Psychology- Chapter 13

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Conflict is defined as
A. perceived incompatibility of actions or goals.
B. dissatisfaction with relationship outcomes.
C. hostility that results from frustrating interaction.
D. competition for mutually exclusive goals.

A

The occurrence of conflict in any relationship
A. is usually a sign of lack of motivation.
B. can stimulate improved human relations.
C. is a Necessary evil of human interaction.
D. necessarily signifies an incompatibility of goals.

B

The outcome of creatively managed conflict is
A. satisfaction.
B. peace.
C. accord.
D. compliance.

B

Peace is defined as
A. the surface calmness.
B. the suppression of open conflict.
C. the absence of conflict.
D. the outcome of creatively managed conflict.

D

Christina and Massimo have been saving money since they got married. Now Massimo wants to buy a new car, but Christina wants to continue saving for a new house. Massimo and Christina
A. are experiencing conflict.
B. are experiencing dissonance.
C. have mirror-image perceptions.
D. are developing superordinate goals.

A

Pursuing one’s self-interest to the collective detriment of one’s community or society is the central pattern in
A. mirror-image perception.
B the jigsaw problem
C perceived injustice
D a social dillema

D

Some individuals have many children so that they can ensure someone will take care of them in the future. However, this contributes to the collective devastation of overpopulation. This is an example of:
A mirror-image perception
B the jigsaw problem
C perceived injustice
D a social dillema

D

In the Prisoner’s Dilemma, if both prisoners confess, each will get a _______; if neither confesses, each will _______.
A moderate sentence; get a light sentence
B severe sentence; get a light sentence
C severe sentence; go free
D moderate sentence; get a severe sentence

A

In playing the laboratory version of the Prisoner’s Dilemma, you would personally obtain the best payoff on any given trial if you _______ and the other person _______.
A confess; does not confess
B confess; confesses
C do not confess; confesses
D do not confess; does not confess

A

If an attorney creates a Prisoner’s Dilemma for two suspects, the attorney’s goal is to
A. trick either one of them into revealing what really happened.
B. create an incentive for one of them to confess while the other maintains innocence.
C. create an incentive for both of them to confess privately.
D. achieve the greatest punishment for both suspects.

C

In small groups, as opposed to large ones, individuals are
A. more likely to take more than their equal share.
B. less anonymous and thus less cooperative.
C. less likely to take more than their equal share.
D. more open about their conflicts.

C

Which of the following is NOT a way to resolve social dilemmas?
A. competition
B. changing the payoffs
C. appealing to altruistic norms
D. regulations

A

When individuals consume more than their share, and the cost of doing so is dispersed among all, the result is called
A. greed.
B. environmental devastation.
C. over consumption.
D. the tragedy of the commons.

D

In the tragedy of the commons, the "commons" refers to
A. disputed border territory.
B. stolen goods or winnings.
C. any jointly used,finite resource.
D. private property that repeatedly changes ownership.

C

In real life, which of the following parallels the tragedy of the commons?
A. pollution of rivers and streams
B. gun control
C. the death penalty
D. online auctions

A

Despite official government warnings of a severe water shortage, most citizens fail to conserve in the belief that their personal water consumption will have little effect on the community’s total water supply. The eventual depletion of the community’s water resources provides an example of
A. mirror-image perceptions. B. individualistic calamity.
C. the tragedy of the commons. D. rational disaster.

C

Sato (1987) gave Japanese students opportunities to harvest trees in a simulated forest for money. When the students equally shared the costs of planting the forest, the result was that
A. most of the trees were left to grow too tall for harvesting because the students bickered about the criterion to be used in sharing profits.
B. most of the trees were harvested before they had grown to the most profitable size.
C. none of the trees were harvested because the collectivist students did not want to be the first to ask for his or her share.
D. students made maximum profit not only for themselves individually but for the group

B

In the commons dilemma, people often consume more than they realize when
A. others take on a cooperative strategy.
B. resources are not partitioned.
C. the "commons" is divided into equal parts.
D. everyone cooperates.

