Psychology Chapter 9- Study Guide

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People who are overweight

A.face less discrimination than minority racial groups.
B. face more discrimination than minority racial groups in employment settings.
C. are perceived as happy and content.
D. do not face discrimination.

B

Since the Iraq war, Americans have developed negative views of

A. Muslims.
B. Iraqis.
C. Democrats.
D. Jews.

A

A preconceived negative judgment of a group and its individual members is called

A. racism.
B. discrimination.
C. sexism.
D. prejudice.

D

Prejudice is a(n)
A. behavior.
B. cognition.
C. attitude.
D. affect.

C

Attitudes contain all of the following EXCEPT
A. affects.
B. behavioral tendencies.
C. cognitions.
D. stereotypes.

D

A belief about the personal attributes of a group of people is called a(n)
A. affect.
B. behavioral tendency.
C. cognition.
D. stereotype.

D

Jay believes that all Muslims are violent extremists. This is

A. discrimination.
B. a stereotype.
C. a behavioral tendency.
D. an example of groupthink.

B

_______ is a negative attitude; _______ is a negative behavior.

A. A stereotype;racism
B. Racism; stereotyping
C. Discrimination;prejudice
D. Prejudice; discrimination

D

An institutional practice that subordinates people of a given race is called
A. racism.
B. prejudice.
C. discrimination.
D. a stereotype.

A

An institutional practice that subordinates people of a given sex is called
A. sexism.
B. prejudice.
C. discrimination.
D. a stereotype.

A

Mr. Watson’s belief that Blacks are lazy is an example of _______. His refusal to rent an apartment to a Black family is an example of _______.
A. a stereotype; racism
B. discrimination;prejudice
C. a stereotype;discrimination
D. racism; prejudice

C

Recent research confirms that prejudiced and stereotyped evaluations
A. are more widespread than formerly believed.
B. are higher among females than males.
C. are higher among males than females.
D. can occur outside of one’s conscious awareness.

D

A state police force has set a height requirement of 5 feet 10 inches for all officers. This requirement is irrelevant to job effectiveness but generally excludes Hispanics, Asians, and women from the force. Such a requirement most clearly reflects

A. racism and sexism.
B. scapegoating and discrimination. C. stereotyping and prejudice.
D. the realistic conflict theory.

A

According to survey research conducted in the U.S., racial prejudice toward African Americans

A. is worse than ever today.
B. has decreased since the early 1940s.
C. has actually increased since the early 1980s.
D. decreased from 1940 to 1960, then increased until 1980, and has since stabilized.

B

In the 1940s, researchers Clark and Clark (1947) gave African American children a choice between Black dolls and White dolls. Results showed that most children
A. chose the Black dolls.
B. chose the White dolls.
C. refused to choose between them.
D. used the dolls in aggressive symbolic play.

B

Research concerning automatic prejudices reveals that
A. automatic processing is associated with the frontal cortex.
B. pictures of outgrips that elicit the most disgust elicit more frontal lobe activity.
C. automatic processing is a conscious activity.
D. automatic processing involves primitive areas of the brain associated with fear.

D

Although Marcia says she is not prejudiced against Blacks, she votes against interviewing a job applicant with an African name for a flimsy reason. She is exhibiting what some social science researchers call
A. overt discrimination.
B. automatic processing.
C. modern racism.
D. hidden racism.

C

Greenwald and his colleagues (2003) asked both Black and White participants to
press a "shoot" button when the target appeared to be holding a gun (rather than a harmless object such as a flashlight). Their results showed that all participants mistakenly shot at more targets who were
A. White.
B. Black.
C. male.
D. female.

b

Greenwald and his colleagues (2003) asked both Black and White participants to press a "shoot" button when the target appeared to be holding a gun (rather than a harmless object such as a flashlight). Their results showed that all participants mistakenly shot at more targets who were Black. The results showed that
A. to show prejudice people must be aware of their attitudes.
B. automatic, implicit prejudice exists.
C. people are not prejudiced.
D. some people will always be afraid.

B

Ideas about how men and women ought to behave are called _______, whereas people’s ideas about how women and men do behave are called _______.
A. gender-role norms;gender stereotypes
B. gender stereotypes;gender-role norms
C. gender preferences;gender roles
D. sexist attitudes; sexists stereotypes

A.

