Psychology chapter 8-9

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The____ theory of aging points to outside influences such as stress, physical exertion, and bodily damage.
a.free-radical
b.wear and tear
c.activity
d.cellular clock

b.wear and tear

Most parent/teen conflicts
a.concern very serious behavior
b.are over trivial issues such as hair, clothing, and taste in music
c.concern moral issues
d.are over important issues such as school and family responsibilities

b.are over trivial issues such as hair, clothing, and taste in music

Children raised with an authoritarian style of parenting are often
a.selfish and immature
b.insecure and resentful
c.outgoing and secure
d.unpopular with peers

b.insecure and resentful

Early in life, infants will demonstrate their personalities through their
a.temperaments
b.telegraphic speech
c.assimiliation
d.attachment

a.temperaments

The ___ are not fully developed at birth
a.cones
b.eardrums
c.taste buds
d.rods

a.cones

During Piaget’s pre operational stage, the child is unable to see the world through anyone else’s eyes but his or her own. This limitation is
a.animism
b.centration
c.egocentrism
d.irreversibility

c.egocentrism

When adolescents move into Piaget’s final stage of formal operations, what becomes possible?
a.conventional thinking
b.introspection
c.emotional maturity
d.abstract thinking

d.abstract thinking

harlow’s study examined the importance of
a.food
b.contact comfort
c.attachment styles
d.responsive caregiver

b.contact comfort

One theory suggests that the effects of aging are produced by oxygen molecules with unstable electrons bounding around and damaging structures inside our cells. This is called______theory.
a.wear and tear
b.free radical
c.cellular clock
d.activity

b.free radical

By five months, most babies can
a.sit up without support
b.say about 10 words
c.crawl
d.roll over

d.roll over

____ is a disorder in which there is an extra chromosome in what would normally be the 21st pair.
a.sickle cell anemia
b.down syndrome
c.cystic fibrosis
d.tay sachs disorder

b.down syndrom

The abstract thinking that occurs during Piaget’s formal operations stage becomes possible in adolescence due to
a.the onset of puberty
b.final development of the frontal lobes of the brain
c.changes in the secondary sex characteristics
d.the development of ones personal fable

b.final development of the frontal lobes of the brain

Games like peek a boo and hid and seek are important for infents because they help babies develop
a.accommodation
b.schemes
c.assimilation
d.a sense of object permanence

d.a sense of object permanence

The functioning, but not the structure, of the central nervous system is vulnerable throughout the _____ period.
a.fetal
b.embryonic
c.germinal
d.critical

a.fetal

The ______ design has the advantage of looking at real age related changes as those changes occur in the same individual
a.longitudinal
b.cross-sectional
c.latitudinal
d.cross sequential

a.longitudinal

Kubler Ross theorized that people go through ____ stages of reaction when faced with death.
a.three
b.six
c.seven
d.five

d.five

_______, which may be used to grow new organs or tissues for transplant or to repair neurological damage, develop during the germinal period
a.red blood cells
b.skin cells
c.heart cells
d.stem cells

d.stem cells

the egg is also called the
a.fetus
b.embryo
c.ovum
d.zygote

c.ovum

men
a.often lose all reproductive ability
b.do not experience anything like menopause
c.have the same amounts of testosterone throughout their lives
d.go through a time of sexual changes similar to but less dramatic than menopause

d.go through a time of sexual changes similar to but less dramatic than menopause

Although many people begin to ______ in their forties, the loss often does not become noticeable until the sixties or seventies
a.experience a decline in vision
b.lose hearing
c.lose their sense of smell
d.lose muscle mass

b.lose hearing

Conservation refers to the
a.inability to see the world through anyone else’s eyes
b.ability to understand that altering the appearance of something does not change its nature
c.inability of a your child to mentally reverse and action
d.inability to deal effectively with abstract concepts

b.ability to understand that altering the appearance of something does not change its nature