B

Which of the following is NOT a feature shared by both the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Commons Dilemma?
A. One party’s wins necessarily equal the other party’s losses.
B.Participants tend to commit the fundamental attribution error.
C. Participants’ motives change in the course of the entrapment.
D. Both are non-zero-sumgames.

A

Attempting to explain one’s own behavior situationally is a characteristic of
A. thePrisoner’sDilemma.
B. theCommonsDilemma.
C. bothdilemmas.
D. neither dilemma.

C

Attempting to explain others’ behavior dispositionally is a characteristic of
A. thePrisoner’sDilemma.
B. theCommonsDilemma.
C. bothdilemmas.
D. neither dilemma.

C

In both the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Commons Dilemma, people are tempted to explain their own behavior _______ and others’ behavior _______.
A. situationally; situationally
B. dispositionally; dispositionally
C. situationally;dispositionally
D. dispositionally; situationally

C

Which one of the following is an example of a non-zero-sum game?
A. thePrisoner’sDilemma
B. theCommonsDilemma
C. boththePrisoner’sandtheCommonsDilemmas
D. neitherthePrisoner’snortheCommonsDilemmas

C

In a non-zero-sum game
A. bothcanwinandbothcanlose.
B. onesidewinsandtheotherloses.
C. one’sgainsequalanother’slosses.
D. altruistic motives dominate.

A

A common excuse for noncooperation is
A. "Icouldn’thavemadeadifferenceanyway."
B. "Thedevilmademedoit."
C. "That’sunfair."
D. "Cooperation is for the weak and cowardly."

A

The smaller the group, the more
A. responsibleeachpersonfeelsforit.
B. intensetheconflictamongindividualmembers.
C. apatheticpeopleareaboutitspreservation.
D. the more likely communication will take the form of intimidation and deception.

A

The relationship between the size of a group and a person’s feeling of responsibility for it is
A. positive.
B. negative.
C. neutral.
D. curvilinear.

B

One potential way to prevent conflict is to
A. avoidmakingexcessregulations.
B. avoidover-communication.
C. reduceexcessresources.
D. keep groups small.

D

Research on laboratory dilemmas reveals that cooperation is facilitated if
A. onepersonis100percentcooperative.
B. theopponentscancommunicatewithoneanother.
C. thegameischangedintoazero-sumgame.
D. thesizeofthepayoffsisincreased.

B

In research on social dilemmas, it has been found that group discussion
A. polarizedcompetitivetendencies.
B. hadnoeffectontheoutcome.
C. ledtogreatercooperationandbetteroutcomesforallparticipants.
D. led to escalated conflict and tension.

C

Which of the following is cited in the text as an example of changing payoffs to resolve social dilemmas?
A. allowingcarpoolerstodriveinthefaster,freewaylane
B. requiringcarpoolcarsandvanstoparkinspecial,largerparkinglotsfartheraway
from the office building
C. loweringthepriceofgasolinetowellbelow$1pergallon
D. raising the price of gasoline to well above $5 per gallon

A

According to research, it seems that just knowing about the dire consequences of noncooperation in a social dilemma
A. is sufficient to convince people to behave cooperatively.
B. leadstogreatermistrustofothers.
C. tendstofostergreaterself-interestandcompetition.
D. has little real effect on people’s behavior.

D

At the beginning of 2000, people were aware that global warming was already occurring, yet they were also buying gas-slurping SUVs in record numbers. This is an example of
A. greed.
B. overconsumption.
C. howknowinggooddoesnotalwaysleadtodoinggood.
D. how important status is to so many people.

C

Which of the following is cited in the text as a method for resolving social dilemmas?
A. communication
B. punishment
C. increasinggroupsize
D. competition

A

Which of the following is NOT cited in the text as a method for resolving social dilemmas?
A. regulation
B. makingthegroupsmaller
C. communication
D. competition

D

In Sherif’s research, the camper groups became hostile towards each other when
A. theylearnedoftheothergroup’sexistence.
B. thetwogroupsfirstmet.
C. competitionbetweenthegroupswasintroduced.
D. competitionbetweenthegroupsended.