Jackman and Senter (1981) found that both men and women think that women are
more "emotional" than men. This shows that
A. gender stereotypes are stronger than racial stereotypes.
B. members of a stereotype group accept the stereotypes. C. stereotypes persist across time and culture.
D. strong gender stereotypes exist.

B

Norms are _____. Stereotypes are _____.
A. descriptive; prescriptive
B. prescriptive;descriptive
C. worldwide;personal
D. personal; worldwide

B

Which statement is FALSE?
A. Strong gender stereotypes exist.
B. Members of a stereotyped group accept the stereotypes.
C. Worldwide, women are perceived as more agreeable.
D. Racial stereotypes are stronger than gender stereotypes.

D

Data from 27 countries shows that people everywhere perceive women as more _______ and men as more _______.
A. agreeable; outgoing
B. outgoing;agreeable
C. democratic;emotional
D. emotional; collectivistic

A

A review of research on gender attitudes suggests
A. that most people havegut-level negative emotions about women even though they describe them favorably.
B. a"women-are-wonderful"effect.
C.that most people express more admiration than affection for women. D. that men and women are viewed as equally understanding and helpful.

B

Most Americans agree that
A. the activities of married women are best confined to the home and family.
B. they would probably move if Black people came to live in great numbers in their neighborhood.
C. the two sexes are equally emotional.
D. they would vote for a qualified woman whom their party nominated for president.

D

Eagly’s (1994) "women-are-wonderful" effect is an example of
A. a form of prejudice.
B. a favorable stereotype.
C. hostile sexism.
D. discrimination.

B

Which of the following is an example of benevolent sexism?
A. "Women have a superior moral sensibility."
B. "Once a man commits, she puts him on a tight leash."
C. "Women are less skilled in mathematics than men."
D. "Women are more emotional than men."

A

Around the world, people tend to prefer
A.baby boys, except in the U.S. where girls are preferred.
B. baby boys.
C. baby girls except in China where boys are preferred.
D. baby girls.

B

In an extensive review of studies on gender bias in the evaluation of men’s and women’s work, the most common result was
A. higher ratings of women’s work by women.
B. higher ratings of women’s work by men.
C. high ratings of men’s work by women.
D. no differences in the ratings of men’s or women’s work by either sex.

D

Myers indicates that, until recently, prejudice was greatest in regions where slavery was practiced. This fact is consistent with the principle that _______ breeds prejudice.
A. frustration
B. unequalstatus
C. conformity
D. authoritarianism

B

We tend to _______ the competence of those in high-status positions and _______ those who agreeably accept a lower-status position.
A. like; respect
B. devalue;admire
C. respect;like
D. admire;ignore

C

A motivation to have one’s group be dominant over other social groups is what social
psychologists call
A. prejudice.
B. discrimination.
C. unequalstatus.
D. social dominance orientation.

D

People high in social dominance orientation tend to support policies that _______ hierarchies and oppose policies that _______ hierarchies.
A. establish; eliminate
B. eliminate;establish
C. maintain;undermine
D. undermine; maintain

C

Who is most likely to support a policy, such as tax cuts for the wealthy, that maintains hierarchies?
A. a male
B. a female
C. a person high in social dominance D. a person low in social dominance

C

Bob is high in social dominance. Which of the following majors is he UNLIKELY to choose in college?
A. business
B. politics
C. social work
D. law

C

A belief in the superiority of one’s own ethnic and cultural group is called
A. prejudice.
B. discrimination.
C. ethnocentrism.
D. arrogance.

C

Kayla’s grandparents emigrated from Europe. Kayla holds such a strong belief that her ethnic group is superior to all others that she could accurately be described as being
A. prejudiced.
B. discriminatory.
C. ethnocentric.
D. arrogant.

