Psychology Exam 2 Practice

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1. In __________ reinforcement, the reinforcer follows every correct response.
a.
intermittent
b.
partial
c.
negative
d.
continuous

d

2. In Pavlov’s experiments with dogs, salivation was the
a.
conditioned response.
b.
unconditioned stimulus.
c.
conditioned stimulus.
d.
unconditioned response.

d

3. The presentation of an aversive stimulus or the removal of a positive stimulus are both examples of
a.
negative reinforcement.
b.
punishment.
c.
positive reinforcement.
d.
secondary reinforcement

b

4. In classical conditioning, learning is evident when a
a.
stimulus automatically produces a response without a prior history of experience.
b.
stimulus which did not initially produce a response now elicits that response.
c.
spontaneously emitted response increases in frequency as a result of its consequences.
d.
subject repeats an action he or she has observed in another and is praised for it.

b

5. In Thorndike’s law of effect, events critical for conditioning
a.
occur after the response.
b.
occur before the response.
c.
occur simultaneously with the response.
d.
are unrelated to the response except during extinction.

a

If you have a snake phobia because you once heard a loud noise while looking at a snake, for you a snake is a(n)
a.
US.
b.
CS.
c.
UR.
d.
CR.

b

A series of responses that gradually approach a desired pattern of behavior are called
a.
adaptations.
b.
gradients.
c.
successive approximations.
d.
conditioning trials.

c

If the conditioned stimulus is presented many times without reinforcement, we can expect
a.
an increase in stimulus generalization.
b.
the strength of the UR to increase.
c.
an increase in response generalization.
d.
extinction to occur.

d

A child has learned to avoid a furry, black cat. However, she still plays with her grandmother’s short-haired tabby. Her response demonstrates
a.
negative transfer.
b.
extinction.
c.
discrimination.
d.
successive approximation.

c

.

Punishment is most effective in suppressing behavior when it is
a.
immediate, consistent, and intense.
b.
delayed, consistent, and mild.
c.
immediate, consistent, and mild.
d.
delayed, inconsistent, and intense.

a

The greatest degree of resistance to extinction is typically caused by a __________ schedule of reinforcement.
a.
variable interval
b.
variable ratio
c.
fixed interval
d.
fixed ratio

a

In Pavlov’s experiments with dogs, the conditioned stimulus was the
a.
food.
b.
bell.
c.
salivation to the food.
d.
salivation to the bell.

b

Ivan Pavlov has been credited with the initial discovery of
a.
operant conditioning.
b.
reinforcement.
c.
classical conditioning.
d.
vicarious conditioning.

c

In Pavlov’s experiments with dogs, the bell (prior to conditioning) was the
a.
neutral stimulus.
b.
unconditioned stimulus.
c.
conditioned stimulus.
d.
unconditioned response.

a

Reinforcement in operant conditioning is most effective when it is
a.
response contingent.
b.
stimulus contingent.
c.
US-CS contingent.
d.
NS-CS contingent.

a

After pairing the CS and US in a series of conditioning trials, the organism learns to respond to the CS alone. This response is then called
a.
unconditioned stimulus.
b.
conditioned stimulus.
c.
unconditioned response.
d.
conditioned response.

d

Jimmy helps his father put away the dishes after dinner. Jimmy’s father wants to increase the probability of this behavior and will be most successful by praising Jimmy
a.
after all the dishes are put away.
b.
at bedtime.
c.
the next morning at breakfast.
d.
the next time they are putting away dishes

a

After a response has been extinguished, it will often reappear after a short time has passed. This is called
a.
adaptiveness.
b.
expectation checking.
c.
extinction recovery.
d.
spontaneous recovery.

d

The first grade teacher gives students stickers when they perform well. If they earn five stickers in one day they are exempt from homework. The stickers in this example could also be called
a.
tokens.
b.
primary reinforcers.
c.
generalized reinforcers.
d.
prepotent responses.

a

A student does a good job on math problems for homework, and the teacher awards a sticker. This demonstrates the use of
a.
extinction.
b.
reinforcement.
c.
spontaneous recovery.
d.
antecedents.

b

In Pavlov’s experiments with dogs, the bell (during and after conditioning) was the
a.
conditioned response.
b.
unconditioned stimulus.
c.
conditioned stimulus.
d.
unconditioned response

c

One difference between classical and operant conditioning is that
a.
animals learn only by operant conditioning.
b.
operant conditioning involves learning in which antecedent events are associated with one another.
c.
classical conditioning involves learning in which antecedent events are associated with one another.
d.
operant conditioning occurs when a response is not affected by consequences.

c

In classical conditioning, events critical to the learning occur __________ the response.
a.
before
b.
after
c.
simultaneously with
d.
in a manner unrelated to

a

A punisher can be
a.
the onset of an unpleasant event.
b.
the removal of a positive state of affairs.
c.
any consequence that reduces the occurrence of a behavior.
d.
a positive reinforcer.

c

In a study of punishment, shock is administered to a hamster through a wire grid on the bottom of the cage. To the researcher’s surprise, the hamster learns to roll on its back when shocked so that its fur insulates it from the shock. The hamster’s response demonstrates
a.
positive reinforcement.
b.
negative reinforcement.
c.
discovery learning.
d.
cognitive learning.

