Psychology Chapter Five

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According to Bandura, to learn anything through observation, the learner must first

pay attention.

The four elements of observational learning are _____, _____, ______, and ______.

attention, memory, imitation, and desire/motivation

Bandura conducted some of his research to study

possible links between children’s exposure to violence on television and aggressive behavior toward others.

The learning/performance distinction is demonstrated by

the aggressive behavior by the children to the Bobo doll in Bandura’s study.

If Pavlov’s dogs heard a ticking similar to that of the metronome used in his experiments,

the dogs would salivate.

After a lengthy period during which the UCS was not applied, Pavlov’s dogs stopped responding to the metronome. If a weaker conditioned response to the metronome occurred at some point after this, it would be a demonstration of:

spontaneous recovery.

_____ believed that classical conditioning occurred because the CS became a substitute for the UCS when paired closely together in time.

Pavlov

"Little Albert" acquired a conditioned emotional response to the rat when its presentation was coupled with

a loud noise.

One of the first psychologists to conduct studies in an attempt to explain human behavior was

John Watson.

An unconditioned stimulus is always followed by a(n)

unconditioned response.

________ pioneered the empirical study of the basic principles of classical conditioning.

Ivan Pavlov

Research suggests that once people learn something,

it is always present somewhere in memory

Marco’s mom gives him a treat every night after dinner when he picks up his plate and places it in the dishwasher. Marco’s mom uses

continuous reinforcement.

Which of the following would be considered negative reinforcement?

a child who had previously been whining to a parent that they want candy becomes quiet after getting the candy

A police car is a ___________ for slowing down.

discriminative stimulus

_______ is an example of punishment by removal.

Grounding a teenager

Fishing is an example of an activity with a

variable interval schedule of reinforcement

A recent study suggests a link between spanking and

aggression in children.

A modern term for a form of behavior modification that uses both analysis of current behavior and shaping techniques to mold a desired behavior or response is

applied behavior analysis (ABA)

Most of the time, punishment

will only temporarily suppress a behavior

In Tolman’s study of latent learning, one group of rats was rewarded for getting out of the maze, a second was not rewarded during training trials but was rewarded eventually, and a third group of rats was

not rewarded.

Köhler’s chimp experiment involved

a chimp fitting one stick into another stick to reach out of his cage for a banana

Köhler’s chimp study demonstrates that insight requires

a sudden "coming together" of all the elements of a problem.

Amy is unhappy with her job. She works long hours for little pay and her boss is disrespectful to her. Even though she knows it’s a bad job, she doesn’t quit or find a new job as she thinks her efforts won’t matter. This is an example of

learned helplessness.

In toilet training a cat, "Lid Up, Seat Down" is known in operant conditioning as

preparing the training arena

Changes such as an increase in height or the size of the brain are called

maturation.

What are the two kinds of behavior that all organisms are capable of?

involuntary and voluntary

_____ is learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior.

Observational learning

Pavlov initially set out to study his dogs’

digestive systems.

Which psychologist is best known for working with children and a Bobo doll to study whether aggressive behavior is learned by watching others be aggressive?

Albert Bandura

Which of the following is one of Bandura’s elements of observational learning?

memory

Learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful is called

latent learning.

It is believed that animals revert quickly to instinctual behaviors when the new tasks they are learning have a strong association with

obtaining food.

In a(n) ________, the occurrence of reinforcement is more predictable and therefore the individual being reinforced is more likely to adjust his response to the timing of the reinforcement.

fixed interval schedule of reinforcement

Birds, who find their food by sight, will avoid any object or insect that simply looks like the one that made them sick. This is a result of

biological preparedness.

A naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary (reflex) response is a/an

unconditioned stimulus.

In his study of rats in mazes, Tolman concluded that the rats in the group that didn’t receive reinforcement for solving the maze had

learned the maze by wandering around in it and forming a cognitive map

In his classical conditioning experiment, Pavlov’s dogs were conditioned to salivate when they

heard the sound of the metronome

Small steps in behavior that are reinforced, one after the other, to create a particular goal behavior are known as

successive approximations.

In Köhler’s experiment, Sultan the chimp first used just one stick that was lying in his cage to rake the banana into the cage, and then learned to fit two sticks together. This was an example of

insight.

The cognitive perspective of classical conditioning involves

the mental activity of consciously expecting something else to occur.

The law of effect states if an action is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it is likely to

be repeated.

In Seligman’s study on dogs, the dogs that were not conditioned to fear the tone

jumped over the fence when the shock started.

_________ is the disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus (in classical conditioning) or the removal of a reinforcer (in operant conditioning).

Extinction

Further studies that followed Köhler’s work with chimpanzees

have found support for the concept of animal insight.

After a childhood filled with cavities, Kyle has an active dislike of the dentist’s drill. His tendency to become anxious when hearing a similar-sounding noise is termed

stimulus generalization.

Whenever Vernon comes home too late on a Saturday night, his parents refuse to give him his weekly allowance. Vernon’s parents are using what technique to modify his behavior?

punishment by removal

A teacher has decided to give ‘caught being good’ tickets to her students when they behave according to class rules. This teacher also rewards students with gold stars each time they improve their math speed. This teacher is using

operant conditioning.

