Psychology Ch. 6

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_____ stimulus is a stimulus that naturally brings about a particular response without having been learned.

Unconditioned

Stimulus _____ provides the ability to differentiate between stimuli.

discrimination

Nature is to nurture what _____ is to _____.

unconditioned response; conditioned response

Janine completed several tours of duty in Afghanistan. She suffers from PTSD. Now, back home in Texas, she is frightened by firecrackers and cars backfiring. The fact that these sounds scare her reflects a process of stimulus:

generalization.

Which of the following scenarios exemplifies extinction?

Alexis is a former cocaine user. Now that she no longer uses cocaine, her hands no longer shake and her heart no longer pounds when she hears a car pull into her drive, like her dealer used to do in his car.

June’s cat runs to the kitchen at the sound of the electric can opener, which she has learned is used to open her food when her dinner is about to be served. The cat does not run when a blender is used, although it sounds similar. June’s cat is demonstrating stimulus:

discrimination.

Classical conditioning is most successful when the neutral stimulus begins:

just before the unconditioned stimulus begins.

Learning reflects _____. Maturation reflects _____.

nurture; nature

_____ refers to a decrease in the response to a stimulus when it is presented repeatedly, whereas _____ refers to the eventual disappearance of a conditioned response when an unconditioned stimulus is no longer presented.

Habituation; extinction

Which of the following terms best expresses the relationship between stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination?

They are opposites.

In classical conditioning situations, the ____________ connection is innate, while the ____________ connection is learned.

UCS-UCR; CS-CR

Tyler’s grandmother used to receive emails from him every day, so she would check her in-box regularly. Since Tyler went off to college, the emails have basically stopped. As a result, she no longer checks her in-box on a daily basis. If this pattern continues, we can expect ____________ to occur.

extinction

Little Julie is watching Dora the Explorer help her mother clean up the kitchen after dinner. After the show, she walks into the kitchen to help her mommy clean up. Little Julie is demonstrating

observational learning.

Kenny ate several hot dogs at the baseball game. Several hours later he got very nauseous and spent most of the night being physically sick. We can expect that he will

be unable to eat a hot dog at the next ball game he attends.

Pavlov’s dog learned to anticipate food whenever he was presented with stimuli associated with food. Pavlov knew that his dog associated specific stimuli with food because the ____________ was elicited by the stimuli.

CR

Which of the following statements about classical conditioning is accurate?

It is a form of respondent behavior.

Marcia was romantically involved with John. Unfortunately, Marcia eventually discovered that John was being a complete jerk, so she ended the relationship. One day in the mall, she suddenly gets a whiff of the cologne that John always wore. All the former good feelings come pouring back. This is an example of

spontaneous recovery.

As Natalie, who has extremely long nails, approaches the chalkboard, many of her classmates cover their ears. What represents the conditioned stimulus?

Natalie approaching the board

Dr. Meyer is known for his difficult pop quizzes. Immediately before he springs a pop quiz on his students, he typically goes to the classroom door and closes it. Students soon learn to anticipate a pop quiz whenever Dr. Meyer closes the classroom door. Closing the door has become a(n)

CS.

Watson and Raynor conditioned fear in Little Albert using a ____________ as a CS.

white rat

In what way does learned taste aversion seem to contradict the basic principles of classical conditioning?

Learned taste aversion can occur after only a single CS-UCR pairing.

In Pavlov’s study, the UCS was _____; the neutral stimulus was _____; and, finally, the CS was _____.

meat; the bell; the bell

_____ is the decrease in response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimulus.

Habituation

Which of the following is true of stimulus generalization?

The greater the similarity between two stimuli, the greater the likelihood of stimulus generalization.

In classical conditioning, how are the neutral stimulus and the conditioned response related?

The neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus.

Which of the following scenarios best exemplifies spontaneous recovery?

Alexis is a former cocaine user in recovery. After a relapse, though, her hands shake and her heart pounds when she hears a car pull into her drive, like her dealer used to do in his car.

Which pair below CORRECTLY identifies a stimulus or response in Watson and Rayner’s "Little Albert" study?

Unconditioned stimulus—noise

Which of the following behaviors indicate learning?

Simon whines whenever he wants something.

It should take about 30 minutes for the aspirin Manny just took to relieve his headache, but Manny feels better within minutes. This is an example of

the placebo effect.

Boris is trying to use classical conditioning to teach his goldfish to come to the top of the tank to eat whenever he turns on the aquarium light. He drops food into the tank and then turns on the light. After several such trials, the fish show no more inclination to come to the top of the tank when the light is turned on than they did on the first trial. What would you suggest that Boris do to improve his training technique?

