Psychology Chapter Seven

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Five-year old Jordan is seeing a speech therapist in his preschool once a week bc he has difficulty saying the "r" sound in his own name. When he says his name, people think it sounds like "jaw-dun." From a language perspective, Jordan is having difficulty with a specific _______.

phoneme

Creative intelligence is related to:

divergent thinking

A mechanical problem-solving technique is also referred to as:

trial and error

Heuristics could also be called:

"rule of thumb"

A more creative method of problem-solving is the use of:

divergent thinking

If an instructor was referring to a stream during a lecture, a student’s mental image is likely to be

a picture-like image

When the solution to a problem suddenly comes to mind, it is called:

insight

One barrier to innovative problem solving is persisting in using techniques that have been successful in the past, also known as

mental set

A person with an IQ over 145 may be best categorized as:

a genius

________ is the ability to learn from one’s experiences, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively for solving problems.

Intelligence

IQ is assumed to be normally distributed with a mean IQ of 100 and a typical standard deviation of about

15

_______ often work with individuals who have traumatic brain injury.

clinical neuropsychologists

If a test does not measure what it’s supposed to measure, then it lacks:

validity

Wechsler’s four index scales are verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and:

processing speed

Gardner believes that reason, logic, and knowledge are:

different aspects of intelligence

Which of the following images is the best example of a prototype for a fruit?

apple

________ is the ability to adapt and deal with new problems and challenges the first time you encounter them.

Fluid intelligence

Shelly took the Stanford-Binet test at age 10 and scored a mental age of 13. Using Stern’s formula, her IQ is

130

In the brain, creating a mental image is ________ seeing an actual image.

almost the opposite of

The debate over whether animals use real language centers around:

the fact that none of the animals have achieved language development comparable to a 3-year-old human.

The cognitive universalism theory states that:

concepts are universal and influence the development of language.

Kanzi, the chimpanzee, communicates with researchers by using:

abstract symbols on a keyboard and making some sounds

Vygotsky believed that:

language could help a child learn to control social behavior

The rhythm and emphasis of communicating is part of which language structure?

pragmatics

Piaget theorized that ______ preceded and aided the development of _______.

concepts; language

An important factor in the formation of prototypes is:

Even after her girlfriends reported seeing her boyfriend Jeff out at clubs with other women, Jackie continues to believe her boyfriend and his friends who say the women are just old neighborhood friends. This is an example of

confirmation bias

__________ believed that concepts become the "pegs" from which words are "hung."

Piaget

_______ is the ability to adapt and deal with new problems or challenges the first time you encounter them.

Three-year-old Jamal is learning how to wait his turn to talk during circle time in preschool. Jamal is learning the _____ of language.

pragmatics

In waking up and getting ready for class in the morning, one might follow a(n)

script

Abby’s new puppy cries each night when left in her crate. When Abby picks up the puppy and holds her to her chest the puppy stops crying and falls asleep. However, after she puts the puppy back in the crate the crying begins again. After a few nights, Abb

insight

The higher one’s degree of practical intelligence,

the less likely that person will succeed in an academic setting.

_______ includes the ability to be self-motivated, to feel what others feel, and to be socially skilled.

emotional intelligence

________, which is caused by a defect in a male gene that leads to deficiency in a protein needed for brain development, is a biological cause of intellectual disability.

Fragile X chromosome

Only differences among people in general can be investigated for the influence of genes because genes always interact with

environmental factors

If a test does not measure what it’s supposed to measure, then it lacks

validity

Gardner would say that an astronaut is high in:

visual/spatial intelligence

Examples of algorithms are:

mathematical formulas

Cultures like that of the Japanese, which hold to well-established cultural traditions, put less value on

divergent thinking

The term that refers to mental activity that takes place in the brain when a person is processing information, and includes things such as problem solving, communication, and organization of material, is:

cognition

_________ can help us interpret or deal with new information or events that we have never encountered.

concepts

Language allows people to _________ and ___________.

communicate with one another; represent their own mental activity.

Recent studies support Rosch-Heider’s theory of _______, rather than the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

a cognitive universalism

Kanzi, the chimpanzee, communicates with researchers by using

abstract symbols on a keyboard and making some sounds.

_________ is the ability to adapt and deal with new problems or challenges the first time you encounter them.

Fluid intelligence

A more creative method of problem-solving is the use of

divergent thinking.

Creative intelligence is related to

divergent thinking.

A person with an IQ of 145 may be categorized as

a genius.

Vygotsky believed that

language could help a child learn to control social behavior.

The debate over whether animals use real language centers around

the fact that none of the animals have achieved language development comparable to a 3-year-old human.

In the brain, creating a mental image is _________ seeing an actual image.

almost the opposite of

Which of the following images is the most subordinate concept?

magnolias

Standard deviation refers to

the average variation of scores from the mean.

