Psychology Chapter 8

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Longitudinal

In a ________ design, one group of people is followed and assessed at different times as the group ages.

Cohort Effect

The cognitive and social changes students go through because they are born and grow up in an age of smartphones would be referred to as a(n)?

Each of her parents must have one recessive gene for blond hair.

Brandy has naturally blond hair. Based on this information, what do we know about Brandy’s parents?

Polygenetic Inheritance

When a set of genes group together, the result can be multiple traits expressed as a single dominant trait. This is best explained by the process known as?

Cystic Fibrosis

Which of the following is a disorder resulting from recessive inheritance?

Turner’s Syndrome

Which disorder is characterized by having only one X chromosome in the 23rd pairing?

They are dicephalic twins.

Which term best describes Abby and Brittany Hensel?

It provides nourishment to the developing baby.

What is the function of the placenta?

Embryonic

The 2nd week through the 8th week of pregnancy is commonly referred to as the ________ stage.

Alcohol

Which of the following is one of the most common teratogens and can result in a malformed head and brain damage?

In the first three months

When do most miscarriages occur?

Habituation

One way researchers study newborn development involves measuring how long infants continue to focus upon a non-changing stimulus. This technique is referred to as?

Touch

Which of baby’s senses is the most well developed at birth?

Concrete Operations

In which of Piaget’s stages would a child be who has just developed the ability to conserve?

Scaffolding

Vygotsky defines ______ as the process of helping less as the learner improves at a given task.

Cooing

Which of the following tends to occur first in a child’s language development?

Throughout adulthood; heredity

According to Thomas and Chess, temperament styles often last _______ and are often influenced by ________.

Ambivalent

What kind of attachment, according to Ainsworth, is shown by a baby who clings to his or her mother, gets upset when the mother leaves, and demands to be picked up but at the same time kicks and pushes her away?

Physical Contact

Studies by Harry Harlow showed that the most important element to developing attachment is?

Awareness of herself

Baby Lisa is beginning to learn more about herself. When she sees herself in a mirror, she smiles and laughs but no longer needs to touch the mirror or look behind it to find the baby that she sees. Researchers would say that baby Lisa is developing?

Autonomy versus shame and doubt

According to Erikson, which stage results in a sense of independence because of one’s ability to control their own actions?

A secondary sex characteristic

Changes in the body of young boys such as the appearance and growth of body hair is considered?

A personal fable

"It can’t happen to me. I’m special" is a common attitude found in adolescents who have developed?

Postconventional

According to Kohlberg, about one-fifth of the adult population is at the ______ level of morality.

Find a consistent sense of self.

According to Erikson, the task of the adolescent is to?

His taste in clothes

If Colin is going to argue and disagree with his parents which of the following topics will he typically be arguing over?

20s

At which age does an adult’s physical senses begin to hit their peak?

Heart Disease

What is the most frequent cause of death in middle age?

Stress

As Conrad has gotten older, he finds that it is becoming more difficult to remember certain words or the name of a new acquaintance. What is the most likely explanation for this change in memory?

Finding a mate

According to Erikson, the primary task of early adulthood is?

Authoritarian

According to Baumrind, which type of parent would most likely say, "Because I said so" or "It’s my way or the highway!"

To develop a sense of ego integrity

As William celebrates his 70th birthday, he finds that he is happy with how things have turned out with his life. According to Erikson, William’s life review will cause him?

Telomeres

The structures on the ends of chromosomes that shorten each time a cell reproduces are called?

Cellular-clock theory

Which theory of aging is compared to the limited number of repairs you can have before your car’s warranty runs out?

They are not asked to take part.

According to research, the reason many older people are no longer involved in their community is because?

Denial

What stage might terminally ill patients be in if they refuse to write a last will and testament because they believe that in doing so, they are admitting they will die?

Cohort effect

The thinking and attitudes of many who survived the Depression of the 1930s changed them for the rest of their lives. This would be an example of a?

Recessive

If a person has one gene for blue eyes but actually has brown eyes, blue eyes must be a _____ trait.

Klinefelter’s

In _______ syndrome, the 23rd pair of chromosomes consists of an XXY pairing, resulting in reduced masculine characteristics and excessive height.

One egg is fertilized by one sperm and then splits.

Which of the following represents the fertilization process for monozygotic twins?

Stem Cells

What part of an infant’s body is said to stay in an immature state until needed to produce more cells?

Between 22 and 26 weeks

Based on today’s science and medicine, when does the age of viability begin?

Preferential Looking

Dr. Kahn measure how long baby Lydia looks at a particular stimulus. The technique is known as?

2 months

At what age can the typical infant roll over?

Unused synaptic connections and nerve cells are cleared out to make way for new cells.

Studies of the infant brain show signs of what scientists call synaptic pruning. What occurs during this process?

Concrete operations

In which of Piaget’s stages does the child become capable of understanding conversation?

Holophrase

Monique says "milk" when she wants milk from the kitchen counter. Subsequently, she says "milk" after she has had a drink. Using a single phrase to mean different things is an example of?

If all the other children in a school are immunized, there is really no harm in not immunizing one’s own child.

Which of the following is a myth regarding immunizations?

Secure

In the Strange Situation, ________ babies would cry when their mother left the room but were happy upon her return.

Such behavior may be due to the incomplete development of the prefrontal cortex.

What is new explanation as to why teenagers and young adults may engage in risky and dangerous behavior?

The imaginary audience

Samantha enters a classroom where two students are talking. When they stop their discussion, Samantha is certain they must have been talking about he. Such a belief is an example of?

Changes in memory begin to occur

What cognitive changes occurring during middle adulthood are the most noticeable?

Authoritative

Independence and self-reliance in the teenage years is the most likely due to ______ parenting.

Integrity versus despair

The crisis of late adulthood, according to Erikson, is?

Free-radical theory

Which theory of aging states that unstable oxygen molecules tend to steal electrons as they bounce around, thus causing damage to surrounding cells?

Anger is a normal reaction to death and not a sign of mental illness.

Kip is worried that he is losing his mind because he finds himself angry at a friend who died in an automobile accident. Based on Kubler-Ross’s research, what might you tell him?

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