C

As Sherif noted, despite the fact that the competitive behavior of the boys in the warring camps seemed "wicked, disturbed, and vicious," what actually triggered their evil behavior was
A. their leaders’ modeling of aggression.
B. theirdelinquentbackgrounds.
C. theirethnicidentities.
D. an evil situation.

D

Which statement is NOT true? Win-lose competition _____.
A. willusuallyhaveanegativeoutcome.
B. breedsconflict
C. isexpectedwhenpeopleperceivethatresourcesarelimited
D. is expected when a distinct outgroup stands out as a potential competitor

Esses and his colleagues (2005) found that competition breeds conflict when
A. peopleperceivethatresourcesarelimitedandavailableonanon-zero-sumbasis.
B. thereisnodistinctoutgroup.
C. theingroupisdominant.
D. communication is facilitated.

A

Equity exists when
A. rewardsaredistributedinproportiontoindividuals’contributions.
B. partnersshareequallyintherewardsofcollectiveeffort.
C. rewardsaredistributedinrelationtoindividuals’needsordeservingness.
D. groupmembersdecideamongthemselveshowrewardsshouldbedistributed.

A

Before they married, Melinda and Michael, who are both employed full time and collect the same pay, agreed to share equally in routine household tasks such as cleaning and grocery shopping. In reality, Melinda is now doing about 80 percent of the household work. This situation is an example of
A. anintegrativedisaster.
B. aninequitablerelationship.
C. asocialdilemma.
D. a zero-sum relationship.

B

Rodney and Ralph are twin brothers who each contributed $75 to purchase a new bicycle. Rodney rides it 75 percent of the time. This would be an example of
A. aninequitablerelationship.
B. thetragedyofthecommons.
C. azero-sumrelationship.
D. mirror-image perceptions.

A

What does your text refer to as the "golden rule" of social justice?
A. "Equity for strangers, equality for friends."
B. "Aneyeforaneye,atoothforatooth."
C. "Caremostforthoseingreatestneed."
D. "Whoeverhasthegoldmakestherules."

D

Some noncapitalist cultures define justice not as equity but as
A. equality.
B. fulfillmentofaneed.
C. eitherequalityorfulfillmentofaneed.
D. socialism.

C

Knowing that one’s group has over-benefited can trigger
A. equality.
B. feelingsofguilt.
C. heightenedcompetition.
D. retaliation.

B

Which one of the following is NOT one of the seeds of misperception, according to your text?
A. self-servingbias
B. reduced competition
C. fundamentalattributionerror
D. groupthink

B

What do self-serving biases, group polarization, and negative stereotypes have in common?
A. They illustrate the power of the situation.
B. Theyarepotentialseedsofmisperception.
C. Theyillustratethatwearecognitivemisers.
D. They negate conflict.

B

According to Staub and Bar-Tal (2003) all of the following are characteristics of a group in intractable conflict EXCEPT the group that
A. viewsitsowngoalsassupremelyimportant.
B. believesitselftobevictimized.
C. takespridein"us"andintenselydevalues"them."
D. attributes similar characteristics to the other group.

D

The misperceptions of those who are in conflict with each other, such as two nations who regard each other with suspicion and hostility, are usually
A. nonreciprocal.
B. unilateral.
C. mutual.
D. inequitable.

C

The reciprocal views that parties in conflict often hold of one another are referred to as
A. mirror-imageperceptions.
B. stereotypicreciprocation.
C. complementaryimages.
D. reciprocal illusions.

A

The Republic of Fredonia believes its long-time enemy, the Kingdom of Franistan, is aggressive, greedy, and impulsive. On the other hand, Franistan believes Fredonia is hostile, selfish, and unpredictable. This is an example of
A. aninequitablerelationship.
B. azero-sumrelationship.
C. mirror-imageperceptions.
D. reciprocal illusions.

