Psychology Ch. 17

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Late adulthood

can be a time of continued potential.

Ray’s actual competence and performance in dealing with life’s challenges indicate his __________ age.

functional

In the United States today, the average __________ is 78.5 years—nearly 76 for men and 81 for women.

life expectancy

The __________ is believed to be responsible for the female advantage in average life expectancy.

protective value of the extra X chromosome

David, a Caucasian American born in 2010, is likely to live 3 to 6 years __________ born the same year.

longer than Jason, an African American

Quality of life in old age can be predicted by estimating

average healthy life expectancy.

Currently, an older adult in __________ can expect to live the longest in full health, without disease or injury.

Japan

In developing nations with widespread poverty, malnutrition, disease, and armed conflict, average life expectancy hovers around _____ years.

55

Around age 87, a life expectancy crossover occurs in that

surviving members of low-SES ethnic minority groups live longer than members of the white majority.

Once people pass __________ years, the contribution of heredity to length of life decreases in favor of environmental factors.

75 to 80

Which of the following statements about centenarians is true?

Among centenarians, women outnumber men by five to one.

Robust centenarians tend to

be toughminded.

Which of the following statements about the maximum lifespan of humans is true?

Gains in average life expectancy are largely the result of reducing health risks in the first 20 or 30 years.

In developing nations with widespread poverty, malnutrition, disease, and armed conflict, average life expectancy hovers around _____ years.

instrumental activities of daily living.

One way older adults compensate for neuron loss is

to call on additional brain regions to support cognitive processing.

In late life, more women than men report being __________ impaired, and more men than women __________ impaired.

visually; hearing

The leading cause of blindness among older adults is

macular degeneration.

Although hearing loss has less impact on self-care than vision loss, it greatly affects

enjoyment of life.

Of all hearing difficulties, the __________ has the greatest impact on life satisfaction.

age-related decline in speech perception

Most older adults do not suffer from hearing loss great enough to disrupt their daily lives until

after age 85.

Yuki’s reduced sensitivity to sweet, salty, sour, and bitter flavors was evident by age 60, but __________ can help make her food more attractive.

flavor additives

Researchers believe that odor perception __________ with age.

B) wanes and becomes distorted

__________ skills are strongly correlated with older adults’ tactile performance.

Fluid

As the years pass,

C) some of the cells in the heart muscle die while others enlarge

25) Vital capacity is reduced by half between ages 25 and 80 because

A) lung tissue gradually loses its elasticity

26) Francesca’s immune system has begun to turn against normal body tissues, which is referred to as

C) an autoimmune response.

Which of the following is an indicator of survival over the next two years in a very old person?

high T cell activity

Per day, older adults require __________ younger adults.

as much total sleep as

Until age 70 or 80,

men experience more sleep disturbances than women.

Which of the following statements about sleep apnea is true?

It affects 45 to 60 percent of older adults.

Older adults who have trouble sleeping can reduce their difficulties by

using the bedroom only for sleep.

Which of the following statements about the physical signs of aging is true?

In men with heredity pattern baldness, hair follicles begin to produce fine, downy hair.

__________ especially decline in height because of a loss of __________.

Women; bone mineral content

On average, by 60 to 70 years of age, __________ percent of muscle power has been lost.

10 to 20

Walt, age 75, says that he feels about 60 years old. Sixty is Walt’s __________ age.

subjective

Older adults who __________ adapt more favorably and feel better about it.

generate new, problem-centered coping strategies for aging

Because he has mobility problems, Mr. Dow has a phone that can be dialed and answered by voice commands. This is an example of

assistive technology.

Devices like smart caps and sensor-activated room lights are

not considered essential medical equipment under U.S. government-sponsored health-care coverage.

Mrs. Nguyen agrees with the following statement: "As I get older, things are better than I thought they’d be." Mrs. Nguyen’s self-perception

may help her live a longer life.

Which of the following statements about stereotypes of aging is true?

Older adults rarely appear in television programs and, when they do, typically play minor roles.

The Shigoka family celebrated Haru’s sixtieth birthday with a surprise party that recognized his senior place in the family and society. This ritual is called

kanreki.

Older adults fare best when they

retain social status and opportunities for community participation, even after they become frail.

In Momence, Illinois,

seniors hold positions of authority because of their length of residence and intimate knowledge of the community.

Which of the following statements about health, fitness, and disability in late adulthood is true?