The number one cause of death in middle age is
a.stroke
b.heart disease
c.accidental death
d.cancer

b.heart disease

According to Erikson, the psychosocial crisis that adolescents must face is that of
a.identity versus role confusion
b.ego integrity versus despair
c.generativity versus stagnation
d.intimacy versus isolation

a.identity versus role confusion

Dizygotic twins
a.result when one fertilized egg splits
b.each possess the same set of 46 chromosomes
c.come form two fertilized eggs
d.result when the mass of cells does not completely split apart

c.come from two fertilized eggs

In cellular clock theory, telomeres_____, which ultimately causes aging.
a.get too long
b.are too short
c.die
d. mulitiply

b.are too short

A child who says, "Juice!" to mean, "I want some juice!" is using
a. holophrase.
b.assimilation.
c.telegraphic speech.
d.child-directed speech.

a.holophrase

Abby and Brittany Hensel
a.are fraternal twins.
b.share a heart, a stomach, and a pair of lungs.
c.are conjoined twins.
d.plan to eventually be separated.

c.are conjoined twins

In a cellular- clock theory, telomeres______,which ultimately causes aging.
a.die
b.get too long
c.are too short
d.multiply

c.are too short

With respect to Kolhlberg’s theory of the development of morality,
a.the theory has been criticized as being more female-oriented.
b.the study used more females than males.
c.Kohlberg proposed people of various ages respond to four levels of right and wrong behavior.
d.about 20 percent of the adult population reach the postconventional morality stage.

d.about 20 percent of the adult population reach the post conventional morality stage

The search for ________ is the central theme in adolescent social and personality development.
a.morality
b.personal identity
c.spirituality
d.acceptance

b.personal identity

___ is a teratogen that may cause blindness.
a.caffeine
b.rubella
c.radiation
d.marijuana

b.rubella

The generativity versus stagnation developmental crisis occurs during the ________ stage.
a.adolescence
b.early adulthood
c.middle adulthood
d.late adulthood

c.middle adulthood

babies born before 38 weeks are called
a.dizgotic
b.fetuses
c.critical
d.preterm

d.preterm

The "master gland"
a.refers to the pituitary gland.
b.stimulates the growth of body hair.
c.stimulates the menstrual cycle in girls.
d.increases the rate of growth.

a.refers to the pituitary gland

Genes are located on
a.amines
b.chromosomes
c.autosomes
d.DNA

b.chromosomes

The most likely time for a miscarriage is in the
a.sixth month.
b.eighth month.
c.first three months.
d.38th week.

c.first three months

________ occurs when there is an extra sex chromosome in the 23rd pair.
a.Down syndrome
b.Klinefelter’s syndrome
c.Turner’s syndrome
d.Fragile X syndrome

b.klinefelter’s syndrome

Vygotsky emphasized the importance of social interactions as a primary factor in cognitive development, whereas ________ stressed the importance of the child’s interactions with objects.
a.Piaget
b.Ainsworth
c.Harlow
d.Erikson

a.piaget

maginary audience refers to ________ in adolescence.
a.extreme self-consciousness
b.the personal fable
c.feelings of being special
d.deliberate acts of defiance

a.extreme self consciousness

Moro reflex is another name for the _______ reflex.
a.rooting
b.startle
c.sucking
d.stepping

b.startle

Conjoined twins Abby and Brittany Hensel cannot be separated because they share a
a.pair of lungs.
b.heart.
c.stomach.
d.lower body.

d.lower body

Three-year-old Kara loves Barbie dolls, so she decides to give one to her mother for Christmas. This is
a.centration.
b.egocentrism.
c.irreversibility.
d.animism.

b.egocentrism

________ are structures on the ends of chromosomes that shorten each time a cell reproduces.
a.Telomeres
b.Free radicals
c.Teratogens
d.Scaffoldings

a.telomeres

Erikson believed those who are ________ are unable to focus outward and are still dealing with issues of intimacy.
a.stagnated
b.confused
c.isolated
d.in despair

a.stagnated

During critical periods
a.the mass of cells does not completely split apart.
b.various kinds of cells that make up the human body develop.
c.a beating heart develops.
d.environmental influences can have an impact on a developing infant.

d.environmental influences can have an impact on a developing infant

The cessation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle is called
a.andropause.
b.menopause.
c.perimenopause.
d.climacteric.