C

When two sides have clashing perceptions, at least one of them is misperceiving the other, and when that is the case, according to Bronfenbrenner (1961), "It is characteristic of such images that they are _______."
A. self-defeating
B. self-confirming
C. self-handicapping
D. self-monitoring

B

Which statement tends NOT to be true, related to misperceptions in conflict?
A. Terrorismisintheeyeofthebeholder.
B. Itisagoodpeople/badpeople"them"world.
C. both sides have an exaggerates perception of the others position
D. there are no issues related to "bias blind spots"

D

Ralph White reviewed ten wars from the last century and reported that each was marked by at least one misperception. Which of the following was NOT on this list?
A. underestimatingtheenemy’sstrength B. overestimatingtheleaders’power
C. demonizingtheenemy
D. rationalizing one’s own motives

B

When Bush called Iraq "evil" in the buildup to the invasion, he was making which common misperception?
A. underestimatingthestrengthofone’senemy B. demonizingtheenemy
C. rationalizingone’sownmotives
D. blaming the wrong people

B

John believes that he is hardworking and his wife Rachel is lazy. Rachel believes that she is hardworking and John is lazy. This is an example of
A. aninequitablerelationship.
B. mirror-imageperception.
C. asuperordinategoal.
D. asocialtrap.

B

In a study of executives who were asked to describe a recent conflict, Thomas and Pondy (1977) found that 12 percent described the opposing party as _______ and 74 percent perceived themselves as _______.
A. cooperative; cooperative
B. intelligent;intelligent
C. cooperative;competitive
D. rational; competent

Group conflicts are often fueled by an illusion that top leaders are _____ and their people are _____.
A. good; evil
B. evil;good
C. evil;evil
D. evil; helpless

B

In times of tension, such as during international crisis:

A. viewsoftheopposingsidebecomemoresimplistic.
B. politicalstatementsacknowledgethateachcountry’smotivesarecomplex.
C. judgmentsaboutactionareprolongedandpostponedbytime-consuming
reevaluations.
D. tendenciestowardgroupthinkareweakened.

A

One aspect of mirror-image perception is that one side tends to
A. exaggerateitsdifferencesfromitsadversaries.
B. seeitselfreflectedinthewayothersseeit.
C. seethesituationasthereflectionofanevilsituation.
D. agree with the other side.

A

When both sides of a conflict believe "we are peace-loving – they are hostile," each may treat the other in ways that _____ its expectations.
A. deny
B. confirm
C. reduce
D. expand

B

Which of the following is NOT one of the four Cs of peacemaking identified in the text?
A. contact
B. correction
C. conciliation
D. communication

B

In general, all but one statement is a way of improving relations toward peacemaking. Which of the following is NOT one of the predictors for decreasing prejudice?
A. increasecontact
B. indirectcontact
C. theextended-contacteffect
D. distance

D

Review of desegregation situations shows that sometimes increased contact improves racial attitudes and sometimes it does not, especially when there is
A. anger.
B. lackoftrust.
C. miscommunication.
D. anxiety or perceived threat.

D

For Blacks, the most noticeable consequence of desegregated schooling is

A. veryshort-termimprovementsofinterracialrelations.
B. thereducedlikelihoodofattendingprimarilyWhitecolleges.
C. theincreasedlikelihoodoflivingandworkinginintegratedsettings. D. a more favorable self-image.

C

them, especially someone from outside our racial or social group, we assume our body language will show our interest. This is an example of all of the following EXCEPT
A. peopleoftenunderestimatethetransparencyoftheirfeelings. B. the"illusionoftransparency."
C. worryaboutrejection.
D. social misperceptions.

B

Surveys of nearly 4,000 Europeans revealed that an important factor in determining whether attitudes toward a minority group will become more favorable is whether
A. onehasafriendwhoisamemberofthatminoritygroup.
B. theminoritygrouptendstobesubmissive.
C. theminoritygrouphasahistoryofsignificantaccomplishment. D. the language of the minority group can be easily mastered.

