Psychology ch 13

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Subjects given a "made up" general personality description and one that is specifically designed for them based on scientifically legitimate personality tests were more likely to _____.

believe the generalized "made up" description

According to a recent study, about what percentage of adults read their newspaper horoscopes?

75%

Which of the following is FALSE about "pseudo" personality tests like astrological and tarot readings?

They usually reveal traits that are negative and socially undesirable.

An individual’s relatively stable and enduring pattern of thoughts, feelings, and actions is known as his or her _____.

personality

According to your text, one of the BEST definitions of personality is your _____.

unique and relatively stable pattern of thoughts, feelings, and actions

Samsara is aloof and self-contained. She prefers to read and work on her computer rather than engage in camping or other outdoor activities. She feels emotions deeply, but rarely displays them. Her thoughts are complex and focused on philosophical questions rather than every-day practicalities. This is a description of Samsara’s _____.

personality

A relatively stable and consistent characteristic that can be used to describe someone is known as a(n) _____.

trait

Which of the following is a list of personality traits?

cheerful, honest, friendly, optimistic

According to your text, the BEST definition of factor analysis is _____.

a statistical procedure used to determine the most basic units contained in a large array of data

Cattell and Eysenck both used the statistical technique called _____ to determine a cluster of personality traits they believe are universally shared.

factor analysis

Which of the following is NOT among Eysenck’s basic types of traits?

optimism-pessimism

Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched?

Big Five: BEACH

The trait theory that explains personality in terms of openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism is called the _____.

Five-Factor model

Which of the following is the CORRECT list of traits in the Five-Factor model?

openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, neuroticism (OCEAN)

Garner is imaginative, curious, and interested in new ideas; Brandy is conventional, down-to-earth, and has limited interests. It is likely that Garner scores high, and Brandy scores low on the personality dimension of _____ in the Five-Factor model.

openness

Bessie is gentle, cooperative, trusting, and helpful; Obadiah is outgoing, talkative, fun-loving, and affectionate. According to the Five-Factor model, it is likely that Bessie scores high on _____, and Obadiah scores high on _____.

agreeableness; extroversion

Radford is emotionally unstable, insecure, anxious, and moody; Quinn is calm, even-tempered, easygoing, and relaxed. According to the Five-Factor model, it is likely that Radford scores _____; and Quinn scores _____.

high on neuroticism; low on neuroticism

According to Buss, the Five-Factor model of personality traits reflects a(n) ______ advantage to people who are high on each of the factors.

evolutionary

Research shows that the "Big 5" (five-factor model) may be a biological universal because _____.

all of these options

Trait theories have been criticized for all but one of the following reasons.

They did not include a large number of central traits.

How would you compare what women want in a mate versus what men want in a mate?

all of the above

Research has shown that these three human dimensions from the five-factor model of personality generalize to other species.

extraversion, neuroticism, and agreeableness

_____ is an important part of the extroversion dimension found in non-human animals.

Dominance

Cross-species research suggests that sex differences in personality may be related to _____.

ecological niches for each sex

Compared to _____ theories that describe personality, _____ theories attempt to explain personality.

trait; psychoanalytic

A major premise underlying psychoanalytic or psychodynamic theories of personality is that _____.

unconscious forces have an enormous impact on our behavior

According to Freud, the thoughts and information that you are currently aware of, or remembering, is called your _____.

conscious

According to Freud, the thoughts and information that you can easily bring to awareness is called your _____.

preconscious

The thoughts and motives that lie beyond a person’s normal awareness are found in what Freud calls the _____.

unconscious

At the end of a very busy week, Sumita is enjoying a jazz concert with her husband, and plans to eat dinner afterwards. Which of the following statements is MOST likely to be true regarding her levels of consciousness?

With a little prompting, her fatigue could come up from her preconscious.

Harmony just learned that her brother is gay, and wants him to know that she cares about him. She compliments him before he leaves for school by saying, "I really like your skirt…I mean shirt." This could be an example of _____.

a Freudian slip

Which of the following is an example of a "Freudian slip?"

A husband says, "This is my mother…I mean my wife, Sylvia."

