Psychology Chapter 7

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B. mental processes

Cognitive psychology is the study of _____. A. motivation and emotion B. mental processes C. abnormal functioning D. social relationships

C. telepathy

Cognitive psychology studies all of the following except _____. A. problem solving B. reasoning C. telepathy D. decision making

A. hardware/software

When using the computer as an analogy to explain the relationship between cognition and the brain, the brain is described as the computer’s _____ and cognition is described as its _____. A. hardware/software B. software/hardware C. hardware/hard drive D. software/RAM

A. Computer information input is pre-coded and ambiguities are removed before processing.

Why are computers considered to be an oversimplified model of the mind’s processing of information? A. Computer information input is pre-coded and ambiguities are removed before processing. B. Computer information is far too complex for such a comparison to be accurate. C. Computer information is too mathematically based for such a comparison to be accurate. D. Computers are currently unable to perform tasks better than humans.

A. developing new learning goals

Your roommate argues that computers can perform several complex tasks better and more accurately than humans. You counter her argument with the mention of _____, a task that only humans can perform. A. developing new learning goals B. prescribing medical treatments C. evaluating loan applications D. diagnosing medical illnesses

B. Concepts

_____ are mental categories used to group objects, events, and characteristics. A. Algorithms B. Concepts C. Semantics D. Heuristics

C. concept

Basketball, football, baseball, and soccer all fit into the _____ of sports. A. heuristic B. morphemes C. concept D. algorithm

Which of the following is true of concepts? A. Concepts prevent us from generalizing. B. Concepts are independent of experiences and objects. C. Concepts complicate the memory process. D. Concepts provide clues about how to react to a particular object or experience.

A. the prototype model

According to _____, when people evaluate whether a particular object reflects a certain concept, they compare the most typical item(s) in that category and look for a "family resemblance" with that item’s properties. A. the prototype model B. the availability heuristic C. Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence D. Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences

B. Concepts/problem solving

_____ may help us to generalize, whereas _____ may help us accomplish a goal. A. Problem solving/concepts B. Concepts/problem solving C. Algorithms/artificial intelligence (AI) D. Artificial intelligence (AI)/algorithms

B. Find and frame problems

Which of the following is the first step in the problem-solving process? A. Evaluate solutions B. Find and frame problems C. Develop good problem-solving strategies D. Rethink and redefine problems and solutions over time

A. are vague and/or ill defined

In everyday situations, finding and framing problems can be difficult because many real-life problems _____. A. are vague and/or ill defined B. suggest obvious operations C. provide clear definitions D. are beyond the average person’s ability to solve

D. finding and framing the problem

According to the textbook, _____ is the first step in the problem-solving process. A. developing good problem-solving strategies B. evaluating solutions C. rethinking and redefining problems and solutions over time D. finding and framing the problem

A. being aware of and open to experiences

Recognizing problems involves _____. A. being aware of and open to experiences B. functional fixedness C. artificial intelligence D. using heuristics

B. You would break the topics to be studied into smaller areas and focus on each in an organized sequence.

You have to study four chapters of information for your next test. If you decide to use the problem-solving strategy of subgoaling, you would do which of the following? A. You would cram the night before the test. B. You would break the topics to be studied into smaller areas and focus on each in an organized sequence. C. You would decide who should be your study partner. D. You would study the learning objectives for each chapter instead of reading the chapters.

A. subgoaling

You have to cook dinner for 30 people on Saturday. Your apartment is a mess and you have nothing to wear. You decide to do your laundry Thursday night, buy the groceries on Friday, clean the apartment Saturday morning, and cook the dinner Saturday evening. Preparing for the dinner party in this way is an example of _____. A. subgoaling B. using algorithms C. using heuristics D. prototype

D. work backward in your planning; first creating a subgoal that is closest to the final goal, and then work backward to the subgoal that is closest to the beginning of the problem-solving effort

The good strategy for subgoaling is to _____. A. work forward in your planning, first creating a subgoal closest to the start and finally creating a subgoal close to the final goal B. not create more than two subgoals C. not create fewer than ten subgoals D. work backward in your planning; first creating a subgoal that is closest to the final goal, and then work backward to the subgoal that is closest to the beginning of the problem-solving effort

B. algorithm

A(n) _____ is a strategy that guarantees a solution to a problem. A. subgoal B. algorithm C. heuristic D. fixation

C. algorithm

Claudia is trying to cook her mother’s famous lasagna. She carefully follows her mother’s recipe to ensure that the dish turns out correctly. Claudia is using a(n) _____. A. heuristic B. subgoal C. algorithm D. category

Heuristics and algorithms differ in terms of their _____. A. speed of processing B. information processing capacity C. creativity D. scope

D. Solutions may take a long time.

What is the primary disadvantage of using algorithms? A. They only work for large problems. B. They are very similar to trial-and-error. C. Correct solutions are not guaranteed. D. Solutions may take a long time.