A

In order for contact between opposing racial groups to reduce conflict, the contact must
A. occur in a zero-sum context.
B. bestructuredtoconferequalstatusonbothraces.
C. temporarilyawardsuperiorstatustotheminoritygroup.
D. be mediated by a third party.

b

Gurin and her colleagues (2002) found that informal interactions enabled by ethnic diversity in college classrooms
A. increaseperceptionsofdifferencesamongethnicgroups.
B. tendtofostergreateracceptanceofdifferencesamongethnicgroups.
C. havelittleeffectonperceptionsofdifferencesamongethnicgroups.
D. tend to foster more negative perceptions of other ethnic groups.

B

The U.S. Supreme Court’s 2003 decision that racial diversity may be a criterion in admissions to colleges and universities was
A. theresultofcounter-prejudice.
B. theresultofnegativestereotypes.
C. basedonresearchfindingsthatrevealedthatracialdiversityintheclassroomhas positive consequences.
D. based on research findings that revealed that minorities excel in diverse groups.

C

Desegregation could be expected to have poor results when contacts were competitive, unsupported by authorities, and unequal. Contact should be _____.
A. unequalinstatus B. equal in status C. short-term
D. long-term

B

When considering reactions to a common external threat, approval of President Bush’s performance after September 11, 2001
A. increased.
B. decreased.
C. stabilized.
D. wasunaffected.

A

The fact that 51 percent of Americans approved of President Bush’s performance on September 10, 2001, and 90 percent of Americans approved of President Bush’s performance on September 11, 2001 is an example of
A. cooperation.
B. cohesivenessasaresultofacommonexternalthreat. C. justification for poor performance.
D. heightened paranoia.

B

A goal that overrides people’s differences from one another is called a(n)
A. superior goal.
B. superordinategoal. C. ingroupgoal.
D. independent goal.

B

Through the use of _______, Muzafer Sherif made boy camper enemies into friends.
A. contact
B. superordinategoals C. bargaining
D. conciliation

B

Which of the following best illustrates a superordinate goal?
A. AcollegestudentwhohasbeenfailingEnglishgetsanAonapaper.
B. Awomanbeatsherhusbandattennis.
C. Apartmentdwellersinstallatelevisionantennatheycanalluse. D. An obese person loses 20 pounds in two weeks.

C

After their town was ravaged by a disastrous tornado, two rival community groups set aside their differences and worked together on repairing the damage. This cooperation best illustrates the importance of
A. mediation.
B. theGRITstrategy.
C. superordinategoals.
D. thejigsawtechnique.

C

According to Slavin (2003), a "practical, proven method for implementing contact theory in the desegregated classroom," is
A. academiccompetitionbetweendifferentschools.
B. after-schoolclassonracerelations.
C. peer support group.
D. cooperative learning.

A

Aronson’s jigsaw technique involved having elementary school children
A. study in small, racially mixed teams and then compete with other teams in a class tournament.
B. formacademicallyandraciallydiversegroups,witheachmemberofthegroup becoming an expert in one area.
C. role-playbeingmembersofanotherracefortwo-weekperiods.
D. take turns telling each other about their family backgrounds in small-group
discussions.

B

Studies from eleven countries show adolescents have more positive peer relationships and may achieve more when working _____, rather than _____.
A. competitively; cooperatively
B. submissively;domineering
C. cooperatively;competitively
D. domineering; submissively

C

By emphasizing the contribution Jackie Robinson might make to the Brooklyn Dodgers’ winning the 1947 pennant, Branch Rickey used _______ to reduce racial prejudice and conflict among team members.
A. asuperordinategoal
B. anintegrativeagreement
C. an arbitration
D. The GRIT strategy

A

According to Phinney (1990), someone who identifies with both his or her ethnic culture and the larger culture is said to have a _______ identity.
A. schizophrenic
B. cultural
C. bicultural
D. subcultural