According to Freud, the three mental structures that form personality are the _____.

id, ego, and superego

The _____ is concerned with immediate gratification and the avoidance of discomfort.

id

The _____ principle asserts that the only motivation for behavior is the immediate gratification of needs.

pleasure

The id’s attempts at immediate gratification of needs and avoidance of discomfort are controlled by the _____.

ego

The rational part of the psyche that deals with reality and tries to meet the needs of the other two mental structures is called the _____.

ego

Which of the following is FALSE regarding the ego?

It resides entirely within the conscious realm.

Freud had a horse and rider analogy of the psyche. In this analogy, the horse would be the _____, and rider would be the _____ due to their functions.

id; ego

The _____ principle asserts that the ego tries to meet the demands of the id, superego, and the realities of the environment.

reality

The _____ operates on the pleasure principle, seeking immediate gratification. The _____ operates on the reality principle, and the _____ contains the conscience and ego-ideal, which provide moral guidance for the ego.

id; ego; superego

When a child learns the rules and values of parents and society, and incorporates them into his own psyche, that child has developed his _____.

superego

When someone violates parental and societal rules, they experience guilt. This is the role of the _____, which operates on the _____ principle.

superego; morality

"I’m going to take this candy because I want it NOW!" said the _____. "But, stealing is wrong," said the _____. "Let’s ask mom if she’ll advance our allowance so we can buy it today," said the _____.

id; superego; ego

The result of the ego’s failure to satisfy both id and superego is _____.

conscious anxiety

To prevent the _____ associated with the ego’s failure to satisfy both the id and superego, people develop and use _____.

conscious anxiety; defense mechanisms

Defense mechanisms are _____ strategies employed by the ego to reduce anxiety and avoid conflict.

unconscious

Used excessively, defense mechanisms can be dangerous because they _____.

distort reality

The first and most basic defense mechanism, which blocks unacceptable impulses from coming into awareness, is called _____.

repression

Victor’s religious beliefs prohibit sexual expression until after marriage. He takes up painting nudes to deal with his sexual impulses. This is an example of the defense mechanism called _____.

sublimation

You would rather have fun with your new dating partner than study for your math exam. You know you will do poorly on the exam if you don’t study, but tell yourself that having fun will help you relax for the exam. This is an example of the defense mechanism called _____.

rationalization

Nelson learns in his Human Sexuality class that it is not uncommon for young adolescents to have sexual attractions or fantasies for persons of the same sex. Nelson vehemently protests that he has never had even the slightest physical attraction or thoughts about the same sex. This is an example of the defense mechanism called _____.

denial

Gabrielle didn’t study for this exam and really wants to cheat. This is entirely unacceptable to her superego, which won’t let her do this. However, Gabrielle thinks she sees nearly everyone else in the class cheating during the exam. This is an example of the defense mechanism called _____.

projection

Pedro was just diagnosed with testicular cancer. Rather than deal with his feelings about this, he searches the Internet for information, academically discusses the disorder with his family and friends, and endlessly debates the pros and cons of treatment with his doctor. This is an example of the defense mechanism called _____.

intellectualization

Norm is sexually attracted to Lilith, a married woman. Instead of acknowledging this attraction, Norm develops an intense dislike for Lilith. This is an example of the defense mechanism called _____.

reaction formation

56. Every time Nikolai gets into a big argument with his wife, he runs to his mother’s home for comfort and approval. This is an example of the defense mechanism called _____.

regression

Dr. X is sexually attracted to her newest client. Rather than having sex with him, she makes passionate love to her husband that night. This is an example of the defense mechanism called _____.

displacement

Most psychologists agree that defense mechanisms _____.

can be healthy when not used excessively

The five developmental periods during which particular kinds of pleasures must be gratified for personality development to proceed normally are known as _____.

