Psychology Chapter 9

Total Word Count: 8793
   Send article as PDF   

As discussed in the opening vignette of your text, Chris Langan was believed to have an IQ of _____ and considered a(n) ____________ as a child.
a. 80; autistic savant
b. 100; existentialist
c. 150; abstract thinker
d. 195; prodigy

d

Which theorist stated that "intelligence is whatever intelligence tests measure"?
a. Edwin Boring
b. Sir Francis Galton
c. Alfred Binet
d. Charles Spearman

a

The cousin of Charles Darwin who was responsible for creating twin study research methods was
a. Alfred Binet.
b. Sir Francis Galton.
c. Henri Simon.
d. James Cattell.

b

_______________ refers to the idea that intelligence is whatever intelligence tests measure.
a. Spearman’s general intelligence
b. Cattell’s fluid intelligence
c. Boring’s dictum
d. Gardner’s multiple intelligences

c

Lucy has been blind from birth, and is getting her intelligence tested through the school board to determine what resources she will need to succeed in school. According to Galton’s original ideas about intelligence, Lucy would be expected to
a. demonstrate normal intelligence because intelligence is crystallized.
b. have limited intelligence because her sensory capabilities are limited.
c. demonstrate high intelligence because all her senses other than vision would be more specialized.
d. display advanced abilities for abstract thinking but difficulties with concrete thought.

b

The original purpose of the first intelligence test was to
a. identify which children were likely to do well in school.
b. identify which students were in need of accelerated instruction.
c. identify which children were likely to benefit from vocational education.
d. identify areas of academic weakness in grade school children.

d

Binet and Simon’s intelligence test did not include ________ items as a subtest area.
a. verbal comprehension
b. object assembly
c. short-term memory
d. vocabulary

b

The capacity to understand hypothetical concepts is called _______ thinking.
a. prospective
b. abstract
c. retrospective
d. intuitive

b

Measuring intelligence by testing is a rather new concept in the history of the world. The idea of such testing came from
a. France.
b. the United States.
c. the United Kingdom.
d. the Soviet Union.

a

Alfred Binet designed the first ______ test.
a. aptitude
b. intelligence
c. achievement
d. perception

b

Galton’s intelligence test items are to ________________ as Binet and Simon’s intelligence test items are to ________________.
a. abstract thinking; concrete thinking
b. general intelligence; specific intelligences
c. sensation; higher mental processes
d. crystallized intelligence; fluid intelligence

c

According to a panel of experts in 1921, intelligence consists of the abilities to do all of the following except
a. reason concretely.
b. learn to adapt to environmental circumstances.
c. acquire knowledge.
d. benefit from experience.

a

Who was the inventor of correlational research methods who later studied the effects of sensory skills on intelligence?
a. Charles Spearman
b. Henri Simon
c. Sir Francis Galton
d. Alfred Binet

c

In non-Western countries, laypeople view intelligence as reflecting ________________ more than intellectual brilliance.
a. wisdom and judgment
b. cross-domain skills
c. specific skills and abilities
d. crystallized knowledge

a

The hypothetical factor that accounts for overall differences in intellect is referred to by a lower-case
a. a.
b. f.
c. g.
d. i.

c

Binet and Galton would have likely disagreed about
a. the extent to which intelligence tests were objective measures.
b. the extent to which intelligence tests were reliable.
c. the extent to which tests can measure intelligence.
d. the extent to which our senses influence intelligence.

d

Who would have supported the notion that intelligence resulted from a single ability and could be represented by a single test score?
a. Binet
b. Spearman
c. Sternberg
d. Gardner

b

According to Spearman, it is one’s ________ intelligence that produces the positive correlations found between math, reading scores, and visual perception tests.
a. crystallized
b. fluid
c. emotional
d. general

d

Charles Spearman believed that intelligence is composed of ____________.
a. verbal and mathematical abilities
b. crystallized and visual-motor abilities
c. general intelligence and specific abilities
d. analytical, creative, and practical intelligence

c

The idea that intelligence varied according to g and s factors was proposed by
a. Galton.
b. Cattell.
c. Binet and Simon.
d. Spearman.

d

Mark is trying to reason through several spatial problems on an intelligence test. According to Spearman, Mark’s ability to solve the problems will depend on
a. how fluid or crystallized his intelligence is.
b. what types of multiple intelligences he has excelled at in the past.
c. his general problem-solving ability and specific talents with spatial tasks.
d. his level of analytical intelligence and logical thought.

c

The capacity to learn new ways to solve problems is called ______ intelligence.
a. aptitude
b. abstract
c. crystallized
d. fluid

d

Our accumulated knowledge of the world over time is called _______ intelligence.
a. aptitude
b. abstract
c. crystallized
d. fluid

c

The type of intelligence that allows you to learn to play your first few notes on a saxophone is called
a. emotional intelligence.
b. abstract intelligence.
c. crystallized intelligence.
d. fluid intelligence.

d

Because Ben’s history professor was a college student during the 1970s, he has extraordinary insight and knowledge of facts concerning the Vietnam War era. This knowledge is associated with the term
a. multiple intelligence.
b. general intelligence.
c. fluid intelligence.
d. crystallized intelligence.

d

Dean is learning how to drive a car, whereas Martin has been driving for several years. In this example, Dean would be using ____________ intelligence and Martin would be relying on ____________ intelligence.
a. specific; general
b. general; specific
c. fluid; crystallized
d. crystallized; fluid

c

Nigel is a contestant on the game show Jeopardy. In order to accurately answer the numerous trivia questions on the show, Nigel will be utilizing his ___________ intelligence.
a. general
b. crystallized
c. practical
d. fluid

b

Tom is a relatively reserved individual who does not like to take risks. While in university, he does not like to take classes that he isn’t sure he can do well at, as he believes he is stupid when he gets poor grades and ends up dropping those classes because he can’t change his grades. Tom likely believes that intelligence is
a. a fixed entity.
b. a flexible process.
c. different for certain types of classes.
d. the by-product of sensory capacity.

