Psychology Ch. 5

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Sigmund Freud’s theory that dreams represent unconscious desires that dreamers want to see fulfilled is known as _____.

unconscious wish fulfillment theory

Which figure best approximates the proportion of people afflicted by insomnia?

1/3

How long is a typical sleep cycle, in which a sleeper progresses through some or all of the sleep stages?

90 minutes

_____ is/are sudden awakenings from non-REM sleep that is accompanied by extreme fear, panic, and strong physiological arousal.

Night terrors

Which of the following statements is true of dreams occurring in REM sleep and NREM sleep?

Dreams occur in NREM sleep, but less frequently than in REM sleep; NREM dreams are also less vivid than are dreams in REM sleep.

Which of the following is true of daydreams?

They are under one’s control to a greater extent than dreams that occur during sleep.

Which of the following statements is true of REM sleep and dreaming?

The major muscles of the body appear to be paralyzed during REM sleep.

_____ are unusually frightening dreams, that occur fairly often.

Nightmares

Anya pulled all-nighters both last night and the night before. Tonight, finally, she anticipates going to bed at her usual time. Which of the following alternatives MOST accurately describes and identifies what Anya is likely to experience?

Anya will spend a greater proportion of her sleep time than usual in the REM stage. This phenomenon is called rebound.

Thomas seems unaware that his mom has been calling him for the last five minutes. He is playing his video game and about to move to the last level. What is Thomas demonstrating?

Selective attention

Dreams occurring during ________ sleep are briefer, less vivid, and less emotionally charged compared to those that occur during ________ sleep.

non-REM; REM

The teacher has called on Sarah four times, yet she has not responded or acknowledged the teacher in anyway. She has a slight smile on her face. What is Sarah demonstrating?

Daydreaming

William James described the human mind as a

stream of consciousness.

During a heated argument with his teenage daughter, Mr. Reed suddenly lapsed into a stage of REM sleep. Mr. Reed apparently suffers from

narcolepsy.

Night terrors typically occur

during non-REM sleep.

Grandpa is napping in his recliner and snoring loudly. When he suddenly stops snoring, you look to see if he is OK. He appears to not be breathing. For a moment you wonder if he’s dead, but suddenly he snorts and resumes snoring. Grandpa appears to suffer from

sleep apnea.

Jorge has a big history exam tomorrow so he has been studying most of the day. If he wants to remember most of what he has been studying, he should

go to bed.

What do drugs, trauma, fatigue, hypnosis, and sensory deprivation have in common?

They produce altered states of consciousness.

Psychological research on sleep and memory has found that staying up all night to study for an exam is likely to

decrease memory performance.

According to the _____ dreams permit us to reconsider and reprocess during sleep information that is critical for our daily survival.

dreams-for-survival theory

Which sleep disturbance is correctly matched with its description?

Sleep apnea— difficulty breathing during sleep

Which of the following solutions will help overcome insomnia?

Exercising during the day

Four-year old DeMarcus falls asleep shortly after his 8:30 p.m. bedtime. At about 9:45, he suddenly sits up in bed, breathing rapidly and appearing to be in a state of sheer panic. DeMarcus is experiencing:

night terrors.

According to Freud, the _____ content of dreams is the "disguised" meanings of dreams, hidden by more obvious subjects.

latent

The _____ focuses on the random electrical energy that the brain produces during REM sleep, possibly as a result of changes in the production of particular neurotransmitters.

activation-synthesis theory

During _____ images sometimes appear, as if we were viewing still photos.

stage 1 sleep

_____ is the deepest stage of sleep, during which we are least responsive to outside stimulation.

Stage 4 sleep

Most people today sleep between _____ hours each night.

7-8

Kathy says that when she meditates, she feels like she becomes one with the universe. Kathy experiences ________ during her meditative sessions.

an altered state of consciousness

Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by

irresistible urges to fall asleep.

Your friend Helen works the night shift at the local grocery store every other day. She has trouble sleeping, which is most likely due to

the fact that her circadian rhythms do not follow a 24-hour cycle.

Narcolepsy is a disorder involving

periodic attacks of uncontrollable sleep attacks.

According to Sigmund Freud, dreams are

our unconscious desires that we wish to fulfill.

Mr. Owens always sleeps restlessly, snoring and gasping during the night. It is most likely that Mr. Owens suffers from

sleep apnea.

In general terms, how do brain waves change as a sleeper progresses from stage 1 sleep to stage 4 sleep?

The brain waves become slower.

A class project required a student nurse to make hourly records of her own blood pressure and body temperature over a 30-day period. When the data were graphed, it became clear that these readings changed in a predictable way on a daily basis. The reason for this regularity is that many physiological processes are

governed by circadian rhythms.

The 24-hour biological cycle that regulates our pattern of sleep is referred to as

circadian rhythm.

Which of the following notions regarding hypnosis is TRUE?

People cannot be hypnotized against their will.

When traditional practitioners of the ancient Eastern religion of Zen Buddhism want to achieve greater spiritual insight, they turn to a technique that has been used for centuries to alter their state of consciousness. This technique is called _____.

meditation

Which of the following is true of altered state of consciousness?

People feel a sense of ineffability.