A. Speed and efficiency

When comparing algorithms and heuristics, what is the advantage of using heuristics for solving real-life problems? A. Speed and efficiency B. Mental set C. Accuracy D. Precision

C. Evaluation of solutions

Developing a criterion for determining the effectiveness of the solution occurs during which step of the problem-solving process? A. Finding and framing the problem. B. Developing problem-solving strategies C. Evaluation of solutions D. Redefining problems over time

B. Humility

_____ is a characteristic of good problem solvers. A. Pessimism B. Humility C. Egocentrism D. Self awareness

A. overcome functional fixedness

Monique routinely uses a shredder to shred her junk mail into confetti-sized pieces of paper, which she then just throws away. When packing her glassware to move into a new apartment, she runs out of protective styrofoam packing material. Suddenly Monique gets the idea to empty her shredder and use the shredded junk mail confetti for packing material. Monique has _____. A. overcome functional fixedness B. used a heuristic to solve her packing problem C. used an algorithm to solve her packing problem D. used subgoaling to obtain the appropriate packing materials

A. "think outside the box" in order to succeed in college

Carla is a first-semester freshman at State University. She succeeded in high school by cramming for exams and relying on parental pressure to get homework done. Now, however, she is finding that these strategies are no longer viable ways to succeed. According to the text, Carla should _____. A. "think outside the box" in order to succeed in college B. move back home with her parents and commute to college C. drop out of college D. should indulge in fixations

C. inductive reasoning

People often form general rules and concepts based on specific experiences and examples. This type of reasoning is known as _____. A. deductive reasoning B. subgoaling C. inductive reasoning D. problem spacing

A. inductive reasoning

Bertha met two students from another school at a convention. She enjoyed their company a great deal and was very impressed with how nice they were. Bertha now believes that all of the students from that school must also be nice and is considering transferring there. Bertha is using _____. A. inductive reasoning B. deductive reasoning C. critical thinking D. descriptive reasoning

A. inductive reasoning

Psychological research involves studying a sample of participants in order to draw conclusions about the population from which the sample is drawn. This is an example of _____. A. inductive reasoning B. deductive reasoning C. algorithms D. artificial intelligence

B. deductive reasoning

Carlos believes that all of the people from another part of his town are snobs. He believes that the students from this area are rich and drive expensive sports cars to school. He is scheduled to perform with a few of these students in an all-county musical presentation. If he assumes that these particular students will also be rich and snobby, he is using _____. A. inductive reasoning B. deductive reasoning C. critical thinking D. artificial intelligence

B. Deductive reasoning

_____ involves reasoning from a general case that we know to be true to a specific instance. A. Inductive reasoning B. Deductive reasoning C. Algorithms D. Heuristics

A. Reasoning/decision making

_____ uses established rules to draw conclusions, whereas in _____, such rules are not established, and we may not know the consequences of the decisions. A. Reasoning/decision making B. Heuristics/algorithms C. Creativity/reasoning D. Heuristics/reasoning

B. confirmation bias

The tendency to search for and use information that supports our ideas rather than refutes them is known as _____. A. hindsight bias B. confirmation bias C. intervention bias D. selection bias

D. She will look for negative behaviors on the part of the supervisor.

Cathy just got transferred to a new department, but she has long believed that her new supervisor is a cranky, disagreeable, critical person. According to the confirmation bias, what will Cathy most likely do on her first day in the new supervisor’s department? A. She will forget about the things she has thought about her new supervisor. B. She will look for positive behaviors on the part of her supervisor. C. She will tell the new supervisor what she has thought. D. She will look for negative behaviors on the part of the supervisor.