a

Foster hasn’t performed as well as he could have in school, but seems to have a good head on his shoulders, does well at work, understands others, and could be said to have "street smarts". In this example, what type of intelligence is most applicable to Foster?
a. Creative intelligence
b. General intelligence
c. Naturalistic intelligence
d. Practical intelligence

d

Mr. Cutty is a businessman who is running intelligence tests on potential employees to determine which would be the best to hire and have the highest job performance. Which types of intelligence should Mr. Cutty be MOST interested in?
a. Analytical and linguistic intelligences
b. Practical and creative intelligences
c. Specific and intrapersonal intelligences
d. Crystallized and analytical intelligences

b

Sternberg is to Spearman as ______________ is to ______________.
a. general (g) intelligence; practical intelligence
b. analytical intelligence; general (g) intelligence
c. multiple intelligences; specific abilities
d. creative intelligence; crystallized intelligence

b

Sternberg has found that __________ intelligence is a good predictor of success in life but has a low relationship to ___________ intelligence.
a. practical; analytical
b. practical; creative
c. analytical; practical
d. academic; creative

a

A theory of intelligence with nine components was postulated by
a. Gardner.
b. Spearman.
c. Sternberg.
d. Terman.

a

Which one of the following was tentatively proposed by Gardner as a possible ninth type of intelligence?
a. Musical
b. Interpersonal
c. Holistic
d. Existential

d

Gardner argued that _____________ provide support for his concept of multiple intelligences.
a. blind persons
b. autistic savants
c. schizophrenia patients
d. twin studies

b

Which of the following is not one of Gardner’s multiple intelligences?
a. Intrapersonal
b. Naturalistic
c. Holistic
d. Kinesthetic

c

Which of these is one of Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences?
a. Poetic
b. Digital
c. Creative
d. Naturalistic

d

Gardner and his associates are known for proposing
a. the generalized theory of intelligence.
b. the Triarchic theory of intelligence.
c. the theory of multiple intelligences.
d. the theory of emotional intelligence.

c

Howard Gardner and Robert Sternberg agree to be interviewed together on the topic of intelligence. At the end of the interview, what do you conclude is their major point of agreement?
a. Heredity is the major factor determining intelligence.
b. Standardized tests do not assess the many facets of intelligence.
c. There is no correlation between intelligence quotients and academic success in grade school.
d. The concept of intelligence serves no purpose in a society in which computers are so frequently used.

b

Which of the following is not one of the three areas of intelligence described by Sternberg?
a. Analytical
b. Practical
c. Creative
d. Exponential

d

According to Robert Sternberg, __________________ refers to the ability to break problems down into component parts, or analysis, for problem solving. This is the type of intelligence that is measured by intelligence tests and academic achievement tests.
a. analytical intelligence
b. creative intelligence
c. practical intelligence
d. exponential intelligence

a

According to Robert Sternberg, ____________ is the ability to deal with new and different concepts and to come up with new ways of solving problems (divergent thinking, in other words).
a. analytical intelligence
b. creative intelligence
c. practical intelligence
d. exponential intelligence

b

According to Robert Sternberg, _______________ is best described as "street smarts," or the ability to use information to get along in life. People who have it know how to be tactful, how to manipulate situations to their advantage, and how to use inside information to increase their odds of success.
a. analytical intelligence
b. creative intelligence
c. practical intelligence
d. exponential intelligence

c

Shalissa is described as being tactful and able to manipulate situations to her advantage. She is probably high in
a. analytical intelligence.
b. creative intelligence.
c. practical intelligence.
d. exponential intelligence.

c

According to Robert Sternberg, which type of intelligence is least likely to predict success in an academic environment?
a. Analytical intelligence
b. Creative intelligence
c. Practical intelligence
d. Exponential intelligence

c

Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences divides intelligence into ______ independent abilities.
a. 3
b. 5
c. 7
d. 9

d

Sternberg’s _______ model of intelligence offers a theory of multiple intelligences.
a. crystallized
b. fluid
c. triarchic
d. triangular

c

What three types of intelligence constitute Sternberg’s Triarchic theory of intelligence?
a. Global, intuitive, and special
b. General, global, and specific
c. Analytical, creative, and practical
d. Mathematical, reasoning, and verbal

c

According to Gardner there are ________ types of intelligence.
a. two
b. four
c. six
d. eight

d

Sven is especially skilled when it comes to chart reading, map reading, and graph reading tasks. According to Gardner, Sven’s skills reflect ________ intelligence.
a. logic-mathematical
b. spatial
c. linguistic
d. naturalistic

b

Stephanie’s friends describe her as someone who has the uncanny ability to say the right thing at the right time whenever someone is in need. According to Gardner, Stephanie’s skills may reflect a type of ________ intelligence.
a. interpersonal
b. naturalistic
c. intrapersonal
d. emotional

a

According to Gardner’s theory, Picasso’s talents are associated with which form of intelligence?
a. Linguistic
b. Logical
c. Spatial
d. Naturalistic

c

According to Gardner’s multiple intelligences, a philosopher would rely on ___________ intelligence whereas an engineer would utilize ___________ intelligence.
a. linguistic; spatial
b. naturalistic; kinesthetic
c. intrapersonal; logico-mathematical
d. interpersonal; spatial

c

Marcos, a geology professor, has always been fascinated by the study of fossils, shells, and rock formations. According to Gardner, Marcos is strong in the area of ________ intelligence.
a. naturalistic
b. kinesthetic
c. logical
d. spatial

a

According to Sternberg’s theory, which statement is TRUE?
a. Practical intelligence involves our ability to use original thinking to solve problems.
b. Analytical intelligence is similar to Spearman’s g factor of intelligence.
c. Practical intelligence is similar to Gardner’s naturalistic intelligence.
d. Creative intelligence is similar to crystallized intelligence.

b

Regarding Spearman, Gardner, and Sternberg’s theories, which statement is true?
a. Gardner’s interpersonal intelligence is related to Sternberg’s practical intelligence.
b. Gardner’s linguistic intelligence is related to Spearman’s g.
c. Gardner’s bodily-kinesthetic intelligence is related to Sternberg’s analytical intelligence.
d. Gardner’s intrapersonal intelligence is related to Sternberg’s creative intelligence.

