Psychology Ch. 3

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An ovum bursts from one of a woman’s two __________ and is drawn into one of two __________.

ovaries; fallopian tubes

The __________ secretes hormones that prepare the lining of the uterus to receive a fertilized ovum.

corpus luteum

The male produces an average of __________ sperm a day, yet only __________ reach the ovum.

300 million; 300 to 500

The male produces sperm in the __________, two glands located in the __________.

testes; scrotum

The outer ring of cells on a blastocyst, termed the trophoblast, will become the

structures that provide protective covering and nourishment.

The embryonic disc

becomes the new organism.

Following fertilization, a one-celled __________ multiplies and forms a __________.

zygote; blastocyst

Which of the following statements about a blastocyst is true?

Between the seventh and ninth day, it burrows deep into the uterine lining.

The amnion

encloses the developing organism in amniotic fluid.

The amniotic fluid

helps keep the temperature of the prenatal world constant.

As many as _____ percent of zygotes do not survive the first two weeks.

30

The placenta

delivers food and oxygen to the developing organism.

The umbilical cord

connects the placenta to the developing organism.

The most rapid prenatal changes take place in the period of the

embryo.

The __________ eventually becomes the muscles, skeleton, circulatory system, and other internal organs.

mesoderm

During the period of the embryo, the __________ becomes the __________.

endoderm; digestive system, lungs, urinary tract, and glands

At the beginning of the embryonic period, the __________ system develops fastest.

nervous

The __________ folds over to form the __________, which will become the spinal cord and brain.

ectoderm; neural tube

By the end of Greta’s first month of pregnancy, her embryo

is about ¼ inch long.

During the __________ month of pregnancy, the embryo responds to touch.

second

By the __________ week of pregnancy, Monica will be able to learn the sex of her fetus.

twelfth

Katie wonders when she will first be able to hear her fetus’s heartbeat through a stethoscope. You tell her that this should happen by the

third month.

By the middle of the second trimester, the

new being has grown large enough that the mother can feel its movements.

Lanugo

is a white, downy hair that covers the fetus’s entire body.

While the senses of __________ have begun to emerge by 20 weeks, a fetus born at this time cannot survive because __________.

sight and sound; its brain cannot yet control breathing and body temperature

Viability occurs between __________ weeks.

22 and 26

A baby born between the seventh and eighth months of pregnancy

usually needs oxygen assistance to breathe.

In one study, more active fetuses during the third trimester became 2-year-olds who

were less fearful.

In the final month of pregnancy,

a layer of fat is added to assist with temperature regulation.

In the last weeks of pregnancy,

most fetuses assume an upside-down position.

The term teratogen refers to

any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period.

The effects of teratogens

vary with the age of the organism at the time of exposure.

Which of the following statements about the harm done by teratogens is true?

The genetic makeup of the mother and the developing organism plays an important role.

Which of the following statements about prenatal sensitive periods with respect to teratogens is true?

In the period of the zygote, before implantation, teratogens rarely have any impact.

Currently, the most widely used potent teratogen is

Accutane.

Willa gets regular headaches. While pregnant, Willa begins using aspirin to ease the pain because she is convinced that aspirin is harmless. Which of the following effects can Willa’s regular aspirin use have on the developing organism?

Regular aspirin use is linked to low birth weight and poorer motor development.

Mateo was born prematurely to Yvonne, a cocaine addict. Mateo’s caregivers can expect that

his cries might be abnormally shrill and piercing.

It is difficult to isolate the precise damage caused by illegal drugs during pregnancy because

drug-using mothers often take several drugs, display other high-risk behaviors, and suffer from poverty and other stresses.

Victoria is a pregnant smoker. Victoria is among the estimated _____ percent of American women who smoke during their pregnancies.

14

The best-known effect of smoking during the prenatal period is

low birth weight.

Adolescents prenatally exposed to smoking tend to have __________ than those born to mothers who did not smoke.

higher levels of disruptive, aggressive behavior

Maryann is pregnant and works in a smoke-filled environment. What can you tell her about passive smoking?

Passive smoking is related to low birth weight, infant death, and childhood respiratory illnesses.

Which of the following statements about fetal alcohol syndrome is true?

It is distinguished by slow physical growth, a pattern of three facial abnormalities, and brain injury.

Recent evidence suggests that paternal alcohol use around the time of conception

can alter gene expression.