Carla was bitten by a dog when she was a toddler. She’s older now, but still backs up in fear whenever a dog approaches her. This is an example of

conditioned emotional response

In a later modification of the classic Bobo doll experiment, the children who saw a model beat up the doll and then get rewarded showed aggression toward the doll. Which of the following statements is true about the other children, who saw the model get punished rather than rewarded?

They did not beat up the doll until offered a reward to demonstrate what the model had done

The learning/performance distinction is demonstrated by

the aggressive behavior by the children to the Bobo doll in Bandura’s study.

Learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful is called

latent learning.

In a(n) ________, the occurrence of reinforcement is more predictable and therefore the individual being reinforced is more likely to adjust his response to the timing of the reinforcement.

fixed interval schedule of reinforcement

In order to be effective, a secondary reinforcer must be paired with a

primary reinforcer.

Further studies that followed Köhler’s work with chimpanzees

have found support for the concept of animal insight.

Small steps in behavior that are reinforced, one after the other, to create a particular goal behavior are known as

successive approximations

Operant conditioning is dependent on

voluntary behavior.

In Seligman’s study, dogs that had been harnessed and had learned there was nothing they could do to escape a shock

would not attempt to escape when escape was possible

When a behavior is reinforced according to the number of responses required, it is

on a ratio schedule of reinforcement.

It is believed that animals revert quickly to instinctual behaviors when the new tasks they are learning have a strong association with

obtaining food.

A naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary (reflex) response is a/an

unconditioned stimulus.

Aggression in children is ________ violence on TV.

positively correlated with

In negative reinforcement, a(n) _________ is removed; in punishment by removal, a(n) ________ is removed.

unpleasant thing; pleasant, or desirable thing

Köhler believed that Sultan the chimp had solved the problem of reaching the banana

by having a sudden perception of relationships

Pavlov’s dogs exhibited stimulus discrimination when they

did not demonstrate a conditioned response upon hearing ticking sounds similar to the metronome

Which of the following would be considered negative reinforcement?

a child who had previously been whining to a parent that they want candy becomes quiet after getting the candy

A typical use of applied behavior analysis is

treating children with disorders such as autism

A teacher has decided to give ‘caught being good’ tickets to her students when they behave according to class rules. This teacher also rewards students with gold stars each time they improve their math speed. This teacher is using

operant conditioning

In a later modification of the classic Bobo doll experiment, the children who saw a model beat up the doll and then get rewarded showed aggression toward the doll. Which of the following statements is true about the other children, who saw the model get punished rather than rewarded?

They did not beat up the doll until offered a reward to demonstrate what the model had done

The learning/performance distinction is a kind of

latent learning

The four elements of observational learning are attention, memory, ______, and ______.

imitation; motivation

_____ believed that classical conditioning occurred because the CS became a substitute for the UCS when paired closely together in time.

Pavlov

______ is the classical conditioning of a reflex response or emotion by watching the reaction of another person.

Vicarious conditioning

Which of the following individuals believed that cognition was an important part of behavior?

Martin Seligman

_____ is learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior.

Observational learning

The term extinction may be misleading because:

learning is relatively permanent, meaning things are not unlearned

An example of maturation?

One-year-old Jesse could not walk two months ago but now he can

If your professor gives you a pop quiz, this is an example of…?

A variable interval schedule of reinforcement

A behavior is more resistant to extinction if it is:

partially reinforced

The Brelands determined that most Skinnerian behaviorists made the false assumption that:

All responses are equally able to be conditioned to any stimulus

The response that is given to the conditioned stimulus is not usually quite as strong as the original unconditioned response, :

but it is essentially the same response

Which individual believed that cognition was an important part of behavior?

Martin Seligman

_ is the classical conditioning of a reflex response or emotion by watching the reaction of another person.

Vicarious conditioning

A stimulus that has no effect on the desired response

neutral stimulus

_ pioneered the empirical study of the basic principles of classical conditioning

Ivan Pavlov

An unlearned, involuntary response, like salivating when presented food, is?

A reflex

The term extinction may be misleading because…

learning is relatively permanent, meaning things are not unlearned

Sammy and his friends are watching animated fight scenes. Based on Bandura’s findings in the Bobo doll experiment, it seems likely that later at play, they will…

imitate many of the violent actions they witnessed on TV

Bandura conducted some of his research to study?

Possible links between children’s exposure to violence on TV and aggressive behavior towards others

A five year old watches his father dunk a basketball, since the child is unable to reach the basket in the way the father can, the child cannot learn this behavior by observing because he cannot accomplish the step of…

imitation

Seligman connects learned helplessness to

depression

Kohler’s idea of animal insight was controversial because

other reseachers, like Thorndike, did not believe that animals demonstrated that trait

Tolman and kohler were both what?

Gestalt psychologists

The mental events that take place inside a person’s mind while behaving are known as?

cognition

Operant conditioning relies on…

voluntary behavior

a modern term for a form of behavior modification that uses shaping techniques to mold a desired behavior or response is?