C

Altemeyer (2004) reported that _______ are among the most prejudiced persons in our society.
A. people high in social dominance
B. right wing authoritarians
C. people high in social dominance and authoritarianism
D. highly religious people

C

A consistent finding concerning Christianity in North America is that, in comparison to nonmembers, church members show _______ than nonmembers.
A. more racial prejudice
B. less racial prejudice
C. more sexism but less racism
D. more conformity but less authoritarianism

A

Which of the following is TRUE?
A. Faithful church attendees are more prejudiced than occasional attendees.
B. Those who scored highest on Gallup’s "spiritual commitment" index were less accepting of a person of another race moving in next door.
C. Those for whom religion is an end in itself express less prejudice than those for whom religion is more a means to an end.
D. All of the above

C

A consistent finding is that no matter how religious commitment is assessed,

A. the less devout are less prejudiced.
B. commitment bears no relation to prejudice.
C. the very devout are less prejudiced.
D. the very devout are the most prejudiced.

C

Gordon Allport has concluded that "The role of _______ is paradoxical. It makes
prejudice and it unmakes prejudice."
A. power
B. religion
C. self-esteem
D. education

B

Studies of Whites by Pettigrew in South Africa in the 1950s, when apartheid ruled, revealed that those who _______ were also most prejudiced.
A. had the most education
B. conformed most to other social norms
C. were the most disadvantaged
D. had the greatest amount of social power

B

Children of _______ have less stereotyped views of men and women.
A. authoritarian parents
B. employed women
C. devoutly religious parents
D. stay-at-home mothers

B

Cultural attitudes, including prejudice, are embodied and reinforced in
A. schools.
B. government.
C. the media.
D. All of the above

D

In examining photographs of people in magazines and newspapers, Archer and his
colleagues (1983) found that, relative to the average female photo, the average male photo is more likely to
A. emphasize the face.
B. emphasize the body.
C. include the situational context.
D. display a standing posture.

A

Schwarz and Kurz’s (1989) research in Germany has confirmed that people whose faces are prominent in photos seem
A. more physically attractive.
B. less powerful.
C. younger.
D. more intelligent and ambitious.

D

All of the following statements are social sources of prejudice EXCEPT
A. A group that enjoys social and economic superiority often uses prejudicial beliefs to justify its privileged position.
B. Children are brought up in ways that foster or reduce prejudice.
C. Religious communities can sustain or reduce prejudice.
D. Social institutions and policies don’t support prejudice.

D

When the cause of our frustration is intimidating or unknown, we often redirect our hostility. This phenomenon is known as
A. discrimination.
B. displaced aggression.
C. realistic group conflict.
D. institutional supports.

B

More lynching of Blacks took place in the old South during years when cotton prices were low, suggesting that prejudice is partly explained by
A. in group bias.
B. the just-world hypothesis.
C. displaced aggression.
D. institutional supports.

C

John has just failed a chemistry test. He goes back to his apartment and criticizes his roommate’s choice of music. What term best describes John’s behavior?
A. institutionalized aggression
B. just-world action
C. displaced aggression
D. authoritarian regression

C

Elena’s boss told her that she is being let go due to company downsizing. Later that day when she gets home, she is critical of her girlfriend’s choice of restaurant for dinner. What term best describes Elena’s behavior?
A. institutionalized aggression
B. just-world action
C. displaced aggression
D. authoritarian regression

c

The realistic group conflict theory suggests that prejudice arises
A. whenever people try to live together.
B. when a new group moves into an area.
C. between groups who fail to communicate clearly with each other. D. when groups compete for scarce resources.

D

Palmer (1996) found that since 1975, there is _______ between opposition to immigration and the unemployment rate.
A. a positive relationship
B. a negative relationship
C. a neutral relationship
D. no relationship

A

The "we" aspect of our self-concept is what social psychologists call
A. our group identity.
B. our social identity.
C. an in group.
D. an out group.

B

"Them"—a group that people perceive as being distinctively different or apart from
their ingroup—is what social psychologists call a(n)
A. ingroup.
B. outgroup.
C. scapegoat.
D. bias group.

B

A group of people who share a sense of belonging or a feeling of common identity is called a(n)
A. ingroup.
B. outgroup.
C. community.
D. clan.

A

Between classes, you notice how smokers congregate outside the doors of the building. When interacting with one another, they seem to behave as if they identify as quite different from the non-smokers who happen to be outside the door. What term would best describe the group of smokers?

A. an in group
B. an out group
C. a clan
D. an ethnocentric group

A

According to Myers, many disadvantaged youths find pride and identity in gang affiliations, which is their way of
A. justifying the irracial discrimination.
B. justifying their religious discrimination.
C. establishing social dominance.
D. seeking self-esteem.