Freud’s psychosexual stages of development

Which of the following is NOT one of the erogenous zones in Freud’s psychosexual stages?

breasts

Which of the following is NOT one of Freud’s erogenous zones?

all of these options

Clement is a gullible, dependent, and passive adult. Freud might say Clement was _____ during _____ stage of development.

overindulged; the oral

According to Freud, most girls _____.

all of these options

According to Freud, sexual relationships based on lust rather than emotional attachment and a desire for commitment are indicators that an individual _____.

has failed to master the genital stage of development

Gisele is in the process of developing successful relationships with her same-sex peers and refining her female gender role. She is also working on her intellectual skills. According to Freud, Gisele is in the _____ stage of development.

latency

Zhu would much rather spend all day hanging with the guys than spend five minutes talking to a girl. In fact, he has such little interest in sexual matters that he would even rather do his homework than engage in playing doctor with the girl next door. Freud would MOST likely suggest that Zhu is _____.

in the latency stage of development

Fixation at this psychosexual stage of development would, according to Freud, lead to either a very neat person or one who is messy and disorderly.

anal

Which of the following is the CORRECT sequence of Freud’s psychosexual stages of development?

oral anal phallic latency genital

Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched?

oral conflict: language development

Which of the following erogenous zones is INCORRECTLY matched?

oral: breasts

An unsuccessful resolution of the toilet training conflict may result in an adult who is _____.

anal-retentive or anal-expulsive

According to Freud, during the phallic stage of psychosexual development, children develop _____, which is a desire for the opposite-sex parent along with hostility toward the same-sex parent.

an Oedipus complex

Conan constantly wants to be near his mother, receiving her affectionate touching and kissing. He wants nothing to do with his father, and actively stands between his parents to keep them from hugging each other. According to Freudian theory, it is likely that Conan is _____.

in the middle of the Oedipus complex

According to Freud, each stage of development is characterized by a conflict between the id and the _____. If unresolved, Freud believed a person would become _____.

social demands; fixated

According to Freud, if an individual’s needs were _____ during a particular stage of development, that person would remain stuck at that stage.

overindulged or not met

According to Freud, regression to a prior stage of development may be related to _____.

all of these options

Three of the most influential neo-Freudians were _____.

Adler, Jung, and Horney

Adler believed the primary motivation in life is to overcome _____.

feelings of inferiority

According to Adler, feelings of helplessness and incompetence during childhood results in _____.

an inferiority complex

A positive outcome of a child’s "will-to-power" is manifested by _____, whereas a negative outcome is characterized by _____.

mastery and control; striving for superiority

Which of the following is NOT associated with Adler’s individual psychology?

self-efficacy

Besides sexual and aggressive forces, Jung believed the unconscious contained _____.

positive and spiritual motives

According to Jung, our collective unconscious consists of _____.

inherited archetypes

According to Jung, the primitive images and patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behavior that reside in the collective unconscious are called _____.

archetypes

Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched?

Jung: conscious psychology

In Jungian psychology, the archetypes for gender role are the _____.

anima and animus

Jung believed that the anima and animus represent _____.

feminine and masculine components of personality

Horney believed Freud’s concept of penis envy _____.

all of these options

Which of the following personality theorists contributed the concept of power envy?

Horney

Horney believed that the strongest influence on an individual’s personality was that person’s _____.

relationship with his or her parents

According to Horney, adults who were neglected or isolated in a hostile environment as children experience helplessness and insecurity as adults, which she called _____.

basic anxiety

According to Horney, an emotionally healthy person will _____.

balance moving toward, away, and against people

Zahari seeks affection and acceptance from others. Horney might say that she is _____.

moving toward people

Truong seeks power and control, while Thayer seeks independence and privacy. Horney might say that Truong is _____, and Thayer is _____.

moving against others; moving away from others

Which of the following is NOT a criticism of Freud’s psychoanalytic theory?

He under-emphasized the role of biological determinants.

According to your text, Freud’s contribution to psychology was _____.

all of these options

If you took the _____ approach to personality, you would emphasize internal experiences, like feelings and thoughts, and the basic worth of the individual.

humanistic

Two theorists associated with the humanistic perspective of personality development are _____.

Rogers and Maslow

Two theorists associated with the humanistic perspective of personality development are _____.