b.meopause

During andropause,
a.there is a decline of testosterone.
b.males tend to lose all reproductive ability.
c.the uterus begins to get smaller in size.
d.ovulation ceases.

a.there is a decline of testosterone

the ________ begins to form during the germinal period.
a.heart
b.fetus
c.nose
d.placenta

d.placenta

A trait such as strawberry blonde hair may be explained by the inheritance of the recessive gene for blonde hair and the recessive gene for red hair, or _________ inheritance.
a.recessive
b.chromosome
c.natural
d.polygenic

d.polygenic

The theory in which the physiological reaction and the emotion are assumed to occur at the same time is the ________ theory of emotion.
a.Lazarus’s cognitive meditational
b.James-Lange
c.Cannon-Bard
d.Common sense

c.Cannon-Bard

According to Maslow, peak experiences are
a.times in a person’s life during which the need for love and belonging are fulfilled.
b.the movement up and down the hierarchy.
c.times in a person’s life during which self-actualization is temporarily achieved.
d.the fulfillment of the basic psychological needs.

c.times in a persons life during which self actualization is temporarily achieved

According to the Yerkes-Dodson law, how is performance related to arousal during difficult tasks?
a.Performance is best with any level of arousal, depending on the personality.
b.Performance is best when arousal is high-moderate.
c.Performance is best when arousal is low-moderate.
d.Performance is best when arousal is moderate.

c.performance is best when arousal is low moderate

Obesity is a condition in which the body weight of a person is _____ percent or more over the ideal body weight for that person’s height.
a.5-10
b.80-90
c.20-30
d.50-60

c.20-30

A psychological tension and physical arousal present when there is a need that motivates the organism to act in order to fulfill the need and reduce the tension is a(n)
a.stimulus.
b.need.
c.instinct.
d.drive.

d.drive

What is the hormone that the new, low-carbohydrate diets are trying to control to prevent hunger cravings that commonly occur after consuming highly refined carbohydrates?
a.glucose
b.insulin
c.glucagon
d.leptin

b.insulin

Which area of the brain is associated with fear?
a.left frontal lobe
b.right frontal lobe
c.amygdala
d.lateral prefrontal cortex

c.amygala

The instinct approach
a.says that instincts occur in animals only.
b.categorizes human behavior into five basic instincts.
c.has faded in importance because it only describes human behavior instead of explaining it.
d.is the most recent theory/approach to motivation.

c.has faded in importance because it only describes human behavior instead of explaining it

When a person experiences an emotion, what is one way the body may react physically?
a.increased leptin in the bloodstream
b.hunger
c.increased heart rate
d.numbness in the fingers

c.increased heart rate

Dan is a rock climber who constantly seeks bigger challenges. His dream is to scale Mount Everest. Zuckerman would classify Dan as a(n)
a.sensation seeker.
b.peak experience seeker.
c.arousal seeker
d.synergy seeker.

a.sensation seeker

A criticism of Maslow’s hierarchy is that it was developed using only Americans. In which country’s culture would security needs be much stronger than self-actualization needs?
a.Norway
b.Japan
c.Sweden
d.Switzerland

b.Japan

Which of the following is NOT one of the levels on Clayton Alderfer’s revised version of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs?
a.growth needs
b.security needs
c.relatedness needs
d.existence needs

b.security needs

Which of the following is NOT true of a sensation seeker?
a.Sensation seekers often are drawn to be friends with people who are unpredictable.
b.Sensation seekers need more varied sensory experiences than others.
c.Sensation seekers need more arousal than others.
d.Sensation seekers always need arousal in the form of danger.

d.Sensation seekers always need arousal in the form of danger.

Which of the following would be the behavior of a person who has a need for power?
a.Jay is in a middle management role within his company. Whenever he has a task to complete with his team, he dominates the group and demands that his ideas be used. He dreams of being the CEO of the company one day.
b.Phil is training for his fifth ironman competition because he wasn’t happy with his final time in the ironman competitions he previously completed.
c.Alex is a straight-A student and she has just moved with her family to a new school. She has a a group project in English class, she and has noticed many errors in the groups’ paper, but she doesn’t mention them to her group because she wants to make friends and doesn’t want to hurt their feelings.
d.Nicky constantly worries about whether she will be invited to her friends’ gatherings and is always on the phone or texting friends when she has free time.

a.Jay is in a middle management role within his company. Whenever he has a task to complete with his team, he dominates the group and demands that his ideas be used. He dreams of being the CEO of the company one day.