The number of feared physical selves increases with age.

Low-SES older adults are __________ likely than higher-SES older adults to seek medical care because __________.

less; they are less optimistic that treatment will work

How do men and women compare in their physical health after age 85?

Men are less likely to be impaired because only the sturdiest men have survived.

The public health goal of reducing the average period of diminished vigor before death as life expectancy extends is called

compression of morbidity.

The physical changes of late life lead to an increased need for certain nutrients, including

vitamin C to protect the immune system.

Daily vitamin-mineral supplements

do not reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease or cancer.

Sedentary healthy older adults up to age 80 who begin endurance training

show gains in vital capacity.

Which of the following statements about exercise for older adults is true?

As many as 75 percent of those over age 75 do not exercise regularly.

Which of the following statements about sexuality in late adulthood is true?

Most healthy older adult couples report continued, regular sexual enjoyment.

Which of the following statements about gender differences in death rates from cardiovascular disease and cancer is true?

Men have higher death rates for both cardiovascular disease and cancer than women.

After cardiovascular disease and cancer, the most common killer among the aged is/are

respiratory diseases.

Which of the following causes of disability and death is more prevalent among women than among men?

Alzheimer’s disease

Mr. Tenney has difficulty breathing caused by an extreme loss of elasticity in lung tissue. This is known as

emphysema.

Mr. Embrel has a blood clot blocking a blood vessel. This is known as

stroke.

Which of the following is an example of primary aging?

blurred vision from macular degeneration

Which of the following is an example of secondary aging?

heart disease from smoking cigarettes

Frailty

A) leaves older people highly vulnerable in the face of infection, extreme temperatures, or injury.

Which of the following statements about osteoarthritis is true?

Almost all older adults show some sign of the condition on X-rays.

Which of the following statements about rheumatoid arthritis is true?

Although it can strike at any age, it rises after age 60.

__________ is associated with more rapid cognitive declines in older people and an elevated risk of dementia, especially Alzheimer’s disease.

Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes affects _____ percent of Americans age 65 and older.

20

At age 65 and older, the death rate from unintentional injuries is

at an all-time high.

Which of the following statements about older adult drivers and motor vehicle accidents is true?

Compared with young drivers, older adults are less likely to drive quickly and recklessly but more likely to fail to heed signs, yield the right of way, and turn appropriately.

Which of the following statements about falls in late adulthood is true?

Declines in vision, hearing, and mobility increase the risk of falling.

The risk of __________ fracture increases fifteenfold from age 65 to 85 and is associated with a 20 percent increase in mortality.

hip

Harold, age 82, has little difficulty walking but, nonetheless, recently experienced a fall. What is the best thing that Harold’s family can do to help prevent further falls?

take Harold to the eye doctor to ensure that he has proper corrective eyewear

About 50 percent of adults over age 90 are affected by

dementia.

A form of dementia that involves deterioration in subcortical brain regions is

Parkinson’s disease.

Alzheimer’s disease and cerebrovascular dementia are both types of

cortical dementia.

__________ is the most common form of dementia.

Alzheimer’s disease

Which of the following statements about Alzheimer’s disease is true?

At first, recent memory is most impaired, but as serious disorientation sets in, recall of distant events evaporates

As Alzheimer’s disease progresses,

skilled and purposeful movements disintegrate.

A diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease is made

through exclusion, after ruling out other causes of dementia.

Marion has just learned that her brain contains an abundance of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques. Marion’s doctors are probably concerned that she might have

Alzheimer’s disease.

Which of the following statements about familial Alzheimer’s disease is true?

It generally has an early onset, between ages 30 and 60.

The abnormal ApoE4 gene is the most commonly known risk factor for

sporadic Alzheimer’s disease.

Which of the following seems to reduce an individual’s risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease?

a "Mediterranean diet"

__________ is associated with a decreased risk of Alzheimer’s and cerebrovascular dementia.

Exercising regularly in midlife

Which of the following statements about caregivers of older adults with dementia is true?

Caregiving of older adults with dementia is sometimes known as the "36-hour day" because of its constant demands.

Martin is a caregiver for a 70-year-old Alzheimer’s patient. If he is like most caregivers, which of the following types of assistance would he most desire?

respite

Mr. Ponyo had a series of strokes that left areas of dead brain cells, causing step-by-step degeneration of his mental ability. Mr. Ponyo is experiencing

cerebrovascular dementia.