C

Triandis (1994) reported that _______ immigrants felt more comfortable identifying with their ethnicity than _______ immigrants.
A. grandchildren of; second-generation
B. second-generation;grandchildrenof
C. European;Asian
D. Asian; European

A

_______ occurs when conflicted parties seek an agreement through direct negotiation.
A. Bargaining B. Amelioration C. Mediation D. Arbitration

A

_______ occurs when a neutral third party attempts to facilitate communication and offer suggestions for how to resolve a conflict.
A. Bargaining B. Amelioration C. Mediation D. Arbitration

C

_______ occurs when a neutral third party studies a conflict and imposes a settlement.
A. Bargaining B. Amelioration C. Mediation D. Arbitration

D

Motto and Yoko are roommates and are experiencing a conflict about what type of cable television service is within their budget. They negotiate by having Yoko, who wanted a more expensive service, pay the remainder of the bill after both of them have paid for half of the cost of the less expensive service. What form of communication did Motto and Yoko use to resolve their conflict?
A. bargaining B. amelioration C. mediation D. arbitration

A

Vivian and Pearl, who have been a couple for many years, are having a conflict they have been unable to resolve, so they make an appointment with a counselor. The counselor helps facilitate communication between Vivian and Pearl, and offers suggestions for dealing with future conflicts. What form of communication have they used to resolve their conflict?
A. bargaining B. amelioration C. mediation D. arbitration

C

A mediator seeks to achieve a mutually beneficial resolution by having the parties adopt a _______ orientation.
A. lose-lose B. win-lose C. win-win D. submissive

C

Mediators seek to establish _______ agreements that reconcile both parties’ interests to their mutual benefit.
A. arbitrated
B. integrative C. mirror-image D. zero-sum

B

Ahmed and Fatima, two teenage siblings, are fighting over the evening newspaper. Knowing Ahmed only wants the sports section and Fatima only wants the latest stock quotations, their mother takes the paper and gives each the section containing their news of interest. In this case the mother arrived at a(n)
A. mutual compromise.
B. cooperative settlement.
C. enlightened consensus.
D. integrativeagreement.

D

According to conflict researchers, you are more likely to divulge your needs and concerns if your relationship with your partner includes
A. mediation.
B. trust.
C. passion.
D. thethreatofwithdrawal.

B

David and Julie fought over what to name their new puppy, until finally they went to their children for a decision. David and Julie relied on _______ to resolve their conflict.
A. mediation B. bargaining C. conciliation D. arbitration

D

Factory workers want a pay rate of $15 per hour, and management offers $12 per hour. After weeks of conflict, they agree to have a third party set the pay scale. After hearing both sides, the third party sets the rate at $14. This is an example of resolving conflict through
A. bargaining. B. arbitration. C. mediation. D. conciliation.

B

Osgood’s (1980) GRIT strategy is an alternative that best fits into the _______ category of the "four Cs of peacemaking."
A. contact
B. conciliation
C. communication D. correction

D

Which of the following is NOT one of the steps in Osgood’s (1980) GRIT strategy?
A. Buildupfirst-strikecapabilitytonegotiatefromapositionofstrength. B. Announceyourconciliatoryintent.
C. Carryoutseveralverifiableconciliatoryacts.
D. Maintain retaliatory capability.

A

Which one of the following is NOT a characteristic that conflict expert Deutsch (1993) advises negotiators to exhibit?
A. fairness
B. firmness
C. friendliness D. faithful

D

The communitarian synthesis emphasizes
A. individualist values.
B. collectivistvalues.
C. bothindividualistandcollectivistvalues. D. neither individualist nor collectivist values.

A?

Much of the research on conflict involves asking volunteers to play games that simulate conflict, such as the prisoner’s dilemma game. According to the text, these games
A. havesolittletodowithrealconflictsituationsthattheresultstellusnextto nothing about what causes conflict.
B. yieldvalidfindingsonlywhenparticipantsplayforrealstakes,suchasmoney.
C. suggestthatalwayscooperatingwithothersisthebeststrategyforachieving
long-term success.
D. capture the essence of real-world social dilemmas, but on a smaller scale.