a

Which of the following statements is true concerning the relationship between brain size and intelligence?
a. The higher the brain volume is, the lower the intelligence test scores.
b. Higher brain volume causes higher intelligence test scores.
c. The higher the brain volume is, the higher the intelligence test scores.
d. Higher brain volume is unrelated to intelligence test scores.

c

Analysis of Einstein’s brain showed a significantly wider ______ lobe.
a. temporal
b. frontal
c. parietal
d. occipital

c

Which of the following methods would be best for investigating the correlates of differences between high and low IQ scorers?
a. Utilizing learning styles questionnaires to assess learning preferences
b. Utilizing brain imaging techniques to investigate which parts of the brain are more active on certain tasks
c. Utilizing vocational interest inventories to assess future career ambitions
d. Utilizing personality measures to assess behaviours and attitudes

b

Some research on brain activity and intelligence has demonstrated that participants with higher levels of intelligence exhibited ___________ brain activity than participants of lower levels of intelligence.
a. less
b. the same amount of
c. more
d. differentiated

a

Danille and Tanya have both scored highly on an intelligence test, whereas Andrea and Ashlee scored much lower on the intelligence test. All four women are participating in an experiment that requires them to respond as quickly as possible to the presence of a stimulus by pushing a button on a keyboard. Which two women will likely have the lowest reaction times?
a. Andrea and Ashlee
b. Ashlee and Tanya
c. Danille and Andrea
d. Tanya and Danille

d

Concerning intelligence and memory, which statement is true?
a. Intelligence test scores tend to be inversely correlated with scores on short-term memory tests.
b. Intelligence test scores tend to be negatively correlated with scores on short-term memory tests.
c. Intelligence test scores tend to be unrelated to scores on short-term memory tests.
d. Intelligence test scores tend to be positively correlated with scores on short-term memory tests.

d

Which subdivision of the cortex is most active on tasks involving reasoning, planning, and judgment?
a. Parietal lobes
b. Temporal lobes
c. Occipital
d. Frontal lobes

d

Brain imaging during reasoning tasks that are highly related to general intelligence indicate that the ______________ shows consistent activation across different "g-loaded" tasks.
a. parietal lobe
b. association cortex
c. prefrontal cortex
d. somatosensory cortex

c

Recent research evidence suggests that people with poor cognitive skills are especially likely to overestimate their intellectual abilities, a phenomenon known as _______________________.
a. the double curse of incompetence
b. metacognitive skills
c. deviation IQ
d. positive eugenics

a

The expression of a person’s IQ relative to his or her same-aged peers is called _______ IQ.
a. deviation
b. variant
c. comparative
d. validity

a

The correct formula for determining IQ as used in Stern’s development of the Stanford-Binet Test was ____________.
a. MA/CA ×100
b. MA/DA × 100
c. CA/MA × 100
d. MA/CA

a

An 8-year-old child who scored like an average 10-year-old on an intelligence test would have a mental age of ________ and an IQ of ________.
a. 8; 80
b. 8; 125
c. 10; 100
d. 10; 125

d

Dallas is a 10-year-old boy who has a mental age of 10 years. His IQ would be ___________.
a. 80
b. 100
c. 115
d. 130

b

Jordan is a 10-year-old boy who has a mental age of 8 years. His IQ would be ________.
a. 80
b. 100
c. 125
d. 140

a

______________ refers to the value of each person’s IQ relative to the norms for his or her age group.
a. Deviation IQ
b. Mental age
c. Metacognitive level
d. Intelligence quotient

a

William Stern’s formula for the intelligence quotient was mental age/chronological age × 100. What is the IQ of a 12-year-old with a mental age of 9?
a. 125
b. 135
c. 75
d. 85

c

Twelve-year-old Arnold received an IQ test score of 75. What is his mental age?
a. 7
b. 5
c. 10
d. 9

d

What is the IQ of a 12-year-old with a mental age of 17?
a. 147
b. 141
c. 70
d. 145

b

Based on IQ score information, a student with an IQ score of 120 is likely to
a. answer IQ test questions like someone who is age 12 even though the student is only 10.
b. answer IQ test questions like someone who is age 10 even though the student is only 8.
c. answer IQ test questions like someone who is age 10, even though the student is 12.
d. answer IQ test questions like someone who is age 12 even though the student is only 11.

a

Which of the following describes the main reason for using the deviation IQ formula instead of Stern’s MA/CA × 100 formula to represent IQ scores?
a. A 90-year-old would not likely be able to achieve an IQ of 100 using Stern’s formula.
b. The older you are, the higher your IQ score will be according to Stern’s formula.
c. Stern’s formula underpredicts IQ scores for those under 20 years old.
d. Stern’s formula is more difficult to calculate.

a

After being referred for testing, Angela scored 102 on an IQ test. Angela is now likely to
a. be given accommodations due to her low test scores.
b. be placed in a special education class.
c. be placed in a gifted and talented program.
d. be left with no special placement.

d

Which of the following individuals would Stern’s formula for calculating IQ provide the best estimate of intelligence?
a. 7- year old Lisa
b. 17-year old Raj
c. 24-year old Sienna
d. 45-year old Don

a

What is the critical flaw associated with Stern’s calculations of Intelligence Quotient?
a. IQ doesn’t represent multiple different types of intelligences.
b. Mental age levels off around the age of 16 years old and skews computations.
c. The calculation is only appropriate for examining IQ in adult populations.
d. IQ rapidly declines as adults get older, especially over the age of 65.

b

The deviation IQ refers to
a. dividing mental age by chronological age and multiplying by 100.
b. adding/subtracting mental age to chronological age and multiplying by 100.
c. an expression of each individual’s IQ relative to their same-aged peers.
d. an evaluation of the normative data that reflects typical IQ scores according to mental age.

