Psychology Chapter 13

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Sigmund Freud’s ideas were probably shaped by the historical era in which he lived, a time known as the

Victorian Age

Freud believed the mind was divided into three parts: the ________, the ________, and the preconscious.

unconscious; conscious

Turning socially unacceptable urges into socially acceptable behavior is known as

sublimation

According to Freud, the oral stage

involves the conflict of weaning.

________ believed that there was not only a personal unconscious, but a collective unconscious as well.

Jung

Which of the following perspectives on personality focuses on aspects that make people uniquely human, such as subjective feelings and freedom of choice?

humanistic

________ are more concerned with describing personality and predicting behavior than with the explanation of personality development

Trait theorists

Jim and Jose were studying for their psychology test. Jim asked Jose to name a test developed by Cattell based on factor analysis to measure one’s personality characteristics. Jose knew right away that Jim was talking about the

Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire.

The assumption that the particular circumstance of any given situation will influence the way in which a trait is expressed is known as

trait-situation interaction.

The tendency to form a favorable or unfavorable impression of someone at the first meeting that affects later interpretation of that person is

the halo effect.

The ________ consists of 20 black and white pictures of people in ambiguous situations.

Thematic Apperception Test

Tests in which people are asked to tell what they see in ambiguous visual stimuli are

projective tests.

The ________ specifically tests for abnormal behavioral patterns in personality.

MMPI-2

One of the major problems associated with personality inventories is that they are

dependent on the honesty of the person taking the test.

The advantage of personality inventories over projective tests is that inventories are

standardized

Joe complains that his coworker, George, is irritating because George never has a nice thing to say about anyone or anything. Joe believes George’s problem is an enduring characteristic with which George was born. In other words, Joe dislikes George’s

temperament

Heidi is exploring her options and trying to decide where her best potential and abilities lie. She has a good idea of who she is and what she wants out of life. Carl Rogers would say that Heidi is a

fully functioning person.

A music teacher wants to test her students on their piano skills. She then proceeds to administer a multiple choice test. This test lacks

validity

When members of a group devote their lives to obtaining physical pleasure and immediate satisfaction of their needs, according to Freud, this group is dominated by their

id.

Freud believed that children adopt their parents’ moral beliefs during the ________ stage of personality development.

phallic

The Oedipus complex refers to

a child developing a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent and displaying jealousy of the same-sex parent.

According to Freud, children in the latency stage

develop intellectually, physically, and socially.

The image of oneself, which is based on information from significant people in one’s life, is that person’s

self-concept.

Surface traits

are seen in the outward actions of a person.

With regard to the Big Five traits of personality, when someone is creative, artistic, non-conforming, and curious, he or she tends to score high on the ________ trait.

openness

Some believe that humanistic theory is

more of a philosophical view than a psychological explanation.

According to the humanistic perspective, personality is influenced by

the things that make people uniquely human, such as the freedom to choose one’s own destiny.

A person’s personality should not be confused with their character, which is the person’s

morals or ethics.

The ego works

to satisfy needs while avoiding negative consequences.

The neo-Freudians

retained many of Freud’s original concepts.

The Minnesota twin study showed

a possible genetic component to some aspects of personality.

Researchers have looked for evidence of genetic influences on personality by comparing identical twins to

fraternal twins.

Current researchers have studied the unconscious in the form of

implicit learning.

One of the main proponents of the humanistic view was

Carl Rogers.

According to Freud, the ______ contains the conscience.

superego

The ________ specifically tests for abnormal behavioral patterns in personality.

MMPI-2

The assumption that the particular circumstance of any given situation will influence the way in which a trait is expressed is known as

trait-situation interaction.

Hofstede found that the United States is low in

power distance.

The assumption that the particular circumstance of any given situation will influence the way in which a trait is expressed is known as

a trait-situation interaction.

Trait theories differ from other theories of personality development in that they

are less concerned with how personality develops than they are with describing personalities and the actions that result from them.

Hofstede’s dimensions differ from the Big Five in that they are

based on the traits of a culture rather than an individual.

Sophie has a chance to interview for a promotion at work. She is sure she will do poorly anyway, so she decides against it. Bandura would say that Sophie has

low self-efficacy.

Freud would say that a man who bites his fingernails is

orally fixated.

The office of one of your professors is extremely neat and tidy. All the books are carefully arranged on the shelves, and there are no papers lying about. Freud might suggest that this person has a(n)

anal fixation.

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