D

A tendency to favor one’s group is called
A. ethnocentrism.
B. an in-group bias.
C. an outgroup bias.
D. social dominance.

B

Sack and Elder (2000) found that more than 80 percent of both Whites and Blacks say race relations are generally good in their neighborhoods, but fewer than 60 percent see relations as generally good in the country as a whole. This is referred to as
A. ethno centrism.
B. an in-group bias.
C. social dominance.
D. an out group bias.

B

We are more prone to ingroup biases when our group is _______ and _______ relative to the outgroup.
A. large; higher in status
B. large;lowerinstatus
C. small;higherinstatus
D. small; lower in status

D

Betty and Tina, both third-graders in the same classroom, are assigned by their teacher to different groups that will compete in a spelling bee. Betty and Tina each believe that their own group is composed of the better spellers. The girls’ beliefs best illustrate
A. the just-world phenomenon.
B. an in-group bias.
C. the fundamental attribution error.
D. an out group bias.

B

In Gerontology class, your professor gives an assignment that requires you to write two obituaries for yourself, one for if you were to die tomorrow, the other for if you were to die at age 80. Social psychologists accurately predicted that the anxiety associated with this assignment would lead students to be _______ likely to derogate _______ members.
A. more; outgroup
B. more;ingroup
C. less;outgroup
D. less; ingroup

A

What connection has been found in experiments exploring self-image and prejudice?
A. People with high self-image tend to be more prejudiced.
B. People with low self-image tend to be more prejudiced.
C. There is no connection found between a person’s self-image and their level of prejudice.
D. The connection between a person’s self-image and their level of prejudice is a
weak one.

B

Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A. Categorization can provide useful information about people with minimum effort.
B. It is easy to resist categorizing people into groups.
C. Categorization provides no cognitive foundation for prejudice.
D. Categorization always leads to discrimination.

A

Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A. Motivations not only lead people to be prejudiced but also lead people to avoid prejudice.
B. Automatic prejudices subside when people’s motivation to avoid prejudice is internal rather than external.
C. Automatic prejudices subside when people’s motivation to avoid prejudice is external rather than internal.
D. Categorization is necessary for prejudice.

C

The phrase "they are all alike, but we are diverse" reflects
A. an out group bias.
B. the out group homogeneity effect. C. ethnocentrism.
D. a categorization bias.

B

The tendency for people to more accurately recognize faces of their own race is called the
A. ingroup heterogeneity effect.
B. out group homogeneity effect.
C. own-racebias.
D. faceism effect.

C

You are Black, and you have difficulty recognizing the White customers who were in your store during a robbery. This is an example of
A. a group-serving bias.
B. an out group effect.
C. own-race bias.
D. distinctive case.

C

Which of the following statements is FALSE?
A. The greater our familiarity with a social group, the more we see its diversity.
B. The less our familiarity with a social group, the more we stereotype.
C. We are likely to exaggerate the similarities within a group we are not a part of.
D. The larger and more powerful the group, the less we attend to them and the more
we stereotype.

D

Taylor and Fiske (1978) found that a Black in an otherwise White group, a man in an otherwise female group, or a woman in an otherwise male group seem
A. less prominent than the others in the group.
B. less influential.
C. to be uninvolved in the group.
D. more prominent and influential.

D

Your co-worker tells you that she has both a pet snake and a pet dog at home. You are most likely to describe her to new office employees as a
A. snake owner.
B. dog owner.
C. both a snake owner and a dog owner.
D. co-worker.

A

Your new roommate introduces himself as having an Irish and Tahitian background. You are most likely to introduce your roommate to your friends as
A. Irish.
B. Tahitian.
C. both Irish and Tahitian.
D. your roommate.

B

Kleck and Strenta (1980) had women who falsely believed that they appeared disfigured by theatrical makeup interact with a female partner. Results indicated that women who thought they were disfigured
A. interacted for a longer period of time with their partners.
B. interacted for a shorter period of time with their partners.
C. rated their partners as more tense, distant, and patronizing.
D. rated their partners as warmer, more open, and friendlier.

C

People vary in how likely they are to expect that others will stereotype them. This is called
A. discrimination expectation.
B. prejudice anticipation.
C. stigma consciousness.
D. stereotype threat.