c

Which of the following theorists would most likely disagree with the ideals of the eugenics movement?
a. Gardner
b. Goddard
c. Galton
d. Darwin

a

One of the first American psychologists to misuse intelligence tests by administering them as a qualification for immigration into the United States was
a. Gardner.
b. Spearman.
c. Sternberg.
d. Goddard.

d

A person who breeds and trains race horses is likely to
a. practise negative eugenics.
b. promote voluntary sterilization plans.
c. promote involuntary sterilization plans.
d. practise positive eugenics.

d

Sheldon is seeking a mating partner who is either at or above his own IQ of 147, as he feels that if he is going to invest in an offspring, the child must be highly intelligent. He is unwilling to consider individuals who have lower IQ scores because this may "taint" the gene pool. In this example, Sheldon is using principles of __________________ to guide his selection of an appropriate mate.
a. negative eugenics
b. sterilization plans
c. positive eugenics
d. genetic stockholding

c

The expressed purpose of the eugenics movement was to
a. improve a population’s genetic stock by implementing sterilization plans for those of low IQ to prevent them from breeding.
b. improve a population’s genetic stock by way of delivering increased educational training for those with high IQs.
c. improve a population’s genetic stock by way of delivering increased educational training for those with low IQs.
d. improve a population’s genetic stock by way of providing those with low IQ increased access to higher education.

a

In 1996 Alberta resident Leilani Muir was awarded almost $750,000 in damages after she sued the Alberta government for their order to ________ due to what they believed was feeble-mindedness.
a. sterilize her
b. deny her entry to junior college
c. deny her entry to university
d. terminate her from high-security government work

a

Concerning the historical misuses of IQ testing, which of the following is true?
a. Women tended to outscore men on IQ tests during the early 1900s.
b. Immigrants scoring low on IQ tests usually did so because of a lack of familiarity with the English language.
c. A majority of immigrants who were given IQ tests tended to score in the average to above-average range.
d. IQ tests given to immigrants in the early 1900s were valid measures of intelligence.

b

Sterilization laws in Alberta remained into the
a. 1970s.
b. 1950s.
c. 1960s.
d. 1940s.

a

Regarding the historical misuses of IQ testing in the United States, which is TRUE?
a. Most European immigrants were considered geniuses based on their IQ scores.
b. Most European immigrants scored in the average range of IQ scores.
c. Most European immigrants were considered mentally retarded based on their IQ scores.
d. Most European immigrants were intellectually deficient and scored low on IQ tests.

c

Which views would the eugenics movement have been most likely to support?
a. Using IQ testing as a way to pinpoint areas of weakness in the curriculum.
b. Using selective breeding as a way to create an intellectually superior race of people.
c. Creating IQ tests that are less culturally and racially biased.
d. Using IQ testing as a way to measure the quality of teaching and learning occurring in the schools.

b

During the 1920s in Canada, which of the following individuals would have been most likely to be accepted for immigration into Canada following IQ testing?
a. James, from Britain, who had an IQ of 91.
b. Sasha, from Russia, who had an IQ of 100.
c. Altan, from Turkey, who had an IQ of 92.
d. Renada, from Italy, who had an IQ of 83.

a

Which of the following is not one of the major scores yielded by the WAIS-IV?
a. Overall IQ score
b. Verbal comprehension
c. Mathematical-logical skill
d. Processing speed

c

The verbal scale of the WAIS-IV includes all of the following subtests except
a. arithmetic.
b. digit symbol.
c. information.
d. similarities.

b

Which of the following is not one of the subtests on the WAIS-IV?
a. Picture completion
b. Block design
c. Digit symbol
d. Word stem completion

d

Sonya is being administered the WAIS-IV, and is being assessed on her ability to perceive and analyze patterns in designs presented to her. She is most likely being tested on which of the following subtests?
a. Picture arrangement
b. Similarities
c. Block design
d. Picture completion

c

Which of the following subtests of the WAIS-IV assesses understanding of social situations and relationships?
a. Similarities
b. Picture arrangement
c. Comprehension
d. Object assembly

c

Two of the WAIS subscale scores consist of a ________ scale and a ________ scale.
a. verbal; math
b. verbal; reasoning
c. verbal; analytical
d. verbal; performance

d

Which test of intelligence is used for preschool children?
a. WIT-II
b. WAIS-IV
c. WISC-III
d. WPPSI-III

d

Jane is 22 years old. For her job, she needs to take an intelligence test. Which would be the most appropriate test for her age group?
a. WAIS-IV
b. WISC-III
c. WPPSI-R
d. DSM-IVR

a

One’s verbal IQ score on the WAIS primarily relates to which type of intelligence?
a. Emotional
b. Fluid
c. Multiple
d. Crystallized

d

Information, comprehension, digit span, and similarities are components of which test?
a. ACT
b. WAIS
c. SAT
d. Stanford-Binet

b

Sam and Julie each scored 110 on the WAIS. Based on their scores, which is true?
a. Two people with the same IQ score could have very different abilities.
b. If Sam scored high in comprehension, then Julie scored high in comprehension.
c. Two people with the same IQ score should have the same abilities.
d. If Sam scored high in math, then Julie scored high in math.

a

Brenda was asked to name four Canadian prime ministers as one of her questions on the WAIS. This question falls under the category of
a. comprehension.
b. vocabulary.
c. information.
d. similarities.

c

A question asking why people pay taxes would fall under which subscale area of the WAIS?
a. Evaluation
b. Information
c. Vocabulary
d. Comprehension

d

The subscale of the WAIS that most substantially assesses short-term memory is
a. similarities.
b. digit span.
c. arithmetic.
d. vocabulary.

b

Which of the following subscales of the WAIS is least likely to contain culturally biased items?
a. Comprehension
b. Vocabulary
c. Picture completion
d. Similarities

c

Sarah is being tested for dyslexia (a type of reading disability) after receiving substandard scores on the WAIS. Which subscale of the WAIS would provide the best information about Sarah’s reading disability?
a. Vocabulary
b. Similarities
c. Picture completion
d. Information

c

According to the WAIS, items requiring people to organize scrambled puzzle pieces into complete images would be ________ items.
a. picture completion
b. block design
c. picture arrangement
d. object assembly

d

Which of the following subscales of the WAIS is most likely to contain culturally biased items?
a. Digit span
b. Block design
c. Arithmetic
d. Comprehension

d

Which of the following items would most likely be found on a culture-fair IQ test?
a. General information items
b. Picture completion items
c. Sentence completion items
d. Vocabulary recognition items

b

Culture-fair tests attempt to measure
a. the intelligence of people coming from outside the culture in which the test was devised.
b. the intelligence of people coming from inside the culture in which the test was devised.
c. cultural background.
d. the effects of culture on people’s intellectual and creative skills.

