Psychology Chapter 1

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In the definition of psychology, the term ‘behavior’ means

overt actions and reactions

A psychologist is interested in finding out why married couples seemingly begin to look like each other after several years of marriage. This psychologists is most interested in the goal of

explaning

Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis focused on

introspective

Which perspective is often referred to as the "third force" in psychology and focuses on a person’s freedom of choice and determining their behavior?

humanism

Which perspective best explains the bystander effect whereby individuals will be less likely to help someone in need because of the presence of others close by?

sociocultural

If Dr. Byers uses an eclectic approach in her clinical treatment of children, what is she doing?

She is using a combination of perspectives to treat different clients

Dr. Colton identifies himself with the largest subfield of psychology. What kind of psychologist is he?

clinical

Micah has recently been diagnosed with a psychological disorder that is best addressed initially with medication. He would likely benefit the most by seeing a

psychiatrist

Which step in the scientific method is derived from the goal of description?

perceiving a question

Brianne wants to find an explanation for the behavior of her lab rats in her study. Which step in the scientific method is she currently focusing on?

testing a hypothesis

The famous study of Phineas Gage, who survived when a mental rod pierced his skull, is an example of

case study

A researcher finds that as her subject increased the number of hours they spent exercising, the overall weight of her subjects decreased. This would be an example of a _________ correlation.

negative

A researcher wants to study the effects of texting on driving. Students in Group A drive a car in a computer game and see how many virtual accidents they have. Students in Group B are asked to drive the same virtual car but must respond to or send at least three texts. The number of virtual accidents is measured for each group. What is the independent variable?

texting

A researcher asks an assistant to conduct a study on her behalf. She specifically tells her assistant only to share the results anonymously and not include the names of the students along with their scores. Such an experiment would be considered a

double-blind experiment

Double-blind studies control for

the placebo effect and the experiment effect

Dr. Calvin needs one more participant to complete her experiment. Lisa, a student of Dr. Calvin, has almost completed the experiment when she announces that she wants to quit because the experiment is too boring.

Dr. Calvin must let Lisa go and find another participant.

A famous golfer advertises a new golf bracelet that helps minimized fatigue while playing. If Bethany decides to order the bracelet because she believes that such a well-known personality should know if it works or not, she has made an error in which of the following?

Authority or expertise does not make the claims of the authority or expert true.

In the definition of psychology, mental process means

internal, covert processes

Dr. Baker designs an experiment for studying lab rats’ reaction to energy drinks in relation to problem solving. Dr. Baker’s is most interested in the goal of

explanation

The results of the study by Cheryan et al (2009) suggest that changes must occur to the perception of the computer science field. This illustrates the goal of

prediction

Which early perspective tried to return to a focus on scientific inquiry by ignoring the study of consciousness?

behaviorism

Which perspective focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics

evolutionary

Which perspective offers the best explanation for schizophrenia

biospyological

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