D

Whichstatementistrue?

A. Becauseofthegreatersocialpressure,peoplearemorelikelytoactcooperatively in large rather than small groups.

B. TheTragedyoftheCommonsoccursonlyinindividualisticsocieties.

C. Mostcompetitivesituationscanbeconsiderednon-zero-sumgames.

D. Sherif’s study of boys at camp indicated that competition triggers conflict.

D

The people of Griglac and Xula are warring over a disputed border between their countries. The Griglacians feel they are defending their territory, but those in Xula feel that Griglac started the war by invading Xula. These ___ perceptions are causing the conflict to escalate.
A. tragicallycommon
B. mirror-image
C. superordinate
D. triggering

B

WhichstatementisTRUE?
A. Contactbetweengroupsincreasesconflict.
B. Whengroupsexperienceintenseconflicttheyoftenbecomelessinternally
cohesive.
C. DesegregationofpublicschoolsintheU.S.consistentlyleadstoreduced
prejudice.
D. Studentswhoarepartofinterracialcooperativelearninggroupstendtobeless
prejudiced.

Thebestwaytoresolveconflictis
A. bymakingone’spositionclearandthenbargaining.
B. bytryingtoturnalose-losesituationintoawin-losesituation.
C. tosearchforintegrativesolutionsthroughcontrolledcommunications.
D. to find a neutral party who will make the final decision.

C

AllthefollowingactionsarewaystoresolvesocialdilemmasEXCEPT
A. increasingcompetition.
B. developingrulestosafeguardthecommongood.
C. improvingcommunication.
D. appealingtoaltruisticnorms.

A

Equity theory says that if you are in a relationship with someone who is contributing more and benefiting less than you are, you are likely to feel
A. exploited.
B. contented.
C. guilty.
D. irritable.

C

Sherif’s(1966)Robber’sCavestudydemonstratedthatconflictcanbecreatedsimply by randomly assigning people into competing groups. He later demonstrated that he could reduce conflict by having campers work together to achieve some mutual interest (e.g., fixing a broken truck, restoring the camp’s water supply). Sherif was demonstrating what social psychologists call
A. non-zero-sumgames.
B. equitytheory.
C. integrativeagreements.
D. superordinate goals.

D

Whichofthefollowingstatementsistrue?
A. Whenyouarebargainingtobuyanewcaritisbettertostartwithanextreme offer.
B. Whenyouarebargainingtobuyanewhomeitisbettertostartwitha"good- faith" offer.
C. Integrativeagreementsresultinwinsforbothsidesofanargument.
D. Mediation is always a better option than arbitration.

C

AllthefollowingstatementsaretrueaboutGRITEXCEPT
A. GRITaimstode-escalateinternationaltensions.
B. GRITrequiresthatallactionsbytheinitiatingpartybeconciliatoryinnature.
C. GRITallowseachsidetomaintainitsretaliatorycapability.
D. GRIT works by intensifying the reciprocity norm

B

Peacecanbeconsidered
A. asynonymforutopia.
B. thesuppressionofopenconflict. C. lessthanafragile,superficialcalm. D. anintrinsicacceptanceofothers.

D?

ThePrisoner’sDilemmaandTragedyoftheCommonsarebothconsidered
A. socialtraps.
B. equitygames.
C. integrativeagreements. D. superordinate traps.

A

InthePrisoner’sDilemma,eachpersonisbetteroff
A. remainingsilent.
B. confessing.
C. bargaining.
D. mediating.

A

Punishinganotherpersonfornon-cooperationismostlikelytoresultin
A. zero-sumresults.
B. peace.
C. retaliation.
D. surrender.

C

Andrew’smomtellshimthatshewenttothestoreandboughtenoughcupcakesso that each member of the family could have one. Andrew really loves cupcakes, so he takes two. This is an example of
A. thePrisoner’sDilemma.
B. asuperordinategoal.
C. theTragedyoftheCommons.
D. a mirror image perception.