B. She will read the editorials that she agrees with, but not the ones that she disagrees with.

Maria is extremely active in politics. She has strong conservative beliefs about what is correct and what is not. Each day when she reads the newspaper, she pays close attention to the editorial section in particular. According to the confirmation bias, what will she do when she reads them? A. She will read both the editorials that she agrees with and those that she doesn’t to get a balanced view of issues. B. She will read the editorials that she agrees with, but not the ones that she disagrees with. C. She will read the editorials that she disagrees with to get an idea of what the other perspectives on issues may be. D. She will not read any of the editorials.

A. Hindsight bias

_____ is the tendency to report falsely, after the fact, that we accurately predicted an outcome. It is sometimes referred to as the "I knew it all along effect." A. Hindsight bias B. Confirmation bias C. Selection bias D. Intervention bias

B. hindsight bias

Every week during football season, Fred and his friends have fun following the local high school teams. Before the games, Fred never really talks too much about how the games will turn out. On Monday, however, it is a different scenario altogether. Fred is more than happy to share with his friends that the games came out exactly as he thought they would and why. Fred seems to be demonstrating _____. A. overconfidence bias B. hindsight bias C. selection bias D. deductive reasoning

D. timing bias

If you spend the day imagining the outcome of the upcoming football game, and then a friend asks you what your favorite sport is and you say "football" even though before today basketball was actually your favorite, you have used and/or experienced _____. A. confirmation bias B. the availability heuristic C. hindsight bias D. timing bias

C. availability heuristic

The fact that we hear about airplane crashes on the news more often than we hear about automobile crashes may lead us to believe that we are more likely to die in a plane than a car. This is an example of a(n) _____. A. attention bias B. simulation heuristic C. availability heuristic D. representativeness heuristic

D. base rate fallacy

The tendency to ignore information about general principles in favor of very specific but vivid information is known as _____. A. Bonferroni inequalities B. false discovery rate C. Boole’s inequality D. base rate fallacy

D. The representativeness heuristic

_____ is the tendency to make judgments about group membership based on physical appearances or the match between a person and one’s stereotype of a group rather than on available base rate information. A. Hindsight bias B. Confirmation bias C. The availability heuristic D. The representativeness heuristic

Which of the following characteristics is essential to the process of critical thinking? A. Mindfulness and open-mindedness B. Fixedness and divergent thinking C. Heuristics and creativity D. Inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning

B. Humility

_____ is a characteristic of good critical thinkers. A. Pessimism B. Humility C. Egocentrism D. Rigidity

A. being alert and mentally present for one’s everyday activities

Mindfulness involves _____. A. being alert and mentally present for one’s everyday activities B. being receptive to other ways of looking at things C. having a strong ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways D. the tendency to ignore information about general principles

B. being receptive to other ways of looking at things

Open-mindedness involves _____. A. being alert and mentally present for one’s everyday activities B. being receptive to other ways of looking at things C. the tendency to ignore information about general principles in favor of very specific but vivid information D. the tendency to ignore information about general principles

B. Creativity

_____ involves the ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and to devise unconventional solutions to problems. A. An algorithm B. Creativity C. A heuristic D. Fixedness

C. Divergent thinking

_____ produces many solutions to the same problem. A. Deductive reasoning B. Convergent thinking C. Divergent thinking D. Inductive reasoning

B. divergent thinking

Lionel is a CEO of a company that is in financial crisis. He asks his employees to brainstorm and create a list of all possible solutions to keeping the company in business. Lionel is asking his employees to engage in _____. A. convergent thinking B. divergent thinking C. heuristic thinking D. functional fixedness

B. Convergent thinking

_____ produces the single best solution to a problem. A. Deductive reasoning B. Convergent thinking C. Divergent thinking D. Inductive reasoning

C. both convergent thinking and divergent thinking

Creative people engage in _____. A. divergent thinking but not in convergent thinking B. deductive thinking C. both convergent thinking and divergent thinking D. functional fixedness

B. divergent thinking

Brainstorming is an example of _____. A. convergent thinking B. divergent thinking C. deductive reasoning D. functional fixedness

B. Brainstorming

_____ occurs when a group of people openly throw out a range of possible solutions to a problem, even some that might seem crazy. A. Lateral thinking B. Brainstorming C. Semantic networking D. Mind mapping

Jessica has been searching for a new apartment. She has looked at several different possibilities and now must select which apartment best suits her needs. Choosing which apartment is best is an example of _____. A. convergent thinking B. divergent thinking C. inductive reasoning D. functional fixedness

B. Creative thinkers are flexible and play with problems

Which of the following is true of individuals who think creatively? A. Creative people make fewer mistakes than their less imaginative counterparts. B. Creative thinkers are flexible and play with problems. C. Creative thinkers tend to be more inspired than less creative people by grades, money, or favorable feedback from others. D. Creative thinkers feel that being wrong is a failure.