Cerebrovascular dementia

results from a combination of genetic and environmental forces.

__________ is the disorder most often misdiagnosed as dementia.

Depression

Depression

can lead to cognitive deterioration

U.S. Medicare funds about _____ percent of older adults’ medical needs.

50

Which of the following older adults is the most likely to enter a nursing home?

Mr. Holzman, who has dementia

Which of the following older adults is the most likely to be institutionalized?

Ethel, an 80-year-old Caucasian American

Overall, __________ provide(s) about 60 to 80 percent of all long-term care in the United States, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and Western Europe.

families

Michael and Franklin moved into a homelike housing arrangement for seniors who require more care than can be provided at home. They have moved into

assisted living.

Mental abilities that decline at an earlier age typically depend on __________ intelligence, while those that are sustained longer in life depend on __________ intelligence.

fluid; crystallized

Older adults who sustain high levels of functioning

engage in selective optimization with compensation.

In setting personal goals, older adults

focus on maintaining abilities and preventing losses.

Ethel is having difficulty recalling everyday experiences. Ethel is experiencing __________ memory loss.

episodic

Nina sees her neighbor in the supermarket and immediately knows her. Nina’s experience is an example of __________ memory.

recognition

Age differences in __________ memory are much smaller than in __________ memory.

implicit; deliberate

At a recent family reunion, Philip’s uncle recognized him as his brother’s son, but could not recall his name. Philip’s uncle exhibited a(n) __________ memory deficit.

associative

Mary Jane loves to tell stories about her childhood. When she remembers these events, she is exhibiting __________ memory.

remote

The reminiscence bump

is evident in the autobiographical recall of other adults from diverse cultures

Which of the following is an example of prospective memory?

remembering to go to a dentist appointment next week

Which of the following is an example of an event-based memory task?

taking medicine when an alarm goes off

Difficulties with prospective memory seen in the laboratory do not appear in real life because older adults often compensate for declines in working memory by

relying on external memory aids.

Van sometimes has trouble finding the right words to convey his thoughts. He often says, "It is right on the tip of my tongue." Like many older adults, Van is most likely

having difficulty retrieving words from long-term memory.

Which of the following statements about age-related losses in language production is true?

Planning what to say and how to say it is harder in late adulthood.

A common technique used by many older adults to compensate for their difficulties in producing language is to

use more sentences to convey their message.

Older adults __________ than do younger people.

resolve tip-of-the-tongues at a higher rate

After retirement, older adults’ problem-solving activities typically involve

management of IADLs.

Older adults

generate a smaller number of strategies compared to young and middle-aged adults.

__________ problem-solving abilities show improvement as adults age.

Health-related

Earl has broad practical knowledge, emotional maturity, and the ability to apply his knowledge to make life more worthwhile. Earl is demonstrating

wisdom.

One group of researchers described wisdom as

expertise in the conduct and meaning of life.

Compared to their agemates, older adults with the cognitive, reflective, and emotional qualities that make up wisdom are

more favorably adjusted to aging.

Which of the following individuals is the most likely to show greater cognitive declines with age, even after initial health status, mental test performance, and SES are controlled?

Gus, a cigarette smoker

Which of the following statements about factors related to cognitive maintenance and change is true?

Retirement affects cognitive change both positively and negatively.

Arn recently retired from an assembly line job. To facilitate cognitive functioning, Arn should

develop stimulating leisure activities.

__________ refers to acceleration in deterioration of cognitive functioning prior to death.

Terminal decline

An extended falloff in cognitive performance or in emotional investment in life is

a sign of loss of vitality and impending death.

For most of late adulthood, cognitive declines are

gradual.

Which of the following statements about cognitive intervention is true?

Older adults’ relatively well-preserved metacognition is a powerful asset in cognitive training efforts

Participation of older adults in continuing education programs

has increased substantially over the past few decades.

Which of the following statements about lifelong learning programs is true?

Osher Lifelong Learning Institutes offer older adults a wide array of stimulating learning experiences.

Aimee is coordinating a continuing education program for older adults. Which of the following pieces of advice should she follow?

Relate new material to what older adults have already learned by drawing on their experiences.

Which of the following statements about continuing education for older adults is true?

Continuing education opportunities help older adults overcome their own ingrained stereotypes of aging.

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