To which of the following traits does an individual’s susceptibility to hypnosis seem related?

The tendency to become absorbed in one’s activities

Which of the following is not a psychoactive drug?

Antibiotics

Which of the following statements most accurately describes the effect of caffeine and the other stimulants on the nervous system?

They have an arousal effect on the central nervous system.

Methadone is used to treat addiction to:

heroin.

Depressants are drugs that:

slow down the nervous system.

The "date rape" drug is _____; it is a _____.

rohypnol; depressant

Fawn consumed a large amount of the most popular street drug at a party. It gave her a sense of energy and alertness although she also became anxious and irritable. Which of the following drugs has she most likely consumed?

Methamphetamine

Voluntary motor behavior becomes affected when one’s blood alcohol content level reaches:

.10.

The most widely used stimulants are

caffeine and nicotine.

Morphine and heroin are derivatives of

opium.

Drug addiction occurs when a(n)

physical or psychological dependence on taking the drug develops.

________ is a psychological state of altered attention and expectation in which an individual is more open to suggestions.

Hypnosis

What type of drug is crystal meth?

Amphetamine

You decide to undergo hypnosis out of curiosity. You expect that hypnosis will result in a state of

heightened openness to suggestion.

Research on the legalization of marijuana in California found

no effect on overall usage.

The most widely used illegal drug by high school students is

marijuana.

Which of the following statements is most accurate regarding potential cross-cultural variation in the attempt to alter consciousness?

The attempt to alter consciousness appears to be universal, but the particular means to do so vary from culture to culture.

Which of the following notions regarding hypnosis is false?

People lose all will of their own.

Which of the following is true of altered state of consciousness?

People feel a sense of ineffability.

Which of the following is the first step in the hypnosis process?

A person is made comfortable in a quiet environment.

MDMA and lysergic acid diethylamide are _____.

hallucinogens

_____ drugs are drugs that influence a person’s emotions, perceptions, and behavior.

Psychoactive

In _____ dependence, people believe that they need the drug to respond to the stresses of daily living.

psychological

Nicotine activates neural mechanisms similar to those activated by _____.

cocaine

Which of the following withdrawal symptoms are related to the use of stimulants?

Apathy, general fatigue, prolonged sleep

"Medical marijuana" is known to

All of these. (promote appetite, relieve pain, calm anxiety.)

Tranquilizers and alcohol belong to a drug category called

depressants.

Kate, a longtime coffee drinker, complains of pounding headaches and lowered mood when she skips her coffee in the morning. What is the likely cause of these complaints?

Caffeine withdrawal

LSD and marijuana fall into the psychotropic drug category of

hallucinogens.

College students who consume large amounts of alcohol on weekends are abusing which type(s) of drugs?

Depressants

Drugs that create a sense of relaxation and lowered inhibitions by reducing the activity of the central nervous system are called

depressants.

Dr. Gremillion argues that dreams function to focus on and consolidate memories. They represent concerns about our daily lives, illustrating our uncertainties, indecisions, ideas, and desires. Dr. Gremillion subscribes to the _____ theory of the function of dreams.

dreams-for-survival

Four-year old DeMarcus falls asleep shortly after his 8:30 p.m. bedtime. At about 9:45, he suddenly sits up in bed, breathing rapidly and appearing to be in a state of sheer panic. DeMarcus is experiencing:

night terrors.

REM sleep is paradoxical because:

the brain is active, but the major skeletal muscles appear to be paralyzed.

_____ is the deepest stage of sleep, during which we are least responsive to outside stimulation.

Stage 4 sleep

_____ is/are sudden awakenings from non-REM sleep that is accompanied by extreme fear, panic, and strong physiological arousal.

Night terrors

According to famed hypnosis researcher _____

Hilgard, hypnosis causes a division of consciousness.

According to the text, the DARE program is used in approximately _____ of the school districts in the U. S.

80%

Your friend reported feeling greater energy and a sense of well-being after taking a drug.
Medical tests reveal increased activity of her central nervous system. The drug she took is most likely some type of

stimulant.

Drugs that create a sense of relaxation and lowered inhibitions by reducing the activity of the central nervous system are called

depressants.

_____ are unusually frightening dreams, that occur fairly often.

Nightmares

_____ is the awareness of the sensations, thoughts, and feelings we experience at a given moment.

Consciousness

Which of the following best characterizes a night of sleep?

Our depth of sleep alternates up and down many times.

The use of _____ results in euphoria, relaxed inhibitions, heightened sense of oneself and insight, and disoriented behavior.

hallucinogens

The definition of a binge drinking episode is having more than ___________ drinks in a row.

5

Sleepwalking occurs during ________ of the sleep cycle.

stages 3 and 4

Which of the following withdrawal symptoms are related to the use of stimulants?

Apathy, general fatigue, prolonged sleep

LSD and Ecstasy influence the operation of the neurotransmitter _____ in the brain.

serotonin

You are aware of the thoughts running through your mind and the emotions triggered by some of those thoughts. You are also aware of the sounds you hear and the things you see in the room and outside the window, and of the smell of coffee brewing in the kitchen and the smell of freshly cut grass coming in the window. You would be considered to be in a state of

consciousness.

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