Applied behavior analysis (ABA)

The behavior of infants and animals can be easily reinforced using?

primary reinforcers

In most employment situations, people are paid…

on a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement

after passing his chemistry exam, Tito was told by his parents that he would be able to have access to the family car for a week, Tito’s parents are using…

positive reinforement

After eating a food that make you sick, that food will cause a negative connotation, this is…

conditioned taste aversion

For every 25 boxes of cookies Tammy sells, her scout troop gets a dollar. On what schedule of reinforcement is Tammy being conditioned?

?

Time-out is an example of ?

punishment by removal

_ is an example of a primary reinforcer, whereas _ is an example of a secondary reinforcer.

A hug AND a certificate of appreciation

After a lengthy period during which the UCS was not applied, Pavlov’s dogs stopped responding to the metronome. If a weaker conditioned response to the metronome occurred at some point after this, it would be a demonstration of?

spontaneous recovery

When Pavlov stopped giving the dogs food after the real CS, they stopped salivating to the sound of the ticking. This is called

extinction

_ occurs when an organisms learns to respond to different stimuli in different ways

Stimulus discrimination

Joshua reacts with anxiety to the sound of thunder. A chair sliding across the wooden floor makes a sound similar to thunder. Joshua reacts with some slight anxiety. This is an example of?

Stimulus generalization

The mental events that take place inside a person’s mind while behaving are known as

cognition

Kohler’s chimpanzee experiment involved

a chimp fitting one stick into another stick to reach out of his cage for a banana

Kohler determined that insight

cannot be gained through trial-and-error learning alone

Research suggests that once people learn somethign

it is always present somewhere in memory

Bandura concluded that there were _ elements of observational learning

four

Following a response with the removal of something unpleasant is called

negative reinforcement

In operant conditioning, responses are _, whereas in classical conditioning responses are _

Voluntary AND involuntary

A police car is a _ for slowing down

discriminative stimulus

In order to increase reading, Mrs. Gomez has students record their reading. For every ten stickers, students receive a new book. Mrs. Gomez is using?

a token economy

Being sent to the principal after being told many times to stop talking is a form of?

punishment

The central idea of toilet training a cat is breaking down the process into a series of smalls stages. This is an example of?

shaping

What are examples of stimuli that elicit a conditioned emotional response?

a parent holding a belt; a Christmas tree all lit up; eerie music from a movie you thought was scary

An example of a primary reinforcement for a shy child to sing in front of people?

Promise her an ice cream cone when she sings

Doretha eats all her dinner knowing afterwards she will get a bowl of ice cream. Doretha’s behavior is best explained by what type of learning?

Operant conditioning

Most of the time, punishment will…?

only temporarily suppress a behavior

Voluntary behavior, to Skinner, was __ behavior.

Operant

Pavlov believed that the CS, due to its association close in time with the UCS, came to activate the same place in the brain originally activated by the UCS. What is this belief called?

Stimulus substitution

The response that is given to the conditioned stimulus is not usually quite as strong as the original unconditioned response, ___

but it is essentially the same response

A stimulus that has no effect on the desired response

neutral stimulus

For classical conditioning to be effective, the conditioned stimulus must be

distinctive

Bandura found that consequences

do matter in motivating a person to imitate a model

In defining learning, "__" refers to the fact that when people learn anything, a part of their brain is physically changed to record what they have learned, and that change remains even if the behavior does not.

Relatively permanent

A puppy chews on the curtains, Layla turns on a device that makes a continuous loud sound when she seems the puppy chewing. She will not turn it off until the puppy stops. Layla is using what technique to change the puppy’s behavior?

Negative reinforcement

One of Skinner’s famous experiments involved?

Teaching rats to learn how to obtain food

A behavior is more resistant to extinction if it is?

partially reinforced

__ is more resistant to extinction than ___

partial reinforcement AND continuous reinforcement

In toilet training a cat, "Lid up, seat down" is known in operant conditioning as

preparing the training area

For classical conditioning to be effective, the conditioned stimulus must be?

distinctive

In John Watson’s experiment with Little Albert, he demonstrated that

human emotional responses could be conditioned

__ occurs when an organism learns to respond to different stimuli in different ways

Stimulus discrimination

Dr. Rubio plays music and then afterwards places bread of an open window sill. After doing this many times, she notices that just as she begins to play her music, several birds fly to her window even before she presents the bread. The conditional stimulus is the

music

For each day Tanya is good, she receives a fake dollar she can spend at the school store. The issue of fake dollars in response to good behavior is an example of

behavior modification

When showering, a toilet flushing will turn the water ice cold, causing you to cringe. After several experiences of this, you find that you tend to cringe whenever you hear a toilet flush. The unconditional stimulus is the ___ and the condition stimulus is the ___

The cold water AND the sound of the flushing toilet

Tamar loves the slot machines, she has no idea how many times she has to pull the lever to win, but she is aware that at some point she is likely to win. What schedule of reinforcement is being used in this example?

Variable ration

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