C

The benefit of being high in stigma consciousness is that it can buffer individual
A. autonomy. B. freedom.
C. self-esteem. D. confidence.

C

Because we are sensitive to distinctive events, the simultaneous occurrence of two such events is especially noticeable. Our attentiveness to unusual occurrences can create
A. the group-serving bias.
B. authoritarianism.
C. the out group homogeneity effect.
D. illusory correlations.

D

Although most suspects in cases of incest, child molestation, and sexual abuse are heterosexual males, the local newspaper omits the word "heterosexual" in any related
headlines. In contrast, whenever a self-described gay male is arrested for a crime, the headline proclaims "homosexual arrested." The resulting prejudice that gay males are more likely to commit violent crimes can in part be blamed on
A. an illusory correlation.
B. in group bias.
C. out group homogeneity effects.
D. group-serving biases.

A

Hamilton and Rose’s (1980) research in which students read sentences describing accountants, doctors, and salespeople revealed that
A. pre-existing stereotypes lead us to"see"correlations that do not exist. B. vivid information is irrelevant too occupational stereotypes.
C. positive information is better remembered if it describes doctors.
D. distinctive information is ignored when forming impressions.

A

Dismissing outgroup members’ positive behaviors and attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions is known as
A. the scape goat theory of prejudice.
B. the just-worldbias.
C. out group discrimination.
D. group-serving bias.

D

Which of the following would be an example of the group-serving bias?
A. Cheryl believes that women are unemployed because of discrimination, while
men are unemployed because of low motivation.
B. Sue believes that members of her own family are prejudiced, while her husband’s family is tolerant.
C. Chuck believes that mistakes made by both men and women are due to low intelligence.
D. Bill believes that groups outperform individuals when solving problems.

A

Describing positive behaviors by an ingroup member in terms of their general disposition, but describing the same behavior by an outgroup member as a specific isolated act, has been called the
A. overgeneralization bias.
B. in group homogeneity effect.
C. out group specificity phenomenon.
D. linguistic intergroup bias.

D

When the British made a group of German civilians walk through a concentration camp at the end of World War II, one German individual stated, "What terrible
criminals these people must have been to receive such treatment." This comment is an example of
A. overgeneralization bias.
B. in-group homogeneity effect.
C. outgroup specificity phenomenon. D. linguistic intergroup bias.

D

The just-world phenomenon may lead us to believe that an unemployed person is

A. the victim of discrimination.
B. lazy.
C. in need of sympathy.
D. in need of a retraining program.

B

Jeremy’s belief that earthquake victims are being punished by God for their own sins
best illustrates
A. Gause’slaw.
B. the just-world phenomenon.
C. an in group bias.
D. stereotype vulnerability.

B

The just-world phenomenon can lead people to think that
A. the winners of a lottery actually deserved their good fortune.
B. sick people are not responsible for their illness.
C. poor people deserve better.
D. rape victims acted in a provocative manner.

D

The tendency for people to believe that individuals get what they deserve and deserve what they get is called the _______ phenomenon.
A. retribution
B. just-world
C. in group bias
D. stereotype invulnerability

B

Mary tells you that she thinks the reason people live in poverty is because they are lazy. Mary’s thinking is an example of the _______ phenomenon.
A. retribution
B. just-world
C. ingroupbias
D. stereotype invulnerability

B

Assuming that sick people are responsible for their illnesses is an example of the _______ phenomenon.
A. retribution
B. just-world
C. ingroupbias
D. stereotype invulnerability

B

Linking _______ with virtue and _______ with moral failure enables fortunate people to feel pride and enables unfortunate people to avoid responsibility.
A. good fortune; misfortune B. misfortune;goodfortune C. wealth;poverty
D. poverty; wealth

A

Linking good fortune with virtue and misfortune with moral failure enables fortunate people to feel pride and enables unfortunate people to avoid responsibility. This is an example of the _______ phenomenon.
A. retribution
B. just-world
C. ingroupbias
D. stereotype invulnerability

B

_______ occurs when groups of individuals who do not fit their stereotype are thought of as "exceptions to the rule."
A. Subtyping
B. Subgrouping
C. Prejudice
D. Discrimination

A

_______ occurs when a new stereotype is formed about groups of individuals who do
not fit their stereotype.
A. Subtyping
B. Subgrouping
C. Prejudice
D. Discrimination

B

_______ are exceptions to the group; _______ are acknowledged as part of the overall group.
A. Subgroups; subtypes
B. Subtypes; subgroups
C. Ingroups; outgroups
D. Outgroups; ingroups

B

Madison’s parents comment that the nice new family on the block, who are Black, represent "professional, middle-class Blacks." Madison’s parents are engaging in
A. subgrouping.
B. sub typing
C. discrimination.
D. prejudice.