C. They strive to evaluate their work subjectively.

Which of the following is true of creative thinkers? A. They may use established criteria to make judgments. B. They make fewer mistakes than their less imaginative counterparts. C. They strive to evaluate their work subjectively. D. They are motivated more externally than internally.

C. think creatively

Flexibility, inner motivation, willingness to face risk, and objective evaluation of work are characteristics of people who _____. A. use algorithms B. prefer to use convergent thinking rather than divergent thinking C. think creatively D. are mindful

B. an all-purpose ability to do well on cognitive tasks, to solve problems, and to learn from experience

In the U.S., intelligence is defined as _____. A. a trait that is shaped entirely by genetics B. an all-purpose ability to do well on cognitive tasks, to solve problems, and to learn from experience C. the ability to know what to do and follow through with appropriate action, under most circumstances D. the ability to participate responsibly in family and social life

B. criterion validity

When the scores on a measure relate to important outcomes, we say the test has high _____. A. reliability B. criterion validity C. standardization D. distribution

A. reliable; valid

If an intelligence test produces the same score over multiple administrations but it doesn’t accurately measure intelligence, then the test is _____ but not _____. A. reliable; valid B. valid; reliable C. inductive; deductive D. divergent; convergent

C. reliability

A high school football coach decides to use the time taken to run up 100 stairs as a test for running endurance. He tests every team member on 3 consecutive days and finds that the times for each person are very much the same on all three trials. His test for endurance appears to have good _____. A. validity B. generalization C. reliability D. standardization

D. involves developing uniform procedures for administering and scoring a test, as well as creating norms, or performance standards, for the test

Standardization _____. A. refers to the ability to yield a consistent result to what it is intended to measure B. refers to the extent to which a test measures what it is intended to measure C. is the extent to which a test yields a consistent, reproducible measure of performance D. involves developing uniform procedures for administering and scoring a test, as well as creating norms, or performance standards, for the test

B. Mental age

_____ is an individual’s level of mental development relative to that of others. A. Chronological age B. Mental age C. Psychological quotient D. Cerebral quotient

A. the child’s IQ is above average

If a child’s mental age is higher than her chronological age, this means that _____. A. the child’s IQ is above average B. the child’s IQ is average C. the child’s IQ is lower than average D. a mistake has occurred

B. 100

A 6-year-old child with a mental age of 6 would have an IQ of _____. A. 90 B. 100 C. 110 D. 60

B. 75

A child with a mental age of 9 and a chronological age of 12 has an IQ of _____. A. 120 B. 75 C. 100 D. 90

B. culturally biased

Dr. Ambrose is administering an intelligence test, and one question asks, "During what month of the year does the NCAA basketball championship games start?" Students from various groups within the U.S., as well as students from countries outside of the United States may have problems with this question because it is probably _____. A. not valid B. culturally biased C. unreliable D. generalized

C. What is the name of the main character in the Wizard of Oz?

You have been asked to review a set of test items that are being considered for a standardized intelligence test. The test constructors want to eliminate all items that contain any possible culture bias. With this task in mind, which of the following questions would you eliminate first? A. In what ways are boats and trains the same? B. What would you wear if it were very cold outside? C. What is the name of the main character in the Wizard of Oz? D. What is the color of the sun?

C. Heritability

_____ is the proportion of observable differences in a group that can be explained by differences in the genes of the group’s members. A. Familiarity B. Accountability C. Heritability D. Cognizance

C. 50

It has commonly been reported that the heritability of intelligence is approximately _____ percent. A. 10 B. 25 C. 50 D. 75

A. gifted

Malcom has an IQ of 140. He has skipped three grades and is a straight A student with superior verbal and mathematical talent. Psychologists would consider Malcom to be _____. A. gifted B. autistic C. socially maladjusted D. an introvert

D. 130 or higher

People who are gifted have an IQ of _____. A. 110-120 B. 90 C. 70 or lower D. 130 or higher

D. below 70

Intellectual disability (formerly called mental retardation) is a condition of limited mental ability in which an individual has an IQ of ____ and has difficulty adapting to everyday life. A. 150 B. 120 C. 90-100 D. below 70

