Psychology-Ch 20,21,22,23

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Senescence:

is a gradual physical decline that occurs with age.

One of the first visible signs of senescence is/are:

wrinkles

As we age, the lens of the eye becomes less elastic and the cornea flattens. This leads to

farsightedness

According to a Chicago study by Laumann and Michael, 2000, adults of all ages were more likely to say that they were ___________ satisfied with sex if they were _________.

extremely; in a monogamous relationship

From a biological perspective, would-be mothers should try to conceive before age:

30

Studies of the effectiveness of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for menopause have been questioned because

all subjects were of high socioeconomic status

Andropause

is a drop in testosterone levels seen in older men

What is the major benefit of moderate alcohol consumption?

increased HDL

Why do adults need to eat less each year?

Metabolism slows down

Which of the following is NOT a reason that, at age 85, women outnumber men two to one?

Old men die at a higher rate than do old women

General intelligence (g):

cannot be measured directly

In adulthood, which of the following is no longer the primary determinant of IQ?

chronological age

Which of the following statements most accurately describes what happens to intelligence with age?

We get smarter in some ways and dumber in others.

Selective optimization with compensation:

is a theory that proposes that we seek to compensate for losses by getting better at that which we already do well

Maria, 45, works as a waitress and is very popular with her customers because they know that they can count on her to serve them in good time when there is a rush. This trait can best be related to Maria’s:

use of cognitive strategies to compensate for some losses

According to the text, physical aging is _________ than most emerging adults might imagine

less disturbing

By age ________, people lose about an inch of height.

65

At age 50

most men and women can understand a whisper

Infertility is defined as

the failure to conceive a child after a year or more of intercourse without contraception.

Menopause refers to

the cessation of menstruation.

The lower testosterone levels of older men leads to

reduced sexual desire

In 1970 in the United States, _______ of all adult men and __________ of all adult women smoked

one-half; one-third

What percentage of adults worldwide are obese?

10

What term refers to the number of deaths each year per 1,000 individuals in a particular population?

mortality

The diseases of affluence are

lung and breast cancer.

What enabled researchers to finally discover that intelligence does not inevitably decline in early adulthood?

longitudinal research

The potential explanations for the Flynn effect demonstrate that

IQ is influenced by the environment

Which of the following statements about IQ is true?

In adulthood, chronological age, culture, context, and personal choices are all equally influential in determining IQ

Expertise

comes with time and practice

According to Fowler, which stage of Moral Expertise shows faith as magical and illogical?

intuitive-protective

How did Spearman measure general intelligence (g)?

He inferred g from tests of various abilities, such as vocabulary, memory, and reasoning

Early cross-sectional studies of intelligence

established and then confirmed the belief that intelligence peaks at around age 18 and then begins to decline in the mid-20s

Who is credited with first realizing that intelligence may actually increase between ages 20 and 50?

Bayley

What enabled researchers to finally discover that intelligence does not inevitably decline in early adulthood?

longitudinal research

Baltes (2003) found that

only at age 80 did every cognitive ability show age-related average declines

Rosa works as a chemist and in her spare time is a history buff. She would be said to be high in

crystallized intelligence

_________ intelligence is particularly valuable in high school and college.

Analytic

What were the primary mental abilities studied by Schaie?

verbal meaning, word fluency, number ability, inductive reasoning, spatial orientation

Which of the following forms of intelligence would be most useful when solving real world challenges?

practical

Which research approach looks at various cohorts over time?

cross-sequential

The kind of intelligence that is most valued depends on

age and culture

Selective experts

focus on activities that are personally meaningful

Malcolm is a director of a regional theater group. In this creative job, he would be most likely to display the _________ characteristic of his expertise

intuitive

Dr. Sara Jones, a professor of psychology, is changing her lecture to fit in a new CD on the latest findings about intelligence. She is exhibiting the _____ aspect of expert cognition

flexible

Selective optimization with compensation

is a theory that proposes that we seek to compensate for losses by getting better at that which we already do well

Who proposed that intelligence is a single entity?

Spearman

__________ intelligence refers to the idea that there is one basic trait that underlies all cognitive abilities

General

Relying on cross-sectional research for conclusions is problematic because

cohort effects may lead to false conclusions

Which of the following is NOT one of the primary mental abilities studied by Schaie?

bodily-kinesthetic

Who proposed the existence of fluid and crystallized intelligences?