In Schachter and Singer’s classic study of emotion, male student volunteers were injected with epinephrine, a drug that
a.causes the same kind of physiological arousal that occurs during a strong emotional reaction.
b.causes people to feel angry then happy.
c.causes people to feel angry.
d.has a calming effect after a strong emotion passes.

a.causes the same kind of physiological arousal that occurs during a strong emotional reaction.

A study showed that Japanese students associated the subjective emotion of happiness with feelings of friendliness and social engagement. The study demonstrated an aspect of processing emotion in a(n) _______________ culture.
a.individualistic
b.collectivistic
c.tribal
d.universal

b.collectivistic

Which of the following does NOT play a role in determining the body’s weight set point?
a.exercise
b.the basal metabolic rate
c.metabolism
d.the size of the stomach

d.the size of the stomach

According to Ryan and Deci, a person’s intrinsic motivation may be increased because of a combined sense of
a.existence and growth.
b.competence and autonomy.
c.autonomy and relatedness.
d.growth and competence.

b.competence and autonomy

Chris is in his twenties and has completed college; he has satisfied his curiosity about other cultures with a trip around the world when he graduated. According to Maslow’s hierarchy, which needs might he work to satisfy next?
a.Aesthetic needs
b.Esteem needs
c.Safety needs
d.Transcendence needs

a.Aesthetic needs

Which of the following is NOT an example of the Yerkes-Dodson law?
a.A student who has severe test anxiety may fail a test because arousal is too high.
b.A student’s high performance in the classroom is based on parents and teachers giving the correct form of praise.
c.A student who is bored in class may fail a test because arousal is too low.
d.A student who normally talks to friends one-on-one quite comfortably, experiences stage fright when giving a speech to the class.

b.A student’s high performance in the classroom is based on parents and teachers giving the correct form of praise.

At the end of Josie’s yoga class, she does 5 minutes of meditation, making her feel happy and relaxed. What area of her brain is she likely engaging?
a.lateral prefrontal cortex
b.left frontal lobe
c.right frontal lobe
d.amygdala

b.left frontal lobe

According to Dweck’s research, which of the following is a method parents and teachers can use to improve a child’s motivation to achieve?
a.A teacher should praise a student’s effort in the learning process by saying, "That was a very clever way to think about this problem."
b.A parent should praise a child by saying, "Your’re right, how smart you are."
c.Parents can pay the child a certain amount of money for a report card with straight A’s.
d.Teachers should praise a student for always having the right answer when raising a hand to answer a question

a.A teacher should praise a student’s effort in the learning process by saying, "That was a very clever way to think about this problem."

Which part of the brain is associated with emotion?
a.cerebellum
b.cerebral cortex
c.amygdala
d.hypothalamus

c.amygdala

A(n) __________ is a requirement of some material, such as food or water, that is essential for survival of the organism.
a.instinct
b.need
c.primary drive
d.drive

b.need

People driven by the need for _____ have a strong desire to attain both realistic goals, and very challenging ones.
a.power
b.achievement
c.acquisition
d.affiliation

b.achievement

The yerkes-Dodson law states that
a.performance is related to arousal;moderate levels of arousal lead to better performance
b.performance is related to arousal and a high level of arousal is always better
c.there are three types of needs,achievement,prestige, and power
d.there are three types of needs, achievement, power, and affiliation

a.performance is related to arousal;moderate levels of arousal lead to better performance