A

When others expect us to perform poorly and our anxiety causes us to confirm their belief, we have reacted to
A. a stereotype threat.
B. subtyping.
C. an out group bias.
D. ethnocentrism.

A

Mr. Wong, a high school teacher, tells his class that he thinks boys tend to be less anxious and thus make better speeches than girls do. The girls in his class become apprehensive when preparing and giving speeches in his class. The girls are experiencing
A. a stereotype threat.
B. the just-world phenomenon.
C. the scapegoating effect.
D. personal/group discrimination discrepancy.

A

Which statement illustrates discrimination?
A. "White people make me so angry I could scream."
B. "I wouldn’t hire a woman, even if she was qualified."
C. "The government should do more to help the Native Americans."
D. "Whites can’t dance as well as African Americans can."

B

Which statement is true?
A. Surveys indicate that Americans are becoming more prejudiced.
B. Prejudice is more overt now than in the past.
C. Measures of automatic attitudes suggest that surveys may underestimate the
amount of prejudice in America.
D. Prejudices, since they are attitudes, have three components: beliefs, opinions, and
sentiments.

C

People who move to a region of the country where racism is unknown, students who attend a college that prizes multicultural values, and children raised by open- minded parents all become less prejudiced. These findings support a(n) ____ explanation of prejudice.
A. scapegoat
B. socialization
C. authoritarianism
D. realistic group conflict

B

Stereotype threat explains why
A. individuals hide their prejudicial biases in most social situations.
B.individuals sometimes perform poorly when apprehensive about being stereotyped.
C. people evaluate individuals more positively than groups.
D. stereotypes can be unwarranted generalizations across situations.

B

A preconceived negative judgment of a group and its individual members is a(n)
A. prejudice.
B. stereotype.
C. discrimination.
D. emotion.

B

Kevin has just met Fred, a White American teenage boy. Kevin assumes that Fred would not be a good basketball player because "white men can’t jump." This is an example of
A. prejudice.
B. stereotyping.
C. discrimination.
D. sexism.

B

Persons high in _____ tend to view people in terms of status hierarchies—with themselves being at the top.
A. sexism
B. racism
C. social dominance orientation
D. bigotry

C

Bill is often described as judgmental, ethnocentric, and punitive. He believes in strict obedience to authority and is intolerant of weakness in others. Which of the following statements would likely be true of Bill?
A. He suffers from antisocial personality disorder.
B. He scores highly on modern racism scales.
C. He has a social identity disorder.
D. He has an authoritarian personality.

D

On the reality television show "Survivor," two tribes compete for luxuries such as food and shelter. During such challenges, one group’s success becomes another group’s failure. According to _____, such dynamics may breed prejudice.

A. socialization theory
B. realistic group conflict theory
C. authoritarianism
D. scapegoat theory

B

In which of the following situations are people LEAST likely to experience ingroup bias?
A. whentheingroupissmall
B. when the in-group is lower in status than the outgroup
C. when our in-group is successful
D. when the ingroup is in the majority

D

In which situation are people LEAST likely to rely on stereotypes?
A. when they are very calm
B. when they are short on time
C. when they are tired
D. when they are preoccupied

A

The tendency of people to get what they deserve and deserve what they get is called the
A. group-servingbias.
B. stigma consciousness.
C. just-world phenomenon.
D. outgroup homogeneity effect.