Cattell and Horn

The trend toward increasing average IQ is called

the Flynn effect

Gerry likes to play Trivial Pursuit, do crossword puzzles, and write poetry. He could be said to be high in

fluid intelligence

What type of intelligence would be most valued and most useful in times when food is scarce and basic survival a challenge?

practical

Which of the following is NOT one of Sternberg’s three fundamental forms of intelligence

fluid

Which of the following forms of intelligence is needed to manage our daily lives?

practical

When is analytic intelligence usually valued?

in high school and college

Adults born 60 years ago are better at math calculations. Some have suggested that this may be a consequence of:

school guidance to use a calculator

_____________ processing is thought to be a crucial reason that expert chess players are much better than novices are

Automatic

A nation’s social clock influences the

age of marriage and parenthood

In which of Erikson’s stages do adults feel the need to mentor and help younger people?

generativity versus stagnation

According to Maslow, people who do not receive ___________ cannot move on to __________.

acceptance; esteem

One’s personality is influenced by

A) genes B) parental practices C) culture D) All of these answers are correct Answer D All

Some social scientists believe that __________ should be added to the Big Five

dependence on others

A group of people who provide encouragement and guidance and meet one’s social needs throughout life is called a

social convoy

Some of the most crucial members of a social convoy are

friends

The term "familism" means

the idea that family members should sacrifice personal freedom and success to care for one another

A characteristic of marriage today, compared to marriage in previous generations, is that

people in every nation are taking longer to commit to one long-term sexual partner

Domestic violence is more likely to occur

earlier in a marriage.

When comparing homosexual partners with heterosexual partners, research indicates that

both types of relationship experience the same advantages and disadvantages

Divorce results in

All of these answers are correct.

A generative adult is one who

A) is productive in an unselfish and loving, caring way B) displays maturity C) believes that he or she is fortunate. D) All of these answers are correct. Answer D All

Dr. Sullivan, a 79-year-old psychology professor, has been teaching at a college for more than 40 years. He vows that he is not ready to retire and that he loves teaching and helping prepare young adults for their careers. He is demonstrating

generativity through employment

From a developmental perspective, the fact that today’s workers frequently change jobs is problematic for an older worker because

A)seniority becomes a disadvantage when one must seek a new job B) relocation becomes more difficult with age C) many skills and types of knowledge required for a new job have not been learned by the older worker D) All of these answers are correct Answer D All

In which of Erikson’s stages do adults seek a reciprocal connection with another human being?

intimacy versus isolation

In which of Erikson’s stages do adults seek to connect their personal journeys with the cultural and historical purpose of human society?

integrity versus despair

Midlife crisis

has not been confirmed by a large research study

Fiona, an artist, loves to travel to new places, try new foods, and wear flashy clothes. Her personality structure would best be classified as

openness.

In the United States, the Big Five scores differ for people living in different states. New Yorkers are highest in __________, whereas North Dakotans are highest in ___________.

openness; extroversion

An advantage of having close friends is that they

A) give advice and help analyze problems B) help one get through personal losses C) help with one’s physical and psychological health D) All of these answers are correct Answer D All

Marco, from El Salvador, lives in the United States and rarely sees his family. He has become very close to his roommate’s family; the family includes him in all the family events. Marco is viewed by this family as a

fictive kin.

International research indicates that married people have

slightly higher levels of happiness than single persons have.

Comparing marriages in recent decades with marriages of previous decades reveals that

husbands today do more housework, and more wives are employed outside the home

In the United States, the number of declared homosexual couples

has increased probably because of homosexuals’ greater willingness to declare themselves in official U.S. statistics

Children of divorce

often develop academic or social problems

Responding to the emotions of others is an important task of

caregiving

Anthony most values receiving a good salary and benefits at his job, while Henry most values his workmanship pride and employee relationships. Most likely, Anthony is ______ and Henry is _________.

younger; older

A positive solution for potential conflicts between work and family roles is to

telecommute

________ is to easygoing as ________ is to moody

Agreeableness; neuroticism

Ageism or prejudice about late adulthood is common among people

of all ages

Most people over age 70 believe that they are

doing well compared to others of their age

Which age group is increasing more rapidly than any other?

centenarians

The ___________ suffer from notable losses in body, mind, or social support, although they still have some strengths as well.

old-old

By the year 2050, it is estimated that people over age 65 will make up _______ of the world’s population

16 percent

Which of the following is NOT a reason for the traditional pyramidal shape of the demographic pyramid?

Environmental factors ensured that each cohort was reduced consistently after age 50

The specific illnesses that become more common with aging are referred to as

secondary aging

The compression of morbidity is

a goal to achieve

What makes falls a serious concern for the elderly?

Falls often lead a person to walk less

Margaret is one of ____ percent of people age 70 or older who has visual loss because of cataracts

30

About 1 percent of those in their 70s and 10 percent of those in their 90s have

glaucoma

For humans, the maximum life span is approximately __________ years

122

It has been demonstrated that calorie restriction

may slow aging

Ageism is a form of prejudice in which people

categorize and judge older adults on the basis of their chronological age

Which of the following is a feature of elderspeak?

slower speech

The largest group of older adults is the

young-old

In general, the ___________ are aged 60 to 75

young-old

Which country has the highest percentage of people over age 65?

Japan

Fewer births and increased survival rates are changing the shape of the population from a pyramid to a(n):

rectangle

The term used to refer to the universal changes that happen as people age is:

primary aging

"Compression of morbidity" refers to:

a shortening of the time spent in illness before death

What percentage of those over age 65 can see well without eyeglasses?

10 percent

_________ is a buildup of fluid within the eye

Glaucoma

__________ causes blindness about five years after it begins

Macular degeneration

Hayflick believes that aging is inevitable because of

a natural process built into DNA

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