Abby’s new puppy cries each night when left in her crate. When Abby picks up the puppy and holds her to her chest the puppy stops crying and falls asleep. However, after she puts the puppy back in the crate the crying begins again. After a few nights, Abby suddenly realizes that her heartbeat is helping the dog fall asleep. She places a ticking clock next to the crate and the puppy goes right to sleep at night. Abby’s realization is an example of

insight.

When a person, while solving a problem, is hesitant or unable to think beyond solutions that have worked in the past, he or she is stuck in

a mental set.

Mental imagery is

used by all people eve

The "signature wound" from the ongoing conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan is

traumatic brain injury.

The most frequently used intelligence tests in the United States are

the Wechsler tests.

Research has shown brain activity in the ______ during tasks involving visual perception.

parietal lobes

Erin had a high ability to solve problems as she encountered them. Spearman would call this

g factor.

A person with an intellectual disability will have limited _____, which allows people to do such things as work at a job, communicate with others, and groom themselves.

adaptive behavior

An educated guess based on prior experience is a(n)

heuristic

Functional fixedness is

a barrier to successful problem solving.

The ________ involves estimating the likelihood of an event based on how easy it is to recall relevant information from memory.

availability heuristic

_______ matters in the formation of prototypes.

Culture

According to Csikszentmihalyi, people who are creative

are mostly pretty normal.

The best representative of a natural concept is :

a home.

Gardner would say that an astronaut is high in

visual/spatial intelligence.

A prototype is an example of

a concept.

Creativity involves

coming up with new ways of looking at a problem.

Intelligence is defined as

learning from one’s experiences, acquiring knowledge, and using resources effectively.

Trial and error is another term for

mechanical solution.

Many items on a "culture fair" test require the use of

nonverbal abilities.

The "dance" of the honeybees that tells the other bees the location of pollen is an example of

animal instinct.

A mental image that is larger and covers more distance

takes longer to view than one that is smaller and more compact.

The first truly longitudinal study was conducted by

Lewis Terman.

_______ believed that concepts become the "pegs" from which words are "hung."

Piaget

One criteria of standardization is

that the test is administered consistently.

According to Sternberg, ______ is the ability to break problems down into component parts for problem solving.

analytic intelligence

_______ is the extent to which a test score accurately reflects the intended skill or outcome in real-life situations.

Ecological validity

In some languages, changing the __ of a spoken word can change its entire meaning/

?? inotation?

In a well-known animal language research study, Kanzi the chimp __

demonstrated four consistent sounds to represent banana, grapes, juice, and the word yes

__ is a developmental delay related to living in poverty and one that usually produces relatively mild intellectual disabilities

Familial retardation

Sternberg’s three types of intelligence are:

analytical, creative, and practical

Marjorie took a personality test in April. She took the same test in June and December receiving a very similar score. This test can be considered…

reliable

Only differences among people in general can be investigated for the influence of genes because genes always interact with

environmental factors

Gardner would say that an astronaut is high in

visual and spatial intelligence

Binet decided that a key element in testing intelligence was a child’s

mental age

Terman determined that gifted people

are more resistant to mental illnesses than those of average intelligence

Terry exhibits extraordinary musical ability. According to Spearman, this is an example of __ intelligence

s factor

Keneisha is only 11 years old, but she can answer questions that most 15 year olds can answer. Fifteen is Keneisha’s___

mental age

Sabrina’a statistics instructor assigns math homework every week that requires Sabrina to solve mathematical problems using formulas. Sabrina is making use of what method of problem solving to compare her statistics homework?

algorithms

Cultures like that on the Japanese, which hold to well-established cultural traditions, put less value on

divergent thinking

Erik dropped a note under his car seat and couldn’t find it. He looked all through the glove compartment for a flashlight so that he could get a better look under his seat. He later realized he could have held his cell phone under the seat to help illuminate the area. This is an example of

functional fixedness

When solving a problem, if a person is hesitant or unable to think beyond solutions that have worked in the past, he or she is stuck in

a mental set

In order for people to be able to tell you how many televisions they have in their house, they would probably use

a mental image

A useful heuristic that works much of the time is

estimating likelihood of an event occurring based on past experience…????

Even after his girlfriend reported seeing her boyfriend Jeff out at clubs with other women, Jackie continues to believe her boyfriend and her friends who say the women are just old neighborhood friends. This is an example of

confirmation bias

PET scans show areas of the __ being activated during the process of forming an image

visual cortex

Whether a whale is a fish or a mammal is an example of

"fuzzy" natural concept??????

Making a list of all the ways one could use a butter knife requires

divergent thinking

A recent study has shown that for a group of individuals with __, computerized cognitive exercises that placed increasing demands on auditory perception were beneficial

schizophrenia

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