The more alcohol a woman consumes during pregnancy, the

poorer the child’s intelligence and achievement test scores during the school years.

About _____ percent of U.S. mothers report drinking at some time during their pregnancies.

25

Low-level radiation, resulting from industrial leakage or medical X-rays,

can increase the risk of childhood cancer.

Regina eats a mostly vegetarian diet, but she eats a lot of fish. When she becomes pregnant, what should Regina know about environmental pollution in fish?

Long-lived predatory fish, such as swordfish, albacore tuna, and shark, can be heavily contaminated with mercury.

High levels of prenatal lead exposure are related to

prematurity, low birth weight, and brain damage.

Men affected by even tiny amounts of dioxin in their bloodstream father

nearly twice as many girls as boys.

Which of the following statements about prenatal rubella is true?

The organ damage inflicted by prenatal rubella can lead to lifelong health problems in adulthood.

Untreated HIV-infected expectant mothers pass the deadly virus to the developing organism __________ percent of the time.

20 to 30

To avoid exposure to toxoplasmosis, Kaye should ask other family members to

change the litter box.

Frequent, vigorous exercise, especially late in pregnancy, results in

lower birth weight than in healthy, nonexercising controls.

Dana is pregnant with her first child and wonders how much weight she should gain during the pregnancy. You should recommend a healthy diet that results in a weight gain of __________ pounds.

25 to 30

The poorer the mother’s diet, the __________, especially if malnutrition occurs during the last trimester.

greater the loss in brain weight

Prenatally malnourished babies frequently

catch respiratory illnesses.

Taking a __________ supplement around the time of conception greatly reduces by more than 70 percent abnormalities of the neural tube.

folic acid

The effects of stress on the developing organism can be greatly reduced if the mother

has access to social support during stressful periods.

One of the goals of the Nurse-Family Partnership, currently implemented in hundreds of counties across 42 U.S. states, is to

improve family conditions, thereby protecting children from lasting difficulties.

Twelve-year-old children of mothers who were home visited as part of the Nurse-Family Partnership __________ than comparison-group agemates.

reported less alcohol and drug use

When the inherited blood types of mother and fetus differ, the most common cause of difficulties is

Rh factor incompatibility

Samantha is a first-time expectant mother at age 35. You can tell her that healthy women in their thirties have __________ as those in their twenties.

about the same rates of pregnancy complications

If untreated, toxemia can cause

convulsions in the mother and fetal death.

Which of the following mothers is most likely to have had inadequate prenatal care?

Rachel, who is single and 16

The longest stage of labor is the

first, dilation and effacement of the cervix.

The second stage of labor lasts

about 50 minutes for a first birth and 20 minutes with later births.

Ursula is in the second stage of labor. She can expect __________ during this stage.

her baby to be born

During the third stage of labor,

the placenta is delivered.

The force of contractions during childbirth causes the infant to produce high levels of stress hormones that

help infants withstand oxygen deprivation during contractions by sending a rich supply of blood to the brain and heart.

Which of the following statements about the infant’s production of stress hormones during childbirth is true?

Stress hormones prepare the baby to breathe effectively by causing the lungs to absorb any remaining fluid and by expanding the bronchial tubes.

Lily weighed 8 pounds and was 21 inches long at birth. Which of the following statements about her size is true?

She was heavier and longer than the average baby.

Which of the following statements about the newborn baby’s appearance is true?

Their round faces, chubby cheeks, and big eyes make adults feel like picking them up.

The Apgar Scale rates

appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, and respiration.

Andrew received a combined Apgar score of 5. This means that Andrew

needs assistance in establishing breathing and other vital signs.

Two Apgar ratings are given in the minutes following birth

because some babies have trouble adjusting immediately but do quite well after a few minutes.

Before the late 1800s, childbirth usually took place

at home and was a family-centered event.

Most freestanding birth centers

permit a choice of delivery positions.

Natural childbirth experts Grantly Dick-Read and Fernand Lamaze recognized that cultural attitudes about childbirth had

taught women to fear the birth experience.

Mothers who __________ have fewer birth complications and shorter labors.

are supported by a trained companion during childbirth

A certified nurse-midwife

has a degree in nursing and additional training in childbirth management.

About 10 percent of cases of cerebral palsy are the result of __________ during labor and delivery.

an inadequate oxygen supply

Fetal monitors

track the baby’s heart rate during labor.