C

InboththePrisoner’sDilemmaandtheTragedyoftheCommons,peopletendto explain their behaviors _____ and their opponent’s behavior _____.
A. situationally; dispositionally
B. disposition ally;situationally
C. altruistically;egoistically
D. egoistically;altruistically

A

Situationsinwhichbothplayerscanwinandbothcanlosearecalled
A. non-zero-sumgames.
B. zero-sumgames.
C. mirrorgames.
D. equity games.

A

Incomparisontolargegroups,peopleinsmallgroups
A. aremorelikelytotakemorethantheirequalshareofavailableresources.
B. feellessresponsible.
C. lesslikelytoeffectivelyinitiatevoluntaryconservation.
D. feel more effective.

D

Thoseraisedinindividualisticculturesaremostlikelytodefinejusticeintermsof
A. impartiality.
B. equality.
C. needfulfillment.
D. equity.

D

WhichofthefollowingsocialpsychologicalprinciplesisNOTinvolvedin misperceiving other people’s motivations and goals?
A. thecentralroutetopersuasion
B. thefundamentalattributionerror.
C. theself-servingbias.
D. group polarization.

A

Brian is on a reality game show. One week Paula is in his alliance but the next week she is his target for elimination. Brian’s feelings toward Paula are best explained in terms of his
A. superordinategoals.
B. shiftingperceptions.
C. mirrorimageperceptions.
D. simplisticthinking

B

When teaching the American Revolution unit in his history class, Mr. Jones divides his class into groups with racially and academically diverse members. Each group member is then assigned to become the "expert" on one part of the lesson (e.g., the Boston Tea Party, George Washington, etc.). At the end of the week each expert would teach that section to the rest of the group. This is an example of
A. ajigsawclassroom.
B. asuperordinategoal
C. amirrorimageclassroom.
D. a zero sum design.

A

Whoismostlikelytosufferfromlowself-esteem?
A. Manuelwhohasabiculturalidentity
B. Sarahwhohasamarginalidentity
C. Philwhohasastrongethnicidentitybutlowculturalidentity
D. Angela who has a weak ethnic identity but a strong cultural identity

B

Joe and Stan are neighbors. Joe wants to put up a fence around his property but a cherry tree resides directly on the property line. Because they cannot agree on what to do, they sought out a neutral third party to make the decision for them. This is an example of
A. arbitration.
B. mediation.
C. bargaining.
D. anintegrativeagreement.

A

Whichofthefollowingisfalse?
A. ThemoreinterracialcontactSouthAfricanBlacksandWhiteshave,theless prejudice they feel toward the other group.
B. Themorecontactstraightpeoplehavewithgaysandlesbians,themoreaccepting they become.
C. ThemorefriendlycontactBlacksandWhiteshavewithoneanother,thebetter their attitudes toward one another.
D. Vicariousindirectcontactisnotaseffectiveasdirectcontactinreducing prejudice.

D

Whichofthefollowingisfalse?
A. Itisbettertothinkofyourfriendsasindividualsonly;notpartofaspecificrace.
B. Wearemorelikelytobefrienddissimilarpeopleiftheiroutgroupidentityis
initially minimized.
C. WhitestudentstypicallyassociatewithotherWhitestudentsandBlackstudents
typically associated with other Black students.
D. People who form friendships with outgroup members typically have more positive
attitudes toward that outgroup.

A

Dovidio and his colleagues argue that cooperation has an especially positive impact when

A. itleadspeopletodefineanewgroup.
B. peopleareabletokeeptheiringroupidentitiesintact.
C. peopleworkingonataskhaverelativelylowself-esteem.
D. groupsarerelativelyindependent.

A

LaboratoryresearchonGRIThasfoundallofthefollowingexcept
A. cooperativeintentboostscooperation.
B. maintaininganequalityofpowerprotectsagainstexploitation. C. repeatedconciliatoryactsbreedtrust.
D. competition breeds conciliation.

D

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