Psychology Chapter 10 Study Quiz

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The ability to empathize with others and distinguish between right and wrong is called __________.

Morality

To study moral development, Kohlberg ___________.

Collected cross-sectional data by asking subjects of various ages to respond to stories that depicted moral dilemmas

Five-year-old Tyler believes "bad things are what you get punished for." Tyler is at Kohlberg’s ________ level or morality.

Preconventional

Calvin would like to wear baggy, torn jeans and a nose ring, but he is concerned that others will disapprove. Calvin is at Kohlberg’s ______ level of morality.

Conventional

If you follow the traffic laws and rules because you believe they are legitimate and good for public welfare, you are demonstrating the _________ stage of moral development.

Social contract

According to Kohlberg, an officer in the military is LEAST likely to obey orders to rape and pillage a village in a vanquished town if he has achieved the _________ orientation of moral reasoning.

Universal ethics

Kohlberg’s second level of moral development, in which moral judgments are based on compliance with the rules and values of society is called the:

Conventional

Gilligan’s major criticism of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development is that they _________.

Emphasized male values over female values

This is a person’s innate behavioral style and characteristic emotional response.

Temperament

Which of the following is TRUE regarding basic temperament?

It tends to be consistent throughout early childhood and into adulthood.

The belief that the adult personality reflects how an individual has met or resolved the challenges and crises that occur in eight stages of development is the definition of _________.

Erikson’s psychosocial stages of development

What is the crisis of young adults defined by Erikson’s psychosocial stages?

Intimacy versus isolation

During the ______ stage of psychosocial development, individuals decide whether the world is good and satisfying, or painful and unrewarding. During the ______ stage, individuals develop a sense of competency or insecurity.

Trust vs. mistrust; industry vs. inderiority

Christie is a toddler who has authoritarian parents. Her parents do not allow her to make any decisions on her own. As a result, Chelsea may have difficulty resolving ______ developmental stage.

Autonomy versus shame and doubt

Which of the following children is working on the challenge of initiative vs. guilt in Erikson’s psychosocial model of development?

Five year old Brian tried to climb the tree in the backyard, and fell down three times.

In Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development, the establishment of a sense of self and a role in society is dependent upon successfully resolving which of the following challenges?

Identity vs. role confusion

Robert is an adolescent who is sullen and withdrawn. He doesn’t seem to know where he fits in society. As a result, Robert may have difficulty resolving the _____ developmental stage.

Identity versus role confusion

According to Erikson’s theory, the dominant crisis of adolescence concerns _____.

Establishing an identity

Erikson’s identity crisis refers to _____.

The inner conflict related to serious soul-searching

Resolution of the critical conflict of young adulthood will, according to Erikson, lead to a sense of _____.

Intimacy

Rebecca finds it difficult to establish close bonds with others. As a result, she avoids anything other than superficial relationships. According to Erikson, it is likely that Rebecca had difficulty with the developmental challenge of _____.

Intimacy vs. isolation

According to Erickson, generativity in middle adulthood involves _____.

Expanding one’s concern beyond the immediate family group to the next generation

Emily is looking back at the last few decades of her life. She feels deep regret at the opportunities she passed up, knowing she does not have enough time left to start over. Emily is likely to be in Erikson’s _____ stage of development.

Ego integrity vs. despair

The major detrimental difference between individualistic and collectivist cultures is _____.

Which needs and goals are emphasized

According to research, after a divorce, children may _____.

Do better without tension and fighting in the home; have a poor self-concept; and experience more social, psychological, and academic difficulties

_____ has consistently been found to be a key factor in successful marriages.

Realistic expectations

One of the clearest identifiers of abuse potential is _____.

Impulsivity

Research shows that depression and poverty are among the consequences suffered by _____.

Teenage mothers

. A child who can adapt effectively in the face of threats is demonstrating _____.

Resiliency

After retirement, Effie continued her gardening, volunteered for an agency that mentors young businesswomen, and traveled to new locations every summer. Effie exemplifies the _____ theory of aging.

Activity

Deliberately choosing to reduce the number of social contacts in favor of familiar people who provide meaningful interactions is an example of _____ theory of aging.

Socioemotional selectivity

The greatest challenge for the elderly in the U.S. is

Ageism

Ageism ______.

Devalues the elderly

Which of the following cultures revere the elderly?

Japan and China; Most Native-American tribes; and African-American

Grieving people generally begin with the _____ stage, and end with the _____ stage.

Numbness; resolution

Which of the following is LEAST characteristic of Kubler-Ross’s stages of dying?

"Thank God, it’s you!"

Frederico’s doctor has recently told him that he has a terminal illness. Frederico is now very terse with and critical of her. He frequently remarks that life is unfair. According to Kubler-Ross, Frederico is MOST likely to be in the _____ stage of coping with his impending death.

Anger

Ms. Giovanni’s test results suggest that she is dying of ovarian cancer. She tells her family that the lab must have mixed up her results with someone else’s. According to Kubler-Ross, Ms. Giovanni is MOST likely to be in the _____ stage of coping with the suggestion that she is dying.

Denial

Some critics of Kubler-Ross’s theory of dying claim _____.

Her theory might lead to a stereotype of those who are grieving or dying.

The study of death and dying is known as _____.

Thanatology

Someone who burns his country’s flag just because the law says he can is reasoning at the _____ stage of moral development; whereas someone who burns his country’s flag because he believes that his country has lost its legitimacy is reasoning at the _____ stage.

Law and order; social contract

Critical factors in adjustment of children after parental divorce include, but are not limited to _____.

Resources and support systems available;involvement with noncustodial parent; and individual child attributes

Which of the following is the correct sequence for Kubler-Ross’s stage theory of dying?

Denial —> anger —> bargaining —> depression —> acceptance

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