a

Many items on a "culture-fair" test require the use of
a. nonverbal abilities such as rotating objects.
b. verbal knowledge.
c. musical knowledge.
d. knowledge of major world historical figures.

a

Which of the following is a desirable characteristic of culture-fair tests?
a. They should minimize or eliminate the use of language.
b. They should not attempt to measure intelligence.
c. They should be composed of items that vary from culture to culture.
d. They should measure values based on a person’s cultural background.

a

Research on intelligence testing across different cultures has indicated that if tasks (i.e., reproducing visual patterns) are conducted using a medium that is familiar within background culture of the test-taker, then
a. children from privileged countries continue to outperform disadvantaged children.
b. children from minority groups will outperform non-minority group children.
c. scores tend to be similar when tests are administered in a culture-specific manner.
d. overall IQ scores are still lower for non-native language children as they do not assess abstract reasoning.

c

Which of the following is the best-known culture-fair measure of intelligence?
a. Wechsler Intelligence Scale of Children
b. Raven’s Progressive Matrices
c. Stanford-Binet IQ Test
d. Scholastic Assessment Test

b

Standardized exams, such as the SAT or GRE, often don’t appear predictive of university or graduate school grades due to a phenomenon called _________________.
a. deviation IQ
b. restriction of range
c. metacognitive bias
d. the double curse of incompetence

b

If asked whether standardized tests predict grades, what would the authors of your text argue?
a. Yes, if we measure a full range of scores.
b. No, unless we measure a restricted range of scores.
c. Yes, if we only measure a restricted range of scores.
d. No, if we measure a full range of scores.

a

The correlation between the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and standardized measures of intelligence tends to be between _________.
a. .2 to .3
b. .4 to .5
c. .5 to .6
d. .7 to .8

d

Which of the following is likely to produce increased correlations between SAT scores and college GPA?
a. Admitting more students to college who have not taken the SAT
b. Admitting more high-SAT-scoring students to colleges
c. Admitting fewer low-SAT-scoring students to colleges
d. Admitting more low-SAT-scoring students to colleges

d

Psychological tests that yield relatively consistent results are said to be
a. valid.
b. reliable.
c. standardized.
d. normal.

b

On a newly developed IQ test, an individual scores at the 110 level on the first half of the test, and 150 on the second half of the test. What does this test appear to lack?
a. Reliability
b. Standardization
c. Predictive validity
d. Appropriate norms

a

A test is said to be reliable if
a. a person’s score on a test is pretty much the same every time he or she takes it.
b. it contains an adequate sample of the skills it is supposed to measure.
c. its results agree with a more direct measure of what the test is designed to predict.
d. it is culture-fair.

a

Ben received a score of 125 on the WAIS and is taking it again in three weeks. What should we expect about Ben’s upcoming test score?
a. Ben should score lower on the second administration because it is hard to replicate such a high score.
b. Ben should score slightly higher on the second administration due to increased motivation.
c. Ben should score nearly the same on the second administration of the test.
d. Ben should score slightly higher on the second administration due to item familiarity.

c

Regarding the stability of IQ test scores throughout the lifespan, which is generally assumed to be true?
a. IQ scores in infancy are strongly correlated with IQ scores in adulthood.
b. IQ scores in infancy are not strongly correlated with IQ scores in adulthood.
c. IQ scores in infancy are negatively correlated with IQ scores in adulthood.
d. IQ scores obtained in infancy are relatively stable over time.

b

IQ tests for children tend to measure ________ while adult IQ tests tend to measure ________.
a. logical reasoning; abstract reasoning
b. sensory skills; abstract reasoning
c. memory skills; abstract reasoning
d. comprehension; abstract reasoning

b

The correlation of IQ measured at 6 months old with adult IQ is about
a. .00.
b. .20.
c. .45.
d. .70.

a

Which of the following measures of infant intelligence has been found somewhat reliable in predicting later IQ scores?
a. Verbal learning
b. Picture completion
c. Speed of habituation
d. Block design

c

Tyrell is applying for a job at a law office after finishing his law degree, and Abigail has applied for a job at the local meat packing plant in her home town after being away at university for many years. What should the employers consider most when trying to predict job performance?
a. IQ is highly predictive of job performance, independent of the occupation.
b. Both employers should pay attention to the interview as it will demonstrate interpersonal intelligence.
c. The meat packing plant should evaluate IQ and interview equally as being predictive of job success.
d. The law office should pay more attention to the candidate’s IQ score relative to the meat packing plant.

d

A test that is classified as a "valid" measure is one that
a. allows for comparison across groups of people.
b. produces both repeatable scores and measures what it is intended to measure.
c. produces repeatable scores over time.
d. measures what it is intended to measure.

d

Which of the following examples describes a test that has low validity?
a. A teacher uses a multiple choice test to measure public speaking ability.
b. A teacher uses a presentation grade to measure public speaking ability.
c. A teacher administers a test twice and finds that students’ scores are not correlated.
d. A teacher administers a test twice and finds that students’ scores are correlated.

a

Which of the following may generally be assumed to be true about reliability and validity?
a. A test can be valid but unreliable.
b. A test can be reliable but invalid.
c. A reliable test must be valid.
d. A test cannot be unreliable and invalid.