He should turn on the light before he drops the food into the tank.

In Pavlov’s well-known study on classical conditioning, the bell was the ____________ before conditioning and the ____________ after conditioning had occurred.

neutral stimulus; conditioned stimulus

Bubba, a very smart German shepherd, has learned that if he barks at the neighbors while they are grilling, they will throw him a treat. However, his owner, Paul, does not want Bubba to eat "people" food. When Paul is in the yard, Bubba never barks at the neighbors. According to operant conditioning principles, Bubba is demonstrating that he can

discriminate.

During the winter months, Alfred receives a static shock each time he touches his car door when exiting his vehicle. Now Alfred flinches right before he touches the door. What represents the conditioned response?

Flinching before touching the door

_____ is credited with laying the foundation for the study of classical conditioning in psychology.

Pavlov

Which of the following sequences CORRECTLY arranges the phases of the classical conditioning process, from first to last?

Acquisition → extinction → spontaneous recovery

_____ occurs when a previously conditioned response decreases in frequency and eventually disappears.

Extinction

Jennifer was stung by a bee several days ago. Now she cries out whenever any flying insect comes too close. Jennifer is demonstrating

generalization.

Some children with seizure problems bang their heads against a wall, causing themselves serious injury. As a result, a psychologist might administer a brief electric shock to such a child every time she bangs her head on the wall. This would be an example of

aversive conditioning.

Which of the following types of consequences is CORRECTLY matched with an example?

Positive punishment – Laurel’s mother yells at her when Laurel takes $20 from her mom’s purse

Imagine that you graphed the cumulative number of bar-press responses over time of four rats, each reinforced on a different one of the four schedules of intermittent reinforcement. Each rat’s behavior is graphed on a separate line. The line with the greatest slope should be that displaying the behavior of the rat reinforced on the _____ schedule.

variable-ratio

As part of a behavior modification program, Kendra and her partner each agree to praise the other if she completes her assigned household chores by the end of the day. Such praise is an example of:

secondary reinforcement and positive reinforcement.

A variable-ratio schedule is a schedule:

by which reinforcement occurs after a fluctuating number of responses rather than after a fixed number.

One reason Carlos continues to work at his job is the check he receives every two weeks. Carlos’ paycheck is a _____ reinforcer.

secondary

A(n) _____ reinforcer refers to the removal of an unpleasant stimulus, putting on a sweater when your cold for example, which leads to an increase in the probability that a preceding response will be repeated in the future.

negative

A privately funded program pays low-income parents $50 every two months for each child who attends school regularly during that period. This incentive illustrates a _____ schedule of reinforcement.

fixed-interval

Dr. Simonelli is a practicing behavior analyst. What does she do?

She specializes in behavior modification techniques.

Which of the following types of consequences is CORRECTLY matched with an example?

Negative reinforcement – Jeff puts up his umbrella when it starts to sprinkle so he won’t get wet

Typically long pauses in responding are found in _____ schedules.

fixed-interval

_____ learning occurs without reinforcement.

Latent

The cognitive learning concept of _____ learning is associated most prominently with _____.

latent; Tolman

Recall Tolman’s latent learning experiments in which rats learned to run a maze. What was the critical result?

Rats that began to receive an incentive halfway through the experiment rapidly matched the performance of rats that had been reinforced from the beginning of the experiment.

Some bears kept in captivity allow veterinarians to routinely give them total body checkups. These bears open their mouths for teeth cleaning and present their paws for nail clipping. Your friend wonders how anyone could ever get these dangerous animals to be so cooperative without anesthesia. From your study of psychology, you quickly surmise that the bears have undergone an extensive ________ program.

shaping

In Sweden, it is illegal for parents to spank their children. Since the laws were passed, youth rates of crime have

remained the same.

Which of the following is the response most parents give when asked why they physically punish their children?

The parent was spanked as a child and his or her child also needs strong discipline.

David earns $1,000 every time his sales reach $100,000. For David, the bonus is an example of ________ reinforcement.

positive

If, through experience, you come to the conclusion that all things are beyond your control and therefore you should not even try, you are exhibiting

learned helplessness.

Kayla is selling her Girl Scout cookies in the neighborhood. She never knows how many houses she will have to visit before she sells all of her cookies. Kayla is operating on a ________ schedule.

variable ratio

A worker is paid $25 for every 20 wind chimes that she builds. On which schedule of reinforcement is she being paid?

Fixed ratio

Sheryl makes pleasant small talk and pays her boss a compliment before asking for a personal day, because such a strategy was successful with a few of her previous bosses. This example most clearly illustrates:

stimulus generalization.