Rogers and Hammerstein

According to Rogerians, the information and beliefs you have about your nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior is called your _____.

self-concept

In Rogers theory of personality, maladjustment is the result of _____.

incongruence between self-concept and life experiences

Toland is angry with his mother. His mother tells him, "Nice boys don’t hate their mothers." In Rogerian terms, this is an example of _____.

incongruence between self-concept and life experiences

According to Rogerians, if your self-concept is congruent with your life experiences, you are likely to _____.

have high self-esteem

104. Unconditional positive regard is a Rogerian term for _____.

positive behavior toward a person without attaching any contingencies

Rogers thought that _____ is necessary for a child’s uniqueness and positive self-concept to unfold naturally.

unconditional positive regard

Mr. Polanski listens without judgment to his daughter’s reasons for being late, then informs her that he disapproves of her behavior, and provides consequences. This is an example of _____.

unconditional positive regard

The innate tendency toward growth that motivates all human behavior and results in the full realization of a person’s highest potential is called _____.

self-actualization

The personality theorist who believed in the basic goodness of individuals, and their natural tendency toward self-actualization was _____.

Abraham Maslow

According to Maslow, what did Albert Einstein, Mahatma Ghandi, and Eleanor Roosevelt have in common?

they were all fully self-actualized

Which of the following is FALSE about humanistic psychology?

It merely explains personality, rather than teaching how to change it.

The belief that your personality is the result of your unique history of interactions with the environment and your thoughts and interpretations about those interactions is called the _____ approach to personality.

social/cognitive

According to Bandura, _____involves a person’s belief about whether he or she can successfully engage in behaviors related to personal goals.

self-efficacy

Wilson took this psychology course once before and failed. However, he refuses to give up, and believes that he can earn a "C" or better this time even though he still has to work part-time. It is likely that Wilson _____.

has high self-efficacy

According to _____, thoughts (or cognitions), behavior, and the environment all interact to produce personality.

reciprocal determinism

Cicily believes she can become the top saleswoman in her company; consequently, she comes in early and stays late which puts her in contact with more customers. Additionally, her enthusiasm inspires customers to pay attention to the benefits of her product, and every sale Cicily makes inspires her to make another. This is an example of Bandura’s theory of _____.

reciprocal determinism

Rotter believed that personality or behavior is determined by your _____.

cognitive expectancies

Your beliefs about who or what is in charge of the outcomes in your life are called your _____.

locus of control

Della believes she earned an "A" in chemistry because the test was easy and she made a lot of lucky guesses. It is likely that Della has a(n) _____ locus of control.

external

Devinia believes she earned an "A" in chemistry because she used the teacher’s study suggestions and worked hard all semester. It is likely that Devinia has a(n) _____ locus of control.

internal

Malcolm consults his horoscope to determine what stocks to buy; Miles studies the financial section of the paper and follows the track record of companies he’s interested in before buying stocks. It is MOST likely that Malcolm _____, and Miles _____.

has an external locus of control (LOC); has an internal LOC

Criticisms of the social-cognitive approach to personality include all EXCEPT which of the following?

It does not meet the standards for scientific research.

_____ theories emphasize the importance of genetics in the development of personality.

Biological

Support for a biological contribution to personality can be found in brain research which suggests that introversion is associated with activation in the ______ of the brain.

thalamus

_____ is associated with both novelty-seeking and extroversion.

Dopamine

Compared to low sensation-seekers and introverts, high sensation-seekers and extroverts tend to have ______.

lower levels of physiological arousal

This is the study of the extent to which behavioral differences are due to genetics rather than the environment.

behavioral genetics

_____ appear(s) to have the largest influence (40% to 50%) on personality.

Genetics

The unshared environment in studies of personality refers to differences in _____.

aspects of the environment that differ between individuals

The _____ approach represents a blending of several theories of personality.

biopsychosocial

Phrenology refers to the study of _____.

personality, based on the location of bumps on a person’s head

If you received a blow to your head that left a visible bump, which of the following professionals would refuse to perform an assessment on you until the bump subsided?

a phrenologist

Which of the following is NOT used by a psychologist to assess someone’s personality?

objective handwriting analysis

The manager at McKing’s Burger Joint prefers to conduct _____ interviews of potential employees and talks with them informally while walking through a nearby park; the manager at Sunny Manufacturers prefers _____ interviews, and asks specific, formal questions following a set procedure.

unstructured; structured

Which of the following psychologists is MOST likely engaged in an observational assessment of personality?

