Psychology Chapter 6

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​In general, which type of memory task produces better retrieval?

recognition

​Which brain structure plays an important role in encoding fear and anger?

amygdala

______ is the system by which we retain information and bring it to mind.

Memory

The major role of genes in memory may be their ability to control

production of proteins

​In memory processes, the primacy effect refers to

superior memory for items at the beginning of a list.

Long-term potentiation involves _____.

a long-lasting increase in the strength of synaptic connections

​During the war in Iraq, Max saw his best friend killed during an enemy attack. Max felt that he was partially responsible for his friend’s death, and he has a great deal of guilt. Subsequently, Max has perfect recall of his war experience, except for his friend’s death. Max’s psychologically caused amnesia is referred to as

dissociative amnesia

What is the order of processing in memory?

encoding, storage, retrieval

The capacity of short-term memory was investigated by

Miller

​Phillip’s doctor has recommended that Phillip take his medication early in the mornings. Phillip is having trouble remembering to take his blood pressure medication in the mornings when he wakes up. Sometimes he doesn’t remember to take his medication all day, and thus misses a dose. One approach Phillip might take to improving his memory for this task is to _____.
a. ​devise a rhyme that reminds him to take the medication in
the morning
b. ​pay more attention to his daily activities
c. ​create an acronym to help him remember the medication
d. ​link this task to an external time-based cue, such as
having breakfast
e. ​develop a mental image that represents him taking the
medication

d. ​link this task to an external time-based cue, such as having breakfast

The process of converting unstable, short-term memories into lasting, stable memories is called

consolidation

​Flashbulb memories are __________ other long-term memories.

more vivid and about the same level of accuracy as

​Which of the following psychologists is a leading expert on eyewitness testimony?
a. ​Loftus
b. ​Baddeley
c. ​Lashley
d. ​Miller
e. ​Kandel

a. ​Loftus

Procedural long-term memory might best be described as

knowing how

Maintenance rehearsal is

consciously repeating information over and over again.

In memory encoding, mental picture is to _____ as meaning is to _____.

visual; semantic

In sensory memory, auditory stimuli are to _____ memory as visual stimuli are to ______ memory.

echoic; iconic

In most cases, long-repressed memories of childhood abuse come to light during

hypnosis or psychotherapy.

Which theory of forgetting suggests that forgetting is the result of a failure to access stored memories?
a. ​retrieval theory
b. ​three-stage theory
c. ​interference theory
d. ​constructionist theory
e. ​decay theory

a. ​retrieval theory

Herman counts the number of times it takes to rehearse a list of nonsense syllables in order to memorize it. Then he counts the number of times it takes to relearn the list after a month has passed. Herman then calculates the difference between the number of times and determines the percentage gain he made between the two efforts at memorization. Herman uses this figure as a measure of memory retention. Which technique is Herman using?

Savings method

​Advances in genetic engineering show that it is possible to

enhance learning and memory ability in nonhuman organisms

An organized knowledge structure reflecting one’s past experiences and future expectations is called a

memory schema.

In anterograde amnesia ____.

​there is an inability to form new long-term memories

Procedural memory is to ______ as declarative memory is to ______.

knowing how; knowing that

The serial position effect occurs when people

remember the first and last things in a list the best.

Sleep is important for which memory process?

Consolidation of short-term memories into long-term memories

When asked to report his social security number Ian says, "999-99-1111." Ian has taken the larger 9-digit number and broken it down into smaller pieces, which makes it easier to recall. This is best explained by the concept of

chunking

Pedro has suffered a head injury that causes him to have no memory of the events preceding the injury. He is suffering from

retrograde amnesia.

Jessica is participating in an experiment on memory. She has been asked to memorize a long list of word pairs. Once she has mastered the list, she will be asked a series of questions about which words were paired with each other. This is an example of a _____ test of memory.

paired-associates recall

In her yoga teacher training, Reissa uses "Roy G. Biv" to memorize the colors associated with the seven chakras. Which memory technique is Reissa utilizing?

acronym

______ occurs when eyewitnesses are given incorrect data during the retention interval of memory.

​The misinformation effect

The idea that memory gradually disintegrates over time is the basis of

decay theory

The conversion of short-term memory into long-term declarative memory most likely involves the

hippocampus

Proactive inference occurs when

older memories interfere with newer memories.

Your memory for general world information (e.g., state capitals, U.S. presidents) is stored in

semantic memory

The Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve suggests that forgetting

occurs quickly at first, and then slows down.

​The best memory usually results from which type of encoding?

semantic

Dr. Ohno conducts research on retrospective memory. Which type of memory will Ohno’s research participants be recalling?

Past experiences or events and previously acquired information

Experts suggest that college students distribute their study sessions throughout the semester rather than preparing for exams by cramming. This means that college students should use which approach to memorization?

spaced practice

A memory storage system that contains memory of impressions for a very brief time (a few seconds or less) is called

sensory memory

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