car, UCS: Accident, UCR: Anxiety, CS: Red car, CR: Anxiety

Identify the NS, UCS, UCR, CS, & CR for the following: While listening to a song on his car radio, a man accidentally bumped into a red car in front of him. Thereafter, whenever he sees a red car, he experiences a severe anxiety attack.

NS: Animals, UCS: Bang, UCR: Fear, CS: Animals, CR: Fear

Identify the NS, UCS, UCR, CS, & CR for the following: Before testing: 8 month old Billy showed no fear of animals, but he did show fear (eyes open, heart beat change) when a person banged hammer against large steel bar behind him. They then put a white rat in front of him. Whenever he reached for rat, they banged the hammer. Now he is afraid of toys like the dog & devil on the front table.

NS: Shampoo, UCS: Aunt, UCR: Happiness, CS: Shampoo, CR: Happiness

Identify the NS, UCS, UCR, CS, & CR for the following: My dear aunt always uses the same shampoo. soon, the smell of that shampoo makes me feel happy.

Positive Reinforcement

Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food; any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.

Negative Reinforcement

Increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing a painful stimulus when the response occurs

Memory

persistence of learning over time via the storage and retrieval of information

Encoding

Processing of information into the memory system.

Storage

Retention of encoded information over time

Retrieval

Process of getting information out of memory.

Sensory Memory

Immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system.

Working Memory

Focuses more on the processing of briefly stored information.

Long term Memory

Relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system.

Chunking

Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically. (use of acronyms for ex.)

Recall

ability to retrieve info learned earlier and not in conscious awareness (like a fill in the blank test)

Recognition

Ability to identify previously learned items (like on a multiple choice test)

Proactive interference

Disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new information

Retroactive Interference

Disruptive effect of new learning on recall of old information.

Blocking

Forgetting that occurs when an item in memory cannot be accessed or retreived; caused by interference.

Short Term Memory

activated memory that holds a few items briefly.

Effortful Processing

Requires attention and conscious effort.

Rehearsal

Conscious repetition of information

Ebbinghaus

Used nonsense syllables

Spacing Effect

Distributed practice yields better long term retention than massed practice.

Imagery

Mental pictures; powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding

Mnemonics

Memory aids; especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices

Long term Potentiation

Increase in synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation (way that long term memory is stored)

Karl Lashley (1950)

Tested memory storage by having rats learn a maze and then testing their memory after lesioning their cortex.

False Memory Syndrome

Condition in which a person’s identity and relationships center around a false but strongly believed memory of traumatic experience.

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