Dr. Carson watches how 6-year-old Omar interacts with others in his new classroom.

On _____ personality tests, people are asked to describe themselves on paper-and-pencil tasks that have a limited number of response options and a standardized scoring system.

objective

A multiphasic personality test measures _____.

a range of personality traits

The MMPI-2 is an example of a(n) _____ personality test.

objective

The most widely researched and clinically used self-report, personality test is the _____.

MMPI-2

The most widely used personality test is the MMPI, or _____ Inventory.

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality

According to your text, the major objective of the MMPI-2 is to _____.

assist in the diagnosis of psychological disorders

Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched?

aptitude test: "I have learned to tie my shoes."

A(n) _____ test measures your potential abilities, a(n) _____ test measures what you already know, and a(n) _____ test measures what sort of things you like to do.

aptitude; achievement; vocational interest

The use of ambiguous, unstructured stimuli to assess personality is called _____ testing.

projective

The Rorschach inkblot test and the Thematic Apperception Test are examples of _____ tests.

projective personality

The idea that a person will "project" his inner thoughts, feelings and conflicts onto an ambiguous stimulus is the basis for the _____ methods of personality assessment.

projective

Ailsa has been given a card with an inkblot on it, and is asked "What might this be?" It is MOST likely that Ailsa is taking a(n) _____ personality test.

all of these options

On the Thematic Apperception Test, people are asked to look at an ambiguous scene and ______.

tell a story about what has, is, and will happen in the scene

Finlay has been given a card with an ambiguous scene containing two people, and is asked to tell a story about what led up to the scene, what is happening now, and how the story will end. It is MOST likely that Finlay’s doctor is trying to assess Finlay’s _____, using the _____.

hidden needs and motives; Thematic Apperception Test

Which of the following is FALSE regarding objective personality tests?

They provide specific information about a limited number of personality traits.

The Rorschach inkblot test is one of the most popular methods of personality assessment, which _____.

is more difficult to interpret than objective personality tests

At N. Sanity Hospital, none of the psychologists can agree on the results of a personality test for a newly admitted patient. It is MOST likely that the test this patient took was the _____.

Rorschach inkblot test

Which of the following is FALSE regarding projective personality tests?

Many professionals use them because they have the highest reliability and validity of all the personality tests.

Two important criteria for evaluating the usefulness of tests used to assess personality are _____.

reliability and validity

With regard to personality testing, _____ refers to the ability of a test to measure the trait it says it will, rather than some other trait; whereas _____ refers to the extent to which the same person receives the same score on a personality test when it is administered more than once.

validity; reliability

Dr. Hewett wants to know whether his patient is suffering from excessive anxiety. If he administers a test that asks about the patient” sexual preferences, eating habits, hobbies, and major interests he would be acting foolishly because such a test lacks _____.

validity

If Pearce took a depression inventory one day that indicated he suffered from severe depression, and took the same test the next day that indicated he experienced little to no depression, you might conclude that this test of depression lacked _____.

reliability

At the county fair, you pay several people to provide you with an assessment of your personality. The astrologer says you are extroverted and adventurous, the handwriting analyzer says you are shy and fearful of new experiences, and the phrenologist says you make friends easily but prefer to be alone. This is MOST likely an example of _____.

the unreliability of non-standardized personality tests

One reason people tend to believe in pseudo personality tests is because they have "something for everyone." This is called the _____.

Barnum Effect

One reason people tend to believe in pseudo personality tests is because they offer both sides of a trait and people can choose to recall and believe the one that fits them better. This is called the _____.

Fallacy of Positive Instances

If you believe what a pseudo personality test says about you, this may be because everyone has a tendency to prefer the flattering or neutral statements about themselves that such tests contain. This is called the _____.

Self-Serving Bias

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