C

Which of the following is NOT an example of subtle prejudice?
A. exaggerating ethnic differences
B.feeling less admiration and affection for immigrant minorities
C. believing one race to be better at certain tasks than others
D. rejecting minorities for supposedly nonracial reasons

C

Which of the following is an example of benevolent sexism?
A. Women have a superior moral sensibility
B. Once a man commits, the woman controls his life
C. Men are immoral
D. Men are from Mars and women are from Venus

A

Which of the following is NOT a social source of prejudice?
A. unequal status
B. socialization
C. institutional support
D. social identity theory

D

A person is labeled as ______ if they believe in the superiority of his/her own ethnic and cultural group and shows disdain for all other groups.
A. discriminatory
B. high in social dominance orientation
C. xenophobic
D. ethnocentric

D

Targets for displaced aggression are commonly referred to as
A. stereotypes. B. scapegoats. C. outgroups. D. bigits.

B

Vince and Wanda are both members of the high school band. Vince plays tuba and Wanda plays the flute. Vince believes that the brass section is the strongest
section of the band while Wanda believes the woodwinds are the most important section. Vince and Wanda’s beliefs are best explained in terms of
A. their ingroup biases.
B. theoutgrouphomogeneityeffect.
C. realisticgroupconflicttheory.
D. scapegoat theory.

A

Albert sees a great deal of difference between all of his fraternity brothers but thinks that all sorority girls are the same. Albert’s beliefs are best explained by
A. theoutgrouphomogeneityeffect.
B. theingroupbias.
C. hissocialdominanceorientation.
D. the own-race bias.

A

Elvis is a gay man. He believes that every time he speaks people interpret his opinions in terms of his homosexuality and expects to be the victim of prejudice
of discrimination. Which of the following best describes Elvis?
A. Hewouldscorehighinsocialdominanceorientation.
B. Hewouldscorehighinameasureofauthoritarianism.
C. Heisverystigmaconscious.
D. He has a self-perpetuating stereotype.

C

Beth believes that all sorority members are unintelligent and self-centered. After meeting Kim who as a 4.0 GPA and spends 20 hours each week volunteering to help the disabled children Beth says "well, she’s the exception to the rule." This is an example of
A. terrormanagementtheory.
B. astereotypethreat.
C. subtyping.
D. thejust-worldphenomenon.

C

In Harber’s (1998) study, poorly written essays received higher evaluations if participants were led to believe they were written by
A. White students.
B. Male students.
C. Femalestudents.
D. Black students.

D

In Harber’s (1998) study, poorly written essays received higher evaluations if participants were led to believe they were written by Black students than White students. This finding is an example of
A. subtleprejudice.
B. modernprejudice.
C. racism.
D. explicit prejudice.

B

Which of the following is true about men compared to women?
A. they are more likely to be murdered
B.theyaremorelikelytobediagnosedwithautism
C. theyaremorelikelytocommitsuicide
D. they are more likely to suffer from anxiety disorders

all of the above.

All of the following are true of societies with large income disparity except
A. they exhibit less communal health. B. theyhavemoreinstancesofdruguse. C. theyhaveamoreobesepopulation. D. they have fewer prisons.

D

Joe is an American. He views people trying to immigrate into America as nothing more than pests. This is an example of
A. infrahumanization.
B. ethnocentrism.
C. xenophobia.
D. terror management.

A

Amanda, thirty-five year-old Black woman, has witnessed a crime. When shown a lineup of suspects, Amanda is most likely to recognize the culprit if the culprit
A. is White.
B. is a senior citizen.
C. is in his 30’s.
D. is Asian.

C

Paul is a very tolerant White male. When he meets Bill, an African-American, Paul assumes that Bill will view him as an arrogant spoiled White man. Paul’s belief is an example of a(n)
A. meta-stereotype.
B. prejudice.
C. own-racebias.
D. outgroup homogeneity.

A

Karen’s idea about what all football players are like is based on her knowledge of Tim Tebow. Which of the following is the problem with Karen’s perception?
A. Tim Tebow, a vivid case, is not the best basis for judging the entire group
B. Karen’s perception is based on her meta-stereotype
C. Karen is clearly stigma conscious
D. Karen’s perception is based on an illusory correlation

A

Sally believes that all psychology majors are nosey. When she meets Jonathan she is
surprised because, although he is a psychology major, he respects her privacy and doesn’t push her to share things if she doesn’t want to. What will likely happen to Sally’s stereotype of psychology majors?
A. She will revise her current stereotype.
B. ShewillsaythatJonathanistheexceptiontotherule.
C. ShewilldislikeJonathan.
D. She will assume he is being nice for some other self-serving reason.

B

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