Critics worry that fetal monitoring

identifies babies as in danger who, in fact, are not.

Some form of medication is used in __________ percent of U.S. births.

more than 80

During her labor, Renae asks for a mild dose of painkillers to help her relax. Renae will probably be given a(n)

analgesic.

__________, the stronger type of painkiller used in labor and delivery, block sensation.

Anesthetics

Epidural analgesia

is the most common approach to controlling pain during labor.

Vaginal birth after a previous cesarean delivery is

associated with slightly increased rates of rupture of the uterus and infant death.

__________ is the best available predictor of infant survival and healthy development.

Birth weight

Preterm infants

are those born several weeks or more before their due date.

Tiffany is a small-for-date baby. This means she

was born below her expected weight considering length of the pregnancy.

Small-for-date infants __________ than preterm infants.

more often show evidence of brain damage

Kangaroo care

involves placing the infant in a vertical position on the parent’s chest, under the clothing, so the parent’s body operates as a human incubator.

Interventions that support parents of preterm infants

generally teach them about the infant’s characteristics and promote caregiving skills.

The United States has the most up-to-date health care technology in the world and is currently ranked __________ in international infant mortality.

twenty-eighth

In the United States, the second leading cause of neonatal mortality is __________, which is largely preventable.

low birth weight

Which of the following statements about the results of the Kauai study is true?

The impact of early biological risks often wanes as children’s personal characteristics and social experiences contribute increasingly to their functioning.

A __________ is an inborn, automatic response to a particular form of stimulation.

reflex

The __________ reflex protects an infant from strong stimulation.

eye blink

In response to a stroke on her cheek near the corner of her mouth, newborn Azalea should

turn her head toward the source of stimulation.

When Baby Ian is held horizontally on his back, he sometimes makes an "embracing" motion by arching his back, extending his legs, throwing his arms outward, and then bringing his arms in toward his body. Ian is demonstrating the

moro reflex.

Reflexes can help caregivers comfort a baby because they

permit infants to control distress and amount of stimulation.

Although newborns sleep more at night than during the day, their sleep-wake cycles are affected more by __________ than by __________.

fullness-hunger; darkness-light

Baby Tyler’s limb movements are gentle. He stirs occasionally and facial grimacing occurs. Although his eyelids are closed, occasional rapid eye movements can be seen beneath them. Tyler is most likely in which of the following states?

irregular sleep

Which of the following statements about REM sleep is true?

REM sleep is vital for growth of the central nervous system.

Which of the following individuals is the most likely to experience the greatest percentage of REM sleep?

Cheryl, a preterm newborn

Newborn infants who are brain damaged or who have experienced birth trauma often

display disturbed REM-NREM sleep cycles.

Early medical records of SIDS babies reveal

higher rates of prematurity and low birth weight, poor Apgar scores, and limp muscle tone.

__________ doubles the risk of SIDS.

Maternal cigarette smoking

Healthy babies often cry

at the sound of another crying baby.

The strategy most Western parents first try to soothe a crying baby is

lifting the baby to the shoulder and rocking or walking.

Swaddling newborns

reduces crying.

Which of the following statements is supported by research on colic?

Newborns who react especially strongly to unpleasant stimuli are at risk for colic.

__________ helps stimulate early physical growth and is vital for emotional development as well.

Touch

What advice can you offer parents who want to reduce their newborn son’s discomfort during circumcision?

Offer a sugar solution while gently holding the baby.

Which of the following statements is supported by research on newborn taste preferences?

Not until 4 months do babies prefer a salty taste to plain water.

The smell of __________ causes a relaxed, pleasant facial expression in newborns.

chocolate

At birth, newborns prefer __________ to __________.

complex sounds; pure tones

Three month old Jefferson will probably listen longer to __________ than to __________.

human speech; nonspeech sounds

__________ is the least developed of a newborn baby’s senses.

Vision

It takes about __________ months for color vision to become adultlike.

four

T. Berry Brazelton’s Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale evaluates

the newborn’s reflexes, muscle tone, state changes, and responsiveness to stimulation.

__________ provide the best estimate of a baby’s ability to recover from the stress of birth.

Changes in neonatal assessment scores over the first week or two of life

Around the time of birth, fathers who are in contact with the mother and baby often show

slight increases in estrogens.

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