Which of the following would not be a case of mental retardation? A. An adult who, after 30 years of normal intellectual functioning, is involved in an automobile accident and has suffered brain damage that has severely limited mental functioning B. An adult who was born with Down syndrome and lives in a group home because of cognitive deficits C. A 7-year-old child with an IQ of 40 who was born with brain damage and needs constant attention from caregivers D. A 12-year-old child with an IQ score of 55 who has grown up in a severely deprived environment and who struggles in school

_____ is caused by a genetic disorder. A. Organic intellectual disability B. Cultural-familial retardation C. Vitamin deficiency retardation D. Functional fixedness

B. cultural-familial retardation

Sophia is in the fifth grade and lives in one of the most impoverished areas in the state. She has a history of academic failure, although she is very sensitive to teacher expectations. Her teachers have noticed that she responds best when candy is offered as an incentive instead of verbal praise. Sophia’s IQ is 65. She is most likely a victim of _____. A. organic retardation B. cultural-familial retardation C. vitamin deficiency retardation D. profound mental retardation

B. analytical

The ability to analyze, judge, evaluate, compare, and contrast are characteristics of _____ intelligence. A. algorithmic B. analytical C. creative D. practical

C. creative

According to Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence, _____ intelligence involves the ability to design, invent, originate, and imagine. A. interpersonal B. analytical C. creative D. naturalist

D. practical

Hudson works in the product development department of a large toy company. His job is to take abstract theories of child development and implement them in functional ways so that they can be used to create a toy. According to Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence, Hudson would likely score high on a measure of _____ intelligence. A. spatial B. naturalist C. interpersonal D. practical

A. Sternberg’s triarchic theory/Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences

According to _____ there are three forms of intelligence, whereas according to _____ there are nine types of intelligences. A. Sternberg’s triarchic theory/Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences B. Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences/Sternberg’s triarchic theory C. Sternberg’s triarchic theory/artificial intelligence (AI) theory D. artificial intelligence (AI) theory/Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences

D. the ability to create unlimited numbers of meaningful sentences

Infinite generativity refers to _____. A. the ability to learn more than one language B. the ability to make unlimited decisions C. the ability to produce an unlimited number of rules D. the ability to create unlimited numbers of meaningful sentences

A. Phonology

_____ is a language’s sound system. A. Phonology B. Semantics C. Morphemes D. Syntax

D. Syntax

_____ refers to a language’s rules for combining words to form acceptable phrases and sentences. A. Phonology B. Semantics C. Morphemes D. Syntax

B. Morphology/semantics

_____ refers to a language’s rules for word formation, whereas _____ refer to the meaning of words and sentences. A. Phonology/semantics B. Morphology/semantics C. Semantics/pragmatics D. Pragmatics/phonology

C. syntax

If one were to translate "white house" to Spanish from English, it would be "casa blanca," or "house white." This demonstrates a difference in _____ between the two languages. A. phonology B. morphology C. syntax D. pragmatics

A. pragmatics

The useful character of language and the ability of language to communicate even more meaning than is said are known as _____. A. pragmatics B. semantics C. syntaxes D. morphemes

D. words merely reflect rather than cause the way we think

Critics of the work of Benjamin Whorf maintain that _____. A. linguistic predispositions are universal B. all cultures essentially share the same linguistic experiences C. language determines how we think about our world D. words merely reflect rather than cause the way we think

D. It is determined by the amount of reinforcement or the ability to hear.

Which of the following is true of babbling? A. Babbling begins at the age of about 2-3. B. Deaf babies are unable to babble. C. It is determined by biological readiness. D. It is determined by the amount of reinforcement or the ability to hear.

C. is influenced by the environment

The textbook describes a case study of a young girl named Genie who was isolated and severely abused. Because her parents never communicated with her in words, Genie lacked exposure to language during her early childhood years. Although she was able to make some language advances while in extensive rehabilitation, as an adult Genie still speaks in short mangled two- or three-word sentences. This case study suggests that language development _____. A. can occur rapidly in adulthood, despite childhood deficiencies B. is entirely shaped by biology and genetics C. is influenced by the environment D. ceases during adulthood

Most individuals develop a clear understanding of their language’s structure, as well as a large vocabulary, during _____. A. the prenatal period B. childhood C. early adulthood D. late adulthood

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