b

Research has demonstrated that above a certain high level of IQ, intelligence is no longer predictive of important real-world accomplishments. Psychologists call this ______________.
a. the threshold effect
b. a negatively skewed distribution
c. deviation IQ
d. a restriction of range

a

If you track the frequency by which popcorn kernels pop, few kernels pop early or late; most pop around the same time. This frequency chart is a good example of a ________ frequency graph.
a. flat
b. positively skewed
c. negatively skewed
d. normal bell

d

If you track the frequency of watch chimes in a crowded classroom, most watches will chime at the top of the hour, fewer will chime either slightly early or late, and fewer still will chime especially early or late. This frequency chart is a good example of a ________ frequency graph.
a. flat
b. positively skewed
c. negatively skewed
d. normal bell

d

What is the range of IQ scores that fall in the middle of the distribution, encompassing 95 percent of all people?
a. 100-125
b. 90-120
c. 80-140
d. 70-130

d

Which of the following is not one of the diagnostic criteria for intellectual disability?
a. Onset prior to adulthood
b. Evidence of brain damage
c. IQ below approximately 70
d. Inadequate adaptive functioning

b

The _________ severe the intellectual disability, the __________ likely it is to run in families.
a. more; more
b. less; more
c. more; less
d. less; less

c

Which of the following relationships exist between intelligence and a subset of individuals with Down Syndrome called mosaics?
a. Mosaics have severely impaired IQs relative to the mild retardation seen in non-mosaic Down syndrome patients.
b. Mosaics have relatively normal IQs relative to other Down syndrome patients.
c. IQ tests for non-mosaic Down Syndrome patients are more accurate and have greater validity in representing an IQ score.
d. There is no difference in IQ between mosaic and non-mosaic Down syndrome patients.

b

Regarding bell curve assumptions, which of the following is true?
a. About 5% of the population will achieve an IQ test score above 150.
b. About 15% of the population will achieve an IQ test score above 150.
c. About 2% of the population will achieve an IQ test score above 150.
d. About 10% of the population will achieve an IQ test score above 150.

c

Most standardized tests of intelligence have a distribution of scores that
a. follows the normal curve.
b. has a positive skew.
c. has a negative skew.
d. appears bimodal with two peaks of high frequency.

c

Approximately what percentage of IQ scores fall between 70 and 130?
a. 50
b. 65
c. 95
d. 99

c

Which of the following is true concerning IQ correlations?
a. There is a positive correlation between IQ scores and poor health habits.
b. There is a negative correlation between IQ scores and delinquency levels.
c. There is a negative correlation between IQ scores and job performance.
d. There is a positive correlation between IQ scores and delinquency levels.

b

An IQ in the range of ________ may lead to a classification of intellectual disability.
a. 73-78
b. 79-84
c. 67-72
d. 85-89

c

Which of these is an element of the formal definition of intellectual disability?
a. Inadequate adaptive functioning
b. Evidence of brain damage
c. Slower than normal reflexes
d. Onset of deficits prior to age 6

a

Which of these is an element of the formal definition of intellectual disability?
a. IQ below 70
b. evidence of brain damage
c. slower than normal reflexes
d. onset of deficits prior to age 6

a

Mild forms of intellectual disability are typically due to
a. rare genetic mutations.
b. psychological and emotional factors.
c. genetic and environmental influences.
d. accidents during birth.

c

Severe forms of intellectual disability are typically due to
a. a lack of proper socialization.
b. psychological and emotional factors.
c. genetic and environmental influences.
d. rare genetic mutations or accidents during birth.

d

Which category of severity affects approximately 85 percent of those diagnosed with an intellectual disability?
a. Mild
b. Moderate
c. Severe
d. Profound

a

A male has a thin, frail-looking area on his X chromosome of the 23rd pair. This is known as
a. fragile X syndrome.
b. Down syndrome.
c. fetal alcohol syndrome.
d. familial disability.

a

Which of these women has the highest chance of giving birth to a child with Down Syndrome?
a. 14 year old Christine
b. 23 year old Jillian
c. 36 year old Nadia
d. 49 year old Lauren

d

Although those with high IQs are found across professional fields, which professional group tends to obtain the highest average IQs?
a. Electricians
b. Law enforcement officers
c. Social workers
d. Professors

d

What percentage of the population is described as gifted, according to IQ standards, and would qualify for membership in an organization called Mensa?
a. .01 percent
b. 1 percent
c. 2 percent
d. 10 percent

c

Which of the following statements about gifted people is true?
a. They are more likely to suffer from mental illnesses.
b. They are physically weaker than non-gifted persons.
c. They are often skilled leaders.
d. They are socially unskilled.

c

Beliefs that being gifted or a genius lead to being weird, socially awkward, or more likely to suffer from mental illnesses were put to rest by
a. Binet’s development of the concept of IQ.
b. the development of the WAIS tests by Wechsler.
c. the Army Alpha tests study.
d. Terman’s longitudinal study of over 1500 gifted children.

d

Which was not a finding of the Terman and Oden (1974) study of gifted kids?
a. They were socially well adjusted.
b. They were more resistant to mental illness.
c. They were clearly much more likely to be females.
d. They were more likely to attend graduate school.

c

The term Terman’s "Termites" refers to
a. a set of developmentally delayed students that Terman studied intensively.
b. a group of Army soldiers who on the basis of their IQ were followed through their military career.
c. a sample of gifted children who were studied and followed into adulthood.
d. none of these.

c

What did Terman’s groundbreaking study of gifted children accomplish?
a. It put to rest the myths that existed about genius in the early part of the twentieth century.
b. It proved that gifted children and adults are more prone to mental illnesses or odd behaviour than other groups.
c. It contradicted the idea that child prodigies "burn out" in adulthood.
d. It demonstrated genius is the only factor that influences real success in life.

c

Which of the following statements is true about Terman’s longitudinal study of gifted children?
a. The same children were followed over the length of their life span, and some are still being followed today.
b. Gifted people of different ages were all studied at once and their personal values compared.
c. The gifted were found to be socially awkward and had little social success in life.
d. None of these

a

Having a high IQ doesn’t always guarantee success. In fact, exceptional career success in music or sports is best predicted by ____________.
a. being goal oriented
b. practice
c. genetics
d. giftedness classifications

b

One might criticize the study of Terman’s termites because it
a. might have been biased by the principal’s recommendations in the selection of the gifted children.
b. did not include students from diverse ethnic and racial backgrounds.
c. Terman may have actively intervened in the lives of his subjects.
d. All of these are reasonable criticisms of the study.