As people age, what happens to the bodes BMR and weight set point?
a.BMR and weight set point both decrease
b.BMR deceases, weight set point increases
c.BMR and weight set point both increase
d.BMR increases, weight set point decreases

b.BMR decreases, weight set point increases

Joni recently quit smoking. She constantly wants to chew gum or have something in her mouth. This is an example of an
a.instinct
b.need
c.primary drive
d.acquired drive

d.acquired drive

Which of the following is NOT ALWAYS a factor that causes hunger?
a.the lateral hypothalamus senses high insulin levels
b.an empty stomach
c.the release of glucagon
d.the release of insulin

b.an empty stomach

Katie was tired and missed her boyfriend.she had to go to work at the museum, where she had to smile and greet people at the entrance. After a while, katie felt happier. this is explained by which theory of emotion?
a.Lazaruss cognitive meditational theory
b.common sense theory
c.facial feedback theory
d.cannon-Bard theory

c.facial feedback theory

Curiosity,exploration, and playing are all examples of
a.stimulus motive
b.extrinsic motivation
c.arousal theory
d.performance motive

a.stimulus motive

A study showed that japanese students associated the subjective emotion of happiness with feelings of friendliness and social engagement. the study demonstrated an aspect of processing emotion in an _______culture.
a.tribal
b.indivdualistic
c.collectivistic
d.universal

d.universal

A psychological tension and physical arousal present when there is a need that motivates the organism to act in order to fulfill the need and reduce the tension is an
a.drive
b.instinct
c.need
d.stimulus

a.drive

Phil is a sales representative at a company that offers many incentives to employees including bonuses and free trips to employees for good performance. Phil is the highest-performing rep in the company and has won the trip every year for 4 years. Phil is probably motivated
a.by a need that leads to drive reduction
b.extrinsically
c.by a need for affiliation

b.extrinsically

According to Dweck’s research on achievement motivation, why might a student who has a history of bad grades be most at risk for developing learned helplessness?
a.the student had previously earned praise from parents and teachers based on effort rather than grades
b.the student may become depresses as a result of the shame from failure
c.the student may become depressed because of the belief that intelligence is fixed, unchangeable, and out of his or her control.
d.the student may feel as if the failure is attributed to a loss of internal locus of control and give up

c.the student may become depressed because of the belief that intelligence is fixed, unchangeable and out of his or her control

A child may see a dog and say "Cat!" because both have fur. when corrected, the child may change her scheme for cat to "furry" and pointy ears. this is
a.conservation
b.assimiliation
c.accommodation
d.irreversibility

c.accommodation

A study compares a group of 20 year olds and a group of 40 years olds. each group is revisited five years later. this is a ____ design
a.longitudinal
b.cross sequential
c.cross sectional
d.cross longitudinal

b.cross sequential

the functioning but not the structure of the central nervous system is vulnerable throughout the
a.critical
b.fetal
c.germinal
d.embryonic

b.fetal

During critical periods

environmental influences can have an impact on a developing infant

one disadvantage of the longitudinal design is

the lengthy amount of time involved

_____are rod shaped structures found in the nucleus of each cell

chromosomes

genes that tend to fade into the background when paired with a more dominant gene are called

recessive

authoritarian parenting

has a tendency to use physical punishment

wake fields study linking to mar vaccine to autism

has since been discredited

_____babies tend to be irregular in the schedules and are very unhappy about change of any kind

difficult

at birth infants show a preference for ______tases

b.sweet

Physical changes in young adulthood

are relatively minimal

When calving mother left him with the babysitter, calvin said mommy go. this is an example of

telegraphic memory

genes that actively control the expression of a trait are referred to as

dominant

near the end of ________, oil glands in the neck and around the eyes begin tho malfunction, contributing to wrinkles in those areas

twenties

according to LeDouxs research its possible that people with emotional disorders may be processing stimuli mainly through the _____route, resulting in difficulty or inability to control emotions or to override fears .

subcortical

The first person to theorize that emotions are a product of evolution and are, therefore, universal was

Darwin

According to Maslow, peak experiences are

times in a persons life during which self actualization is temporarily achieved

Which area of the brain has been associated with sadness, anxiety and depression?

right frontal lobe

While walking down the street, preeti sees a large, snarling dog standing on the sidewalk. she immediately appraises the situation as dangerous, experiences fear, and becomes aroused. Preetis response to the dog is best explained by

lazarus cognitive mediational theory

many arousal theorists believe that a _______ level of arousal is optimal for most people under normal circumstances

moderate

______ is the theory of motivation in which behavior is explained as a response to the external stimulus and its rewarding properties

incentive approach

Insulin and glucagon are hormones secreted by the ______ to control the levels of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins in the whole body

pancreas

According to the james lange theory of emotion, a physiological response to a stimulus is caused by the arousal of the

sympathetic nervous system

Which of the following is an example of behavior from a person who is a sensation seeker?