A variable-interval schedule is a schedule:

by which the time between reinforcements fluctuates around some average rather than being fixed.

Which of the following scenarios exemplifies negative reinforcement?

Vanna fastens her seatbelt as soon as she gets in her car to stop the annoying alert sound.

A fixed-ratio schedule is a schedule:

by which reinforcement is given only after a specific number of responses are made.

_____ weakens a response through the application of an unpleasant stimulus.

Positive punishment

The root of operant conditioning may be traced to _____’s early studies of hungry cats learning to escape from cages.

Thorndike

Which of the following does not accurately reflect a distinction between classical and operant conditioning?

Classical conditioning applies to voluntary behavior, while operant conditioning applies to involuntary behavior.

Ewan is convinced that a woman across the bar is "sending signals." A learning theorist would term such signals:

discriminative stimuli.

Observational learning is based in part on the activity of _____ neurons in the brain.

mirror

The cognitive learning concept of _____ learning is associated most prominently with _____.

latent; Tolman

_____ learning occurs without reinforcement.

Latent

Gary takes his car to the auto shop for routine maintenance every 3,000 miles. He is trying to avoid a major repair bill in the future. His behavior demonstrates

negative reinforcement.

Matt wants to train his dog, Buster, to sit on command. He gives Buster a doggie biscuit each time Buster sits when commanded, but only for the first 10 trials. He then changes the rules. Buster now has to sit on command three times before he gets a biscuit. Matt first used a ________ schedule, and then a ________ schedule to train Buster.

continuous reinforcement schedule; fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement

On the way home from work, you decide to explore a side street that you have passed on several occasions. You are surprised to find that it runs parallel to the expressway. Several weeks later, there is a major accident on your usual travel route so you take this alternate route home. This is an example of ________ learning.

latent

Cecil turns off all the lights in his house to avoid a huge electric bill. Cecil’s behavior is an example of

negative reinforcement.

Which of the following is an example of positive punishment?

Getting scolded

In operant conditioning

the consequences of behavior produce change in the probability of the occurrence of the behavior.

For the past month, Larry has been grounded each time he hits his little brother. Lately, Larry’s misbehavior toward his little brother has decreased. Grounding Larry is an example of

negative punishment.

Reinforcers that satisfy a biological need are called _____ reinforcers.

primary

Negative reinforcement:`

increases the likelihood that preceding behaviors will be repeated.

"Responses that lead to satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated." This is the law of:

effect.

Learning by watching the behavior of another person, or model is known as _____.

observational learning

Josh has a crush on the girl at the movie rental store. He knows that she works every Thursday afternoon, so he only visits the store on Thursdays. Josh is operating on a ________ schedule.

fixed interval

The process by which a stimulus increases the likelihood that a preceding behavior will be repeated is called:

reinforcement.

Behavior that is reinforced every time it occurs is said to be on a(n) _____ reinforcement schedule

continuous

_____ punishment consists of the removal of something pleasant.

Negative

Which of the following approaches to treating a phobia is/are CORRECTLY matched with the type of learning it reflects?

Reinforcing client directly by interacting with the feared object – operant conditioning

Kevin used to cry, whine, throw temper tantrums, and eventually start screaming in the department store whenever he wanted a toy. His mother would resist initially but when he would start screaming she would give in. Eventually, Kevin started with the screaming to get his toy. Kevin is demonstrating

the law of effect.

Which of the following is NOT associated with Skinner?

Conditioned stimulus

Four-month-old Simon quickly learns that he will be picked up if he cries. From a behaviorist perspective, picking up Simon whenever he cries is a ________ for the baby.

positive reinforcer

Which of the following is a primary reinforcer?

Candy

Which process determines whether or not an imitated or modeled act will be repeated?

Reinforcement

John is taking an agent that causes nausea every time he smokes a cigarette. This is a form of

aversive conditioning.

Which of the following is an example of negative punishment?

Informing an employee that he has been demoted because of a poor job evaluation.

Which of the following promotions exemplifies the use of a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement?

A café offers its customers a punch card. Each time a patron purchases a beverage, a hole is punched; when ten holes are punched, the patron receives a free beverage.

Sheryl’s parents have told her that she is "grounded" and will not be allowed to watch any television for a week, because she is not completing her assignments on time. This is an example of:

negative punishment.

Dr. DiFonzo notices several students nodding in agreement as he lectures. Subsequently, his rhetoric becomes more confident and more passionate. The students have provided _____ reinforcement.

positive

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