d

The first true longitudinal study of the effects of giftedness on social success was conducted by
a. Weschler.
b. Spearman.
c. Terman.
d. Gardiner.

c

Research involving family and adoption studies have demonstrated that
a. siblings reared together and cousins reared together have similar IQ correlations.
b. the correlations between the IQ scores of cousins reared together are very strong.
c. the correlations between the IQ scores of cousins reared together are negative.
d. the higher the percentage of shared genes between people, the higher their IQ correlations will be.

d

Which of the following is representative of Sir Francis Galton’s perspective on the causes of IQ?
a. Galton believed that intelligence was a trait that changed significantly over time.
b. Galton believed that intelligence was determined 50% by environment and 50% by genes.
c. Galton was an environmentalist and believed that social factors significantly influenced IQ.
d. Galton was a hereditarian and believed that genes significantly influenced IQ.

d

Which of the following is true concerning "twin study" research findings?
a. Fraternal twins have more similar IQ scores than identical twins.
b. Identical twins and fraternal twins share similarly high IQ correlations.
c. Identical twins have more similar IQ scores than fraternal twins.
d. Identical twins raised together have less similar scores than identical twins raised apart.

c

If intelligence is determined primarily by heredity, which pair should show the highest correlation between IQ scores?
a. Fraternal twins
b. Identical twins
c. Brothers and sisters
d. Parents and children

b

Which of the following correlations of intelligence level would provide evidence for an environmental influence on intelligence?
a. Brothers and sisters who have high intelligence
b. Children and their parents who all have low intelligence
c. Adopted children and their adoptive parents who have high intelligence
d. Adopted children and their biological parents who have low intelligence

c

Which of the following individuals is likely to have an IQ that is most closely related to Darrell?
a. Darrell’s neighbour Dave
b. Darrell’s cousin Sarah
c. Darrell’s sister Debra
d. Darrell’s cousin Derreck

c

Twin studies have found that while certain aspects of intelligence appear to have a genetic basis, ________ intelligence has been explained better by environmental factors.
a. performance
b. verbal
c. interpersonal
d. practical

b

One potential confound in adoption studies is _______, wherein adoption agencies frequently place children in homes similar to those of their biological parents.
a. adoptive precedent
b. adoptive mandate
c. selective placement
d. restrictive placement

c

Regarding IQ similarities between parents and adopted children, which findings are most common?
a. Biological parents do not tend to have much influence on their children’s IQs.
b. Over time, the IQs of adopted children are more similar to their adoptive parents than their biological parents.
c. Over time, the IQs of adopted children are more similar to their biological parents than their adoptive parents.
d. Adoptive parents do not tend to have much influence on their children’s IQs.

c

A group of psychologists reviews the literature on the heritability of intelligence. They conclude that most of the estimates indicate that about _______ percent of intelligence is due to genetics.
a. 20
b. 30
c. 50
d. 80

c

Which of the following groups of children is most likely to have the most similar IQ scores?
a. Identical twins reared apart
b. Same-sex fraternal twins
c. Siblings reared together
d. Identical twins reared together

d

Which of the following reduces the value of twin studies as evidence for the role of heredity in determining IQ?
a. Children tend to be adopted by people who are fairly similar to their natural parents.
b. There have been so many studies of pairs of identical twins who were separated at birth that the results are unclear.
c. Identical twins do not share the same prenatal environment.
d. Identical twins who were not reared together usually have very different IQ scores.

a

Which of the following statements about heredity and intelligence is true?
a. Similarities in intelligence between identical twins who were separated at birth and raised in different houses must be due to heredity.
b. Differences in intelligence between identical twins must be due to differences in their environments.
c. If identical twins are separated at birth and raised in different homes, yet still have similar intelligence scores, the similarity in their scores must be due to hereditary influences.
d. Prenatal influences have little, if any, influence on intelligence and need not be taken into account when studying environmental influences.

c

When we consider intelligence, it is important to remember that although _______ sets limits on a child’s potential, it is the _______ that permits that potential to be actualized.
a. learning; opportunity
b. opportunity; learning
c. heredity; environment
d. environment; heredity

c

Identical twins have IQ correlations around .7, whereas fraternal twins have IQ correlations of about .3. What do these correlations suggest?
a. Identical twins have very similar IQs while fraternal twins do not.
b. Neither identical twins or fraternal twins have very similar IQs.
c. Fraternal twins have very similar IQs while identical twins do not.
d. Both identical twins and fraternal twins have similar IQs.

a

What is a major possible confound in adoption studies that could limit their conclusions?
a. Children who are adopted may have other psychological disturbances that influence IQ.
b. Adoptive children may have experienced lacking environments depending on time in foster care.
c. Adopted children may have more enriched environments than their biological counterparts.
d. Adoption agencies frequently place children in homes similar to those of the biological parents.

d

Which is true regarding correlational research that focuses on family size and IQ?
a. Children from larger families report higher IQs than children from smaller families.
b. Children from smaller families report higher IQs than children from larger families.
c. Positive correlations between family size and IQ have mainly been found.
d. The IQ correlations of children from large families are similar to the IQ correlations of children from small families.

b

Which of the following examples would be associated with the lowest IQ based on research concerning birth order and intelligence?
a. Jon, the third oldest of 5 siblings.
b. Martin, the youngest of 3 siblings.
c. Sam, the oldest of 4 siblings.
d. Carl, the youngest of 4 siblings.

a

Which statement reflects Arthur Jensen’s views concerning IQ and preschool enrichment programs?
a. Preschool enrichment programs are likely to negatively affect children’s IQ scores.
b. Preschool enrichment programs can significantly boost children’s IQ scores.

c. Exceptional teaching strategies can boost children’s IQ scores.
d. Preschool enrichment programs cannot appreciably boost children’s IQ scores.