On a beautiful day dylan impulsively decides to skip school and go hiking

Accoriding to the research dr.joseph LeDoux emotional stimuli travel to the brain through both a fast crude subcortical low road and through a slower high road for processing by the

prefrontal cortex

Im skaking because I’m afraid is explained by the _______ theory of emotion

common sense

luke goes for a three mile run, causing him to sweat and become thirsty. in response to this need, luke drinks a bottle of water. when he rinks he restores his bodys

homeostasis

The approach to understanding motivation that is based solely on the belief in the need for stimulation is the ________ approach

arousal

_________is a type of motivation in which a person performs an action because the act itself is rewarding or satisfying in some internal matter

intrinsic motivation

The role of the ventromedial hypothalamus is to

stop the eating response when glucose levels go up

In his theories of development piaget focused on

the childs internal cognitive development

In eriksons______ stage toddlers realize that they can direct their own behavior

autonomy versus shame and doubt

Adolescence is

concerned with how a parson deals with life issues such as work family relationships

Which one of the following is an example of Vygotskys concept of scaffolding?

Little jennys mother works one on one with her on a new task but gradually helps less and less and jenny becomes more skilled and capable

A child who criticies his parent for speeding because speeding is against the law is demonstrating_____ morality

conventional

_______ parents seem to be too involved with their children

permissive indulgent

_____ is the final completion of the go

integrity

Genes that tend to fade into the background when paired with a more dominant gene are called

recessive

During andropause

there is a decline of testosterone

_____ infants, when their mothers are nearby are wary but calm around strangers

securely attached

With respect to vision, newborns

have clear vision to about 7 to 10 inches

During the ______ period of prenatal development major organs and structures of the organism develop

embryonic

Infants hearing is functional

before birth

Which area of the brain has been associated with sadness, anxiety and depression

right frontal lobe

Which of the following is NOT an element of emotion

anticipation of what another human being may feel

adam wants to feel happier. according to the facial feedback hypothesis what should adam do

smile more

In a social situation, an american may display anger outwardly by shouting or banging on a table but a japanese person may not show anger outwardly at all and will remain calm. this is an example of

display rules

the hormone leptin has been linked to obesity. what is its role in the hunger process

when released in the bloodstream, leptin signals the hypothalamus that the body has had enough foo and is salted

Luke goes for a three mile run, causing him to sweat and become thirsty. in response to this need luke drinks a bottle of water. when he drinks he restores his bodys

homeostatsis

Which of the following is NOT one of the levels of Clayton Alderfers revision of Maslows hierarchy?

Autonomy needs

Which structure or organ is thought to be responsible for stopping the eating response when glucose levels go up?

ventromedial hypothalamus

The physical arousal of emotion is created by the

sympathetic nervous system

What is the lowest, or most basic, level on mallows hierarchy of needs

physicolgical needs

Accoriding to Carol Dwecks research people who believe that their lives are controlled by others more powerful than them or who believe in luck or fate are considered to have

external locus of control

The need to be able to master the challenging taks of ones life is the need for

competence

Im shaking because I’m afraid is explained by the _______ theory of emotion

common sense

Which of the following are the levels of clayton alderfers revised hierarchy?

Existence needs relatedness needs and growth needs

In extrinisic motivation a person is motivated

to work for an outcome that is separate or external from themself

_______ proposed a total of 18 inches that drive human behavior

William Mcdougall

Which of the following is NOT an example of extrinsic motivation

hunger

Which of the following is one of the seven universally recognized facial expressions of emotion?
a.uncertainty
b.disgust
c.confusion
d.pride

b.disgust

Which of the following is an example of a social component of hunger

a girl feels lonely so she eats an extra helping of dessert to cheer herself up

Which structure or organ is thought to be responsible for stopping the eating response when glucose levels go up?

ventromedial hypothalamus

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