Psychology Chapter 13 Quiz

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An individual’s relatively stable and enduring pattern of thoughts, feelings, and actions is known as his or her _____.

Personality

A relatively stable and consistent characteristic that can be used to describe someone is known as a(n) _____.

Trait

Cattell and Eysenck both used the statistical technique called _____ to determine a cluster of personality traits they believe are universally shared.

Factor analysis

The trait theory that explains personality in terms of openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism is called the _____.

Five-Factor model

Which of the following is the CORRECT list of traits in the Five-Factor model?

Openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, neuroticism (OCEAN)

is defined as a person’s overall evaluation of his or her self-worth.

Self-esteem

Researchers have found a link between high self-esteem and _______.

Increased aggression

A major premise underlying psychoanalytic or psychodynamic theories of personality is that _____.

Unconscious forces have an enormous impact on our behavior, such as feelings, thoughts & actions

According to Freud, the thoughts and information that you are currently aware of, or remembering, is called your _____.

Conscious

The thoughts and motives that lie beyond a person’s normal awareness are found in what Freud calls the _____.

Unconscious

Harmony just learned that her brother is gay, and wants him to know that she cares about him. She compliments him before he leaves for school by saying, "I really like your skirt…I mean shirt." This could be an example of _____.

A Freudian slip

According to Freud, the three mental structures that form personality are the _______.

Id, ego, and superego

The _____ is concerned with immediate gratification and the avoidance of discomfort.

Id

The rational part of the psyche that deals with reality and tries to meet the needs of the other two mental structures is called the _____.

Ego

When a child learns the rules and values of parents and society, and incorporates them into his own psyche, that child has developed his _____.

Superego

. "I’m going to take this candy because I want it NOW!" said the _____. "But, stealing is wrong," said the _____. "Let’s ask mom if she’ll advance our allowance so we can buy it today," said the _____.

Id; superego; ego

Defense mechanisms are strategies employed by the to reduce anxiety and avoid conflict.

Ego

The first and most basic defense mechanism, which blocks unacceptable impulses from coming into awareness, is called _____.

Repression

You would rather have fun with your new dating partner than study for your math exam. You know you will do poorly on the exam if you don’t study, but tell yourself that having fun will help you relax for the exam. This is an example of the defense mechanism called _____.

Rationalization

Pedro was just diagnosed with testicular cancer. Rather than deal with his feelings about this, he searches the Internet for information, academically discusses the disorder with his family and friends, and endlessly debates the pros and cons of treatment with his doctor. This is an example of the defense mechanism called _____.

Intellectualization

Fixation at this psychosexual stage of development would, according to Freud, lead to either a very neat person or one who is messy and disorderly.

Anal

According to Freud, each stage of development is characterized by a conflict between the id and the _____. If unresolved, Freud believed a person would become _____.

Social demands; fixated

According to Freud, if an individual’s needs were _____ during a particular stage of development, that person would remain stuck at that stage.

Overindulged or not met

Three of the most influential neo-Freudians were _____.

Adler, Jung, and Horney

Adler believed the primary motivation in life is to overcome _____.

Feelings of inferiority

According to Jung, our collective unconscious consists of _____.

Inherited archetypes

Jung believed that the anima and animus represent _____.

Feminine and masculine components of personality

Horney believed that the strongest influence on an individual’s personality was that person’s _____.

Relationship with his or her parents

According to your text, Freud’s contribution to psychology was _____.

The concept of the unconscious and its influence on behavior; the notion that people experience conflict between three personality structures; and the source and consequences of the defense mechanisms

Two theorists associated with the humanistic perspective of personality development are _____.

Rogers and Maslow

In Rogers theory of personality, maladjustment is the result of _____.

Incongruence between self-concept and life experiences

Unconditional positive regard is a Rogerian term for _____.

Positive behavior toward a person without attaching any contingencies

Rogers thought that _____ is necessary for a child’s uniqueness and positive self-concept to unfold naturally.

Unconditional positive regard

Mr. Polanski listens without judgment to his daughter’s reasons for being late, then informs her that he disapproves of her behavior, and provides consequences. This is an example of _____.

Unconditional positive regard

The innate tendency toward growth that motivates all human behavior and results in the full realization of a person’s highest potential is called _____.

Self-actualization

According to Maslow, what did Albert Einstein, Mahatma Ghandi, and Eleanor Roosevelt have in common?

They were all fully self-actualized

According to Bandura, _____involves a person’s belief about whether he or she can successfully engage in behaviors related to personal goals.

Self-efficacy

Rotter believed that personality or behavior is determined by your _____.

Cognitive expectancies

Your beliefs about who or what is in charge of the outcomes in your life are called your _____.

Locus of control

Della believes she earned an "A" in chemistry because the test was easy and she made a lot of lucky guesses. It is likely that Della has a(n) _____ locus of control.

External

This is the study of the extent to which behavioral differences are due to genetics rather than the environment.

Behavioral genetics

_____ appear(s) to have the largest influence (40% to 50%) on personality.

Genetics

The _____ approach represents a blending of several theories of personality.

Biopsychosocial

On _____ personality tests, people are asked to describe themselves on paper-and-pencil tasks that have a limited number of response options and a standardized scoring system.

Objective

A multiphasic personality test measures _____.

A range of personality traits

According to your text, the major objective of the MMPI-2 is to _____.

Assist in the diagnosis of psychological disorders

The Rorschach inkblot test and the Thematic Apperception Test are examples of _____ tests.

Projective personality

On the Thematic Apperception Test, people are asked to look at an ambiguous scene and ______.

Tell a story about what has, is, and will happen in the scene

With regard to personality testing, _____ refers to the ability of a test to measure the trait it says it will, rather than some other trait; whereas _____ refers to the extent to which the same person receives the same score on a personality test when it is administered more than once.

Validity; reliability

One reason people tend to believe in pseudo personality tests is because they have "something for everyone." This is called the _____.

Barnum Effect

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