d

What can be accurately said about the relationship between schooling and intelligence?
a. Educated people have more neural connections than less-educated people.
b. Only children with high IQ scores enjoy and flourish in schools.
c. Success in school involves more practical and creative intelligence.
d. The duration of schooling is unrelated to IQ scores.

a

Children identified as "bloomers" in their classrooms may show elevated IQs not because of their own intelligence but because of
a. demand characteristics.
b. confirmation bias.
c. experimenter expectancy effects.
d. the Flynn effect.

c

Rosenthal’s "rapid bloomers" study demonstrated that
a. students with high achievement motivation tended to outperform students with low achievement motivation.
b. students who believed they were less intelligent performed worse than students believing that they were more intelligent.
c. students who believed they were smart, outperformed those who did not believe that they were smart.
d. higher teacher expectations of students led to higher academic performance.

d

Which of the following conclusions about the effects of breast-feeding on IQ is accurate?
a. Breast-feeding increases IQ due to better nutritional health and advanced myelinization.
b. Breast-feeding may increase IQ not due to health effects but the influence of a social bond between mother and infant.
c. There is no difference between breast-feeding or bottle-feeding as both provide the necessary nutrition for brain development.
d. While there appears to be a positive relation, there are too many confounds that prevent causal conclusions.

d

The "Flynn effect" refers to
a. the finding that IQ scores have steadily decreased over the last decade.
b. the finding that IQ scores have stayed the same over the last decade.
c. the finding that IQ scores are negatively correlated with education levels.
d. the finding that IQ scores have steadily increased over the last decade.

d

Research into the Flynn effect has been studied in several countries, with the longest span of time since 1942 reported in
a. Belgium.
b. Norway.
c. the United States.
d. Britain.

d

Which of the following is not one of the explanations for the Flynn effect?
a. Increased complexity of the modern world
b. Poorer nutrition
c. Changes at home and school
d. Increased test sophistication

b

According to the Flynn effect, if the average IQ in 2010 is 105, what will the average IQ be in 2050?
a. 109
b. 113
c. 117
d. 125

c

General findings concerning gender differences and IQ scores reveal that
a. women tend to score higher on verbal tasks than men.
b. women tend to score higher on geographical tasks than men.
c. women tend to score higher on advanced math reasoning tasks than do men.
d. women tend to score higher on spatial ability tasks than men.

a

Ivie and Ray’s (1990) study tracked female graduates in various academic disciplines over 35 years. Each of the disciplines increased over that time, except one that increased sharply, and then decreased. Which discipline is that?
a. Computer science
b. Engineering
c. Mathematics
d. Physics

a

It was originally believed that women were worse drivers than men, but people failed to consider certain confounds. Results now show that men get into _______ accidents compared to women.
a. 70% more
b. 40% more
c. 70% fewer
d. 40% fewer

a

Which of the following statements most accurately represents the relationship between sex differences and IQ?
a. Women score, on average, 3 to 5 points higher on IQ tests than men.
b. Men score, on average, 3 to 5 points higher on IQ tests than women.
c. There are few, if any, differences in IQ scores between men and women.
d. While mean total scores may be similar across the sexes, men have more variability in their IQ scores

d

What hormone may be linked to variations in verbal ability?
a. Testosterone
b. Progesterone
c. Estrogen
d. Vasopressin

c

While women do better than men on _________________, men tend to outperform women on _______________.
a. emotion recognition; verbal tasks
b. abstract reasoning; logical reasoning
c. biological tasks; mathematical tasks
d. verbal tasks; mental rotation tasks

d

Which of the following statements reflects the correct match between gender and enhanced specific mental ability?
a. A male performing arithmetic calculations
b. Male distinguishing the type of emotion on people’s faces
c. A female repeating a tongue twister over and over again
d. A female deriving a mathematical proof in geometry

c

Which of the following statements about racial differences in IQ is false?
a. The variability within any given race tends to be much smaller than the variability between races.
b. Differences among races may be narrowing over the decades.
c. Racial differences are largely or entirely environmental in origin.
d. When matched for socioeconomic, demographic and health variables, there are no racial differences.

a

A psychologist who studies the extent to which differences between men and women on IQ scores are heritable is using a ___________ approach.
a. between-group heritability
b. within-group heritability
c. deviation IQ
d. cumulative deficit

a

A psychologist who studies the extent to which a trait, such as IQ, is heritable among a group of women is using a ___________ approach.
a. between-group heritability
b. within-group heritability
c. deviation IQ
d. cumulative deficit

b

_______ refers to when a test that predicts outcomes, such as grades or occupational success, better in one group than in another.
a. Deviation IQ
b. Confirmation bias
c. Test bias
d. Interrater reliability

c

Which of the following is an example of "stereotype threat"?
a. Julie becomes anxious when told that women perform worse than men on standardized math tests and even though she is a gifted mathematician, she performs below average on the SAT math section.
b. Julie becomes anxious when told that women perform worse than men on standardized math tests, but she uses this as incentive to earn a high score on the SAT math section.
c. Julie is told that women perform worse than men on standardized math tests, but her preparation for the test allows her to earn a high score on the SAT math section.
d. Julie is told that women perform worse than men on standardized math tests, but she ignores this information and earns a high score on the SAT math section.

a

The extent to which the variability of a trait among groups is genetically influenced is referred to as
a. between-group heritability.
b. among-group heritability.
c. cross-group heritability.
d. within-group heritability.

a

Goleman would argue that ____________ intelligence exerts a more powerful influence on effective functioning in the world than IQ alone.
a. analytical
b. creative
c. emotional
d. practical

c

Creativity has been linked to what mental disorder?
a. Schizophrenia
b. Depression
c. Bipolar disorder
d. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

c

Finding the single best way to complete a video-game level without losing any lives would be related to what type of creative thinking?
a. Divergent thinking
b. Emotional intelligence
c. Convergent thinking
d. Critical thinking

c

Finding multiple different ways to successfully complete a video-game level without losing any lives would be related to what type of creative thinking?
a. Divergent thinking
b. Emotional intelligence
c. Convergent thinking
d. Critical thinking

a

Scroll to Top