b

Becoming addicted to gambling is related to the effects of
a.
shaping.
b.
vicarious classical conditioning.
c.
unconditioned emotional reflexes.
d.
partial reinforcement.

d

The technique of using desensitization involves
a.
flooding the person with images of the feared stimulus.
b.
gradually exposing the person to the feared stimulus.
c.
gradually exposing the person to the feared stimulus only when they are fully relaxed.
d.
systematically increasing the stimulus intensity up to the breaking point.

c

A dog that gets rewarded for the first bark it makes in each ten minute period is being reinforced on a __________ schedule of reinforcement.
a.
continuous
b.
fixed interval
c.
variable interval
d.
fixed ratio

b

In Pavlov’s experiments with dogs, food was the
a.
conditioned response.
b.
unconditioned stimulus.
c.
conditioned stimulus.
d.
unconditioned response.

b

To strengthen the connection between the CS and the CR, the CS must
a.
generalize to the UR.
b.
precede the US.
c.
be identical to the US.
d.
be followed by the UR.

b

Which of the following statements about punishment is FALSE?
a.
Punishment teaches new responses.
b.
Punishment temporarily suppresses a response.
c.
Punishment may permanently suppress a response.
d.
Punishment applies an aversive event.

a

Operant conditioning was studied by
a.
Pavlov.
b.
Maslow.
c.
Freud.
d.
Skinner.

d

Using poker chips to reinforce mental patients for healthy behavior would be an example of using
a.
negative reinforcement.
b.
classical conditioning.
c.
extinction.
d.
tokens.

d

Advertisers often try to use higher order conditioning by
a.
pairing images that evoke good feelings with pictures of their products.
b.
sounding loud tones at key points in the advertisement.
c.
reducing fear or anxiety as they repeatedly show the same commercial.
d.
associating the unconditioned stimulus with a cognitive response.

a

A neutral stimulus is one that
a.
leads to an increase of the UR.
b.
leads to a decrease of the UR.
c.
depends on the size of the UR.
d.
does not evoke the UR.

d

Which of the following might serve as a secondary reinforcer?
a.
sex
b.
grades
c.
food
d.
a pain-relieving drug

b

For conditioning to occur, the proper order of events is
a.
US-UR-CR.
b.
CS-CR-UR.
c.
CS-US-UR.
d.
UR-US-CR.

c

A team coach who benches a player for poor performance is using
a.
aversive conditioning.
b.
modeling.
c.
negative reinforcement.
d.
punishment.

d

For the connection between the CS and the CR to be strengthened, the CS must
a.
generalize to the UR.
b.
precede the US.
c.
be identical to the US.
d.
be followed by the UR.

b

In operant conditioning, what is the relationship between events critical to learning and the response to be learned?
a.
They occur before the response.
b.
They occur after the response.
c.
They occur simultaneously with the response.
d.
They are unrelated to the response.

b

The unconditioned stimulus, by definition, leads to a(n)
a.
conditioned response.
b.
conditioned stimulus.
c.
unconditioned response.
d.
classic response.

c

In a classic experiment, "Little Albert," a very young boy, was conditioned to be afraid of a rat. He also became fearful of white furry rabbits and bearded men. This is an example of
a.
spontaneous recovery.
b.
higher order conditioning.
c.
extinction.
d.
stimulus generalization.

d

When a stimulus acquires the power to elicit a response as a result of being paired with a stimulus that already produces the response
a.
classical conditioning has occurred.
b.
spontaneous recovery has occurred.
c.
operant conditioning has occurred.
d.
aversive conditioning has occurred.

a

Which of the following describes the state of affairs after conditioning?
a.
CS-CR
b.
US-CR
c.
CS-UR
d.
US-UR

a

The most basic form of learning that is not heavily dependent on higher order intellectual processes is known as
a.
symbolic interaction.
b.
information processing.
c.
reductionism.
d.
conditioning.

d

Which of the following best describes punishment?
a.
addition of a positive event
b.
addition of an aversive event
c.
declining response frequency
d.
withdrawal of a negative event

b

Negative reinforcement __________ responding; punishment __________ responding.
a.
increases; increases
b.
decreases; decreases
c.
increases; decreases
d.
decreases; increases

c

Two schedules of reinforcement that produce the highest rates of response are
a.
continuous and fixed interval.
b.
fixed interval and variable interval.
c.
variable interval and variable ratio.
d.
fixed ratio and variable ratio.

d

49.

__________ occurs when making a response removes an unpleasant event.
a.
Positive reinforcement
b.
Negative reinforcement
c.
Extinction
d.
Punishment

b

To shape the behavior of their students, teachers employ
a.
tertiary reinforcers.
b.
secondary reinforcers.
c.
negative reinforcers.
d.
vicarious conditioning.

b

If you give a child her favorite licorice candy for doing well in school and she continues to do well in school, the licorice candy is
a.
a reward and a reinforcer.
b.
a reward, but not a reinforcer.
c.
a reinforcer, but not a reward.
d.
neither a reinforcer nor a reward

a

Increased feedback
a.
sometimes improves learning and performance.
b.
has no effect on learning and performance.
c.
almost always improves learning and performance.
d.
is not